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The Earth is small!
Will there be enough hectares in the Far East for all those who wish to Russians?
The intensive preparation for the implementation of the initiative to provide land in the Far East gives rise to paradoxes. According to some experts, previous public estimates in 150 - 300 million hectares of vacant land were overestimated. Since, despite the average population density in the macroregion 1 person / sq km, in reality the land is not just "economical", but is also actively used.
It did not go unnoticed that the bill on the "Far Eastern hectare", developed by the Ministry of Territorial Development of Russia, caused a stormy and ambiguous reaction of the public in Yakutia. The experts interviewed by EastRussia attributed the excessive activity of the activists both to the activities of local opposition forces (allegedly supervised by State Duma deputy Fedot Tumusov), and with some connivance of local authorities.
Be that as it may, Yakutia has made the largest number of proposals and amendments to the text of the draft law. According to EastRussia, the amendments were submitted in parallel through the National Assembly Il Tumen, the Government of Yakutia, and the Public Chamber of the Republic. In many respects, the proposals overlapped: this concerned, for example, the imposition of a ban on the allocation of land in the territories of traditional nature use; overcoming the so-called “digital inequality” (the absence of the Internet in populated areas of the republic deprives citizens of the opportunity to declare on the electronic service).
At the end of last year, in his interview, Vladimir Prokopiev, chairman of the standing committee of the parliament of Yakutia on land relations, natural resources and ecology, suggested that the regions themselves determine how and what lands to provide for the implementation of the law "On the Far Eastern hectare." Since, having all the necessary information, they will be better able to take certain decisions on granting land in the framework of the Far Eastern hectare program.
Some social activists, if you do not take into account their political slogans, said that in Yakutia the land ... is small, so there is nothing to give. The logic is convincing: in the severe northern climate of Yakutia, the existence of permafrost and a very fragile ecosystem on its territory, unique kinds of traditional northern wildlife management and management (horse breeding, reindeer husbandry and keeping cattle in the stables in winter) have been developed in the republic. Deer and horses graze, freely moving on pastures, independently getting their food in summer and winter. For this, all-the-year-round, self-healing spacious pastures are required. For the rational management of the economy in the territory of the republic, scientific standards of land use for the cultivation of farm animals have even been developed in due time.
So, according to the regulations for one deer, there must be at least 40 ha of pasture, for one horse - 16 ha of land. That is, a herd of 100 heads of deer for subsistence needs an area of 40 sq km, and a similar herd of horses - 16 sq km.
All these territories, in the opinion of the public, are public lands and, therefore, are not reflected in the cadastral register. Also, as hunting and fishing grounds, places of gathering of wild plants, commercial territories, lands of traditional nature management of indigenous small peoples of the North are not taken into account. At the initiative of the public, all these lands must be removed from the operation of the law. "At us all territory of Yakutia - the patrimonial earth, traditional using", - activists more than once declared. The main idea on the basis of which the idea of referendum was even formulated was the exclusion of Yakutia from the regions in which the law will operate.
Another interesting thesis of the Yakut social activists is connected with the “unreliability” of their own population. As follows from the resolution of the Public Chamber of the Republic, “due to the fact that the distribution of land to private ownership implies the operation of the secondary market, in conditions of economic crisis, unemployment, low earnings of rural residents, free lands distributed over time will be sold for a penny and will become the property of financial structures for unpaid loans. While without agricultural land and forest reserves, indigenous peoples simply cannot survive in the market. ” And if so - in the North of Yakutia agricultural land should not be sold and serve as collateral for loans, but should be regulated by a special law, corresponding to the content of Art. 9 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
In general, the activity of the Yakut public was not only regular, but also very noticeable - in particular, one of their memorable performances was a picket on forty-degree frost on the day of the arrival of Vice-Premier Yury Trutnev in the region. But, however that may be, it is now evident that the protest wave caused in Yakutia by the draft law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" is on the decline.
