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"We are waiting for you in the Far East"
Is it possible to negotiate with the famous Far Eastern vile
In the Primorsky Territory, on the banks of a mountain river, from the first seconds mosquitoes “eat” a person in the bite with repellents. The same story with the lotus lake in the Khabarovsk Territory, with Kamchatka geysers and with the Chukchi berry tundra. And from Yakutia they’re generally taking photos of people strewn with blood-sucking enemies. Out of almost seven million km² of Far Eastern territory, there is no infamous * on the individual Arctic islands of Chukotka. How to reconcile with mosquitoes, midges, horseflies and their relatives? Advice is given by foresters, tourists and scientists who spend half their lives in the fields.
Gnus * - a set of blood-sucking diptera (Diptera) insects: mosquitoes, midges, midges, mosquitoes, horseflies and autumn livers. In total, in the Far East, according to the laboratory of animal ecology of the Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, there are about 25 species. Gnus is most common in the tundra and forests, especially numerous in open low-flowing water bodies, in swamps and around them, since the larvae and pupae of most of these insects develop in water. Females need blood as a source of protein to produce prolific offspring.
Lusine Ignatova is an organizer of trips along the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, an experienced fighter with a “beast”, whom no less than bears and tigers fear in the taiga. For five years, she tried the entire available arsenal of insect repellents and recognized their poor effectiveness. Even repellents with a high content of diethyltoluamide (DETA) are only able to delay, but not cancel the “date” with midges and mosquitoes.
“On one of the mosquito rides there was a wild amount. Around a black cloud, they bite you from all sides, although you are dressed from head to toe. In warm time, I walked in a raincoat, like in a raincoat, so that they wouldn’t bite, ”says Lyusine Ignatova. - And from the midge I sewed a special thing from a very fine mesh with a hood and a lock, which is worn over the cap and all things. This is my anti-skit suit. When twilight falls, the midge ceases to fly and bite. Mosquitoes also disappear, but they live longer, and this is worse than mosquitoes because they can bite through my “armor”, thick clothes, and pants. And there are horseflies: they bite painfully, managing to bite even construction gloves and tight hiking pants! Gnus attacks and gnaws pieces of skin. When they are critically large, nothing helps. But there is a trick: when you are sweating, they stick around you very much, because they are attracted to the smell, and when you plunge into the river, quickly dressed, they “hammer” a little less. My advice is to completely shut off the body in any weather. ”
You can mask the smell of sweat with a weak vinegar solution diluted with water. You can also solve the "vile" problem in the store fisherman-hunter. Mosquito “breathing” suits with cuffs are produced for adults and children.
METHOD NOT FOR AESTHETES
“Do you like to swim - love and feed mosquitoes.
Do you like to ride in the pole - love and feed mosquitoes.
Do you like to go to the forest for berries - love to feed mosquitoes.
Do you like to walk around the city in the evening - love to feed mosquitoes.
Do you like to walk in the park - love to feed mosquitoes.
Not a single day of summer can do without them! ”, A resident of Yakutia writes on her Instagram page. Anastasia Gruzdeva. In the largest of the Far Eastern subjects, this horror flying on the wings of day and night is treated calmly. They even sunbathe, though without leaving their shelters.
In the midge season, the Yakut ethnographer Yuri Sleptsov recommends walking in an encephalitic suit and avoiding thick grass. Conventional fumigators and repellents, in his opinion, are enough for protection. But what if you are in the tundra, and the “ammunition” suddenly ended?
Photo by Lusine Ignatova
“Previously, smoke smokers were used in Yakut uluses, mullein or horse droppings were used,” says Yuri Sleptsov, a junior researcher at the Department of Archeology and Ethnography at the Institute for Humanitarian Studies of the Indigenous Peoples of the North. - According to the recipe, it must be dried. There is no need to dry specifically, this good is enough everywhere. There is no specific smell like fresh manure. If you go camping, it happens that you are forced to take several mullein. But this is in extreme cases, if there is no store nearby with creams, spirals or so on. Manure is suitable for everyone, and for a long-haired one, and for any ungulates. Or take the green branches of larch, or other conifers, and light them up. You can fan yourself as a fan. But coniferous smoke does not save for a long time, mullein is better. The main thing is to dress not in the dark: mosquitoes fly to it. When you are dressed in light, you can be seen from afar, you won’t get lost. ”
Photo by Yuri Sleptsov
“In May we have haar byrdah - snow mosquitoes, they come out of the snow, large. But they do not bite much, and disappear with warm days, ”continues Yuri Sleptsov. - And in the summer, little black ones appear. Here they are evil, they do not give the passage. You go into a pine forest, there are brown ones, there are even bees that look like bee-mosquitoes. It’s problematic for foreigners in our mosquito spots to even go to the toilet. And we are people accustomed to this matter. Although when I come to another region, on the contrary, they attack me: the guest has arrived! Fresh blood! ”
However, according to insect experts, a "snow mosquito" is not a mosquito at all, but a representative of another squad. Real blood enemies of people appear along with the first grass. From midges, which flies in Yakutia in late July - early August, traditional vanillin and cloves are used: they are bred with water and smeared with open areas.
