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Experts talked about the tricks of banks when issuing consumer loans
Experts warn about the tricks of banks when calculating the full cost of consumer loans (CPC). The full cost of the loan is indicated at the top of the first page of the agreement and shows the amount of the overpayment.
As the Newspaper.ruThe central bank monitors the market average of the CPM and publishes this data every quarter. The percentage value of the UCI cannot exceed the average market value for each type of loan by more than a third. It is not uncommon for banks to violate established regulatory rules.
The Bank of Russia recommends, prior to concluding an agreement, to correlate the KVC specified in the agreement with information on the limit value of the KVC for various categories of loans.
Alexander Arifov, a member of the expert council of the HSE Banking Institute, noted that the Central Bank regularly checks banks for compliance with the rules in the lending market.
“The regulator receives complaints from offended consumers, maintains its statistics, holds meetings with banks, has the right to send recommendations to credit institutions, instructions to eliminate detected violations, has the right to request explanations from banks about the reasons for the violations,” he said.
However, it is not easy for a single regulator to keep track of hundreds of thousands of credit institutions. According to Sergei Zubov, a senior researcher at the Laboratory for Structural Research at the IPEI RANEPA, banks submit about 80 reporting units every day - the Central Bank receives in electronic form all the information about the parameters of loans issued.
“The Central Bank monitors this work on a daily basis, it is another matter that, of course, it does not always react on time due to the huge array of incoming data,” he added.
Zubov named another area in the fight against non-transparent credit schemes - complaints from citizens. The client must be able to read the agreement, understand what requirements are imposed on the bank, and know that the Central Bank is keeping track of everything.
Finam analyst Igor Dodonov believes that it is difficult for the client to understand how correctly the CPM is calculated.
“There are special formulas for calculating this indicator (although the bank is not obliged to indicate them in the contract), which can be found. And the contract contains all the additional payments that are included in the calculation of the CPM. However, an ordinary borrower, as a rule, can only rely on the conscientiousness and accuracy of the employees of the credit institution, ”the expert noted.
Most often, banks and other lenders take advantage of the low financial literacy of their clients. Gazeta.Ru asked experts to tell about the “schemes” that banks can use to circumvent the Central Bank's requirements in terms of the size of the CPM.
According to Ivan Uklein, Director for Banking Ratings at Expert RA, the most frequent bypass of the CPC is not even in the banking market, but, for example, in microfinance organizations.
“For example, commissions for a convenient way of issuing or repaying a loan, when the paid option is offered by default, but the client has the option to choose a free way. Until recently, the banking market had a practice of imposing insurance products unnecessary to the client. In such cases, you need to check the amount of the monthly payment without the connected option and the option with the connection. Paradoxical as it may seem, but even taking into account the marketing moves with an increase in rates in case of refusal of insurance, the real effective overpayment of the client often turned out to be less, ”Uklein said.
Alexander Arifov, a member of the expert council of the HSE Banking Institute, notes that the main tool for banks to violate the CPC is the sale of additional products to the client when issuing a loan - insurance products. If insurance is mentioned in the contract, then it automatically participates in the calculation of the CPM, and it is subject to a "cooling period" when the client can cancel the insurance within 14 days.
If the bank offers additional insurance products not specified in the loan agreement (life and health insurance, disability insurance, etc.), then the client has the right not to buy it. The main thing is to issue a written refusal.
The borrower can be offered different policies or loyalty cards, legal or consulting services. The process of refusing such services and refunding money is more problematic, since they are provided by legal entities that do not come under the control of the Bank of Russia.
If a bank offers service packages, the client must make a choice himself: he has the right not to buy this product, but it may well have useful consumer properties.
“The most important advice to the client is that if something is offered that is not specified in the consumer lending agreement, then the client has the right to completely refuse it. And if the bank continues to insist, it means that it is necessary to take a constructive and aggressive position and talk about the intention to complain to the Bank of Russia, ”concludes Alexander Arifov.
Expert Sergey Zubov emphasizes that there are some types of payments that are not included in the CPM, and banks can take advantage of the client's ignorance of a number of details. For example, there are payments that are not included in the CPM, but which they can "hang" on the client: payment of credit scoring or SMS notifications. And if in the first case we are talking about a one-time payment, then SMS notification or the client-bank system will be paid regularly.
Other schemes can be used as well. For example, a lending institution may use the difference between purchase and cash withdrawal rates.
Another scheme provides for the simultaneous conclusion of a loan agreement and an additional agreement that changes the conditions of the main document (in particular, the rate may increase or a service commission may be introduced).
According to Yegor Krivosheya, head of research at the Skolkovo-NES Center for the Study of Financial Technologies and Digital Economy, rates on some loans may differ depending on the characteristics of a particular borrower.
“The payment schedule is information about how much and when the borrower should pay. In the full schedule of payments, the CPM and the total amount of payments for the entire period should not differ. If suddenly a discrepancy occurs, you can clarify with a bank representative for what reasons this is happening, especially if the payment schedule turns out to be a higher interest rate than indicated in the agreement, "he advises.
Associate Professor of the Department of Financial Management of the PRUE G.V. Plekhanova Maria Ermilova mentions other aspects of loan agreements that require attention. Before signing, the client needs to clarify the effective loan rate - it is higher than the one offered in the offer and actually shows how much the consumer has to pay.
“Everything that is indicated in small print should be brought to you and explained. Here the bank can indicate additional payments, some conditions - the consequences of execution and non-execution, ”the expert explains.