“And there is an insect that is not well known to anyone other than foresters,” says Dmitry Kurenshchikov, senior researcher at the animal ecology laboratory at the Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. “This is a moose louse, also a dipteran insect that has been flattened by evolution.” This fly attacks in the fall on warm-blooded animals, including humans. She doesn’t stick, she just bites. It is interesting that when a moose louse finds a place to eat, it discards its wings - apparently for this ability it was called a louse. An unpleasant insect, I personally underwent attacks, then healed for a month and a half. Sometimes people confuse gadflies and horseflies, and so: gadgets bite only animals, and horseflies, which we have five species, also attack humans. ”
Kamchatka Evens and other small nations are saved from mosquitoes by larch. Green branches are burned on the street and in yarangs, clothes are saturated with coniferous smoke, which repels the vile. Fir or pine branches are also suitable.
“In addition, Evens consider that it is necessary to relax, comprehend Zen, and mosquitoes will lag behind,” says Khabarovsk Elena Khalipskaya. - The Evens in the village of Anavgay said: the more you think about them, the more they bite you. And honestly, this helped me for some time. When you are not confused every second, mosquitoes seem to really become smaller. And so we used a bunch of different means: ointments, and zhikalki, and expensive, and cheap - it is useless. "
“Still locals are saved by tansy grass,” Elena continues. - Take a twig, and fanning themselves around. Tansy has a sharp, characteristic smell of camphor, which not all people tolerate. This plant can be hung in a tent or in a house - and it will scare away insects. "
Tourism Specialist "Reserve Amur Region" Victor Matashov from the Khabarovsk Territory advises to get rid of buzzing with the help of wormwood, which is growing everywhere. Elderberry, pelargonium (geranium), eucalyptus extract or anise oil are also suitable.
“Wormwood can be hung in a tent inside and near the entrance. Women, I know, cut a long wormwood with a knife, weave a pigtail out of it and put it on a belt, ”Victor Matashov shares his observations. - Now I'm going to the Shantar Islands, there are no mosquitoes along the shore, but when you enter the realm of flowers and herbs, you become a caricature. One day my eyes narrowed from bites there, my face was swollen because whilst making our way along the bear’s tracks, I whipped myself all over. And once an American came to us, engaged in all kinds of extreme sports, so he said: "Take me to the most mosquito place so that I get high!" Well, he was taken to Mari on our ducts, he undressed almost naked and ran all night. Surprisingly, he liked it. ”
Photo by Andrey Sorokin on Instagram andrew5sorokin
If you have already been bitten, pharmacy creams “after an insect bite” or a weak solution of ammonia will help relieve itching and irritation. You can also take a hot bath.
“A scale of territory comfort by the number of vultures has been developed,” says entomologist Dmitry Kurenshchikov. - If a person has undergone two or three attacks per minute, this is normal, but if there are more than 30 attacks per minute, then such a place is considered absolutely uncomfortable for living. From an economic point of view, we get a decrease in working capacity in humans, and in cattle milk production is reduced. ”
Mosquitoes perceive sounds generated by personal ultrasonic protective equipment. This is perhaps the only "stop word" that they understand. Most “tweeters” are produced in the form of trinkets, bracelets or watches with a regulator of the frequency of supply of sound waves. They work on batteries, some are charged from the network. The range is from 1,5 to 80 meters. It is important to wear such a keychain over clothes so that nothing interferes with sound waves. The problem with all devices of this kind is that there is no tangible evidence of their effectiveness.
“I usually take the buzzer, the ultrasonic mosquito repeller, I take it with me,” says a specialist in tourism at the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Reserve Amur" Victor Matashov. - I hear a little squeak published by him, it is like an ultrasound. The keychain does not scare away everyone, but some part tuned to this wave. For women, it would be possible to release an option with these "tweeters" in the form of jewelry, for example, ear clips. "In the left ear - a clip from mosquitoes, in the right - from midges."
Photo by George Basharin
To protect the campsite or summer cottage from the vile, industrial stationary devices are also used. These devices play on insect weaknesses: for example, mosquitoes fly to the human breath - the carbonic trap works on this principle. More expensive and powerful are propane devices. When this gas is oxidized, moisture and CO2 are formed, and both attract insects. There are models that attract mosquito swarms only with light (UV traps), heat or water. Of all these traps, mosquitoes have no move.
Some also consider floods as a means of combating bloodsuckers, believing that after a natural disaster, the vulture in the region will see less often for several years, as mosquitoes or their larvae have drowned. But this version does not hold water: insects breed just in water.
Photo by Yuri Sleptsov
“The simplest example: pour water on a barrel in the country, and after a while you will see there bending red mosquito larvae. They prefer stagnant water, ”explains Dmitry Kurenshchikov, senior researcher at the animal ecology laboratory at the Institute of Water and Environmental Problems, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. - Larvae of midges develop in running water - rivers, streams. This diptera insect has a phenological chord: it attacks when the fruiting of strawberries is underway. The standard cycle of peaks and declines in insect numbers is about seven years. The number of dipterans naturally limit fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, everything is in dynamic equilibrium. ”
People can be called "sponsors" of mosquito weddings, "donors" of the vile, but it happens and vice versa.
“At scientific meetings, we have the first toast for the organizers, and the second for our breadwinners, for the insects! They are links of the trophic chain. If insects disappear or are destroyed by humans, nature may eventually forget about the lost link, but this will be another biosphere, and it remains to be seen whether there is a place for humans in it. Now insects are food for spiders, dragonflies, small birds, frogs and so on. Recall the destruction of sparrows in China in the middle of the last century: it seems to have been done for the good, but the ecosystem has been disrupted, and it still has not come into equilibrium. And insects, even blood-sucking ones, are also beautiful. Look into the rainbow eyes of horseflies - you want to photograph and admire them, ”concludes the expert on insects.
Photo by Andrey Sorokin on Instagram andrew5soroki