In one of his last speeches, Yakutia’s head Yegor Borisov noted that the republic’s authorities, while developing a set of amendments to the draft law of the Ministry of Eastern and Eastern Development, sought to make it, on the one hand, useful for the local people and the territory of Yakutia, on the other hand, to make it harmless to the republic. And they are currently working on the development of proposals for the improvement of the draft law.
According to him, today, thanks to the efforts of the Yakut authorities, the Yakut territories, such as specially protected areas, traditional places of residence of northern peoples, and areas of mineral deposits, are excluded from the territories covered by the draft law. Thus, now more than 60% of the territory of the republic is excluded from the action of the bill. Also, the bill now provides for the use of the forest fund of the republic only as LPH or for the purpose of farming.
The head of Yakutia also noted that the only thing the Yakut authorities failed to achieve is the issue of extending the bill to the hunting grounds of the republic. Their proposal to exclude these lands from the territory of the distribution of the draft law has not yet been supported by the federal agencies, since this issue does not lie directly in the sphere of land use.
What we distribute - will show the map
Almost the main element of the hectare program, according to the developers, is a unique electronic system - a map placed on the Internet, where users can "clicks" choose their own sites to taste. The system is developed by the order of Minskostokzvitiya IT-company Prognoz. According to the Deputy Minister of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East Sergey Kachaev, at the moment, the interactive service for the provision of land plots is adding clarifying information about which areas fall under the bill and which are not.
"Information on territories that can not be provided is included in the resource - for example, specially protected natural areas, protected forests, lands of traditional nature use, plots near large cities or those territories for which specific urban plans are being disseminated. After the completion of the process of making all this information on the resource, an assessment will be made of the total amount of land to be provided to Russians in accordance with the bill, "he explained to EastRussia.
Sergei Kachaev added that the first such assessment for pilot municipal entities can be done already in April.
At the same time, according to the opinion of the developer of the bill - the Ministry of Regional Development, the regions already today should have real mechanisms for the preventive "reservation" of certain land plots to be provided within the framework of the Far Eastern hectare program. This booking provides for the establishment of a certain temporary "moratorium" in those cases when, for example, a site is used, being not properly registered as a property. Or if there are concrete initiatives for the site, but they are not correctly reflected in the town planning plans. Or if there is a PA regime on the site, but the boundaries of this protected area are descriptive.
In other words, the site is marked in the system as forbidden to issue, and the owner (or region) receives a time lag to bring all documents in line. But the question that arises logically when considering such a reservation scheme is whether the regional "armor" will become the object of speculation in order to "adhere" profitable plots of land - Minvostokrazvitiya left unanswered.
At the same time, EastRussia correspondent in the department told that today in the preparation of "pilot regions", in the Far Eastern regions, they are audited. The first assessments on its basis can be done in early April.
“It is assumed that the term for putting all existing property rights in order will be reflected in the law,” explained the representative of the Ministry of Eastern and European Development. “This means that after this period has expired, the list of areas to be issued will be revised and supplemented.”
Pilot districts: unity of dissimilarities
Recall that the entry into force of the law will take place in three stages. At the first stage, only residents of the Far Eastern regions and only in the "pilot" regions will be able to obtain land. At the second stage, the land allotment will be available in any municipality of the Far East, but the Far East can again use this right. At the third stage, any citizen of the Russian Federation will be able to obtain land in the Far East. In this case, in the event that several people apply for a particular site, at any stage of it receives the citizen who applied first.
By now, all 9 subjects of the DFO have been identified with the pilot regions. At the same time, comparing the indicators of these regions, it is already possible to identify differences in the approaches of the regions to the "Far Eastern hectare" project.
For example, it is noteworthy that the pilot regions defined today by the regions have different potential. For example, in the Khabarovsk Territory are ready to allocate 0,915 million hectares of forests and another 11 400 hectares of land of the former state farms within the Amursky municipal district. This area is enough to provide the order of 926 770 people. Since the Amur region, an area of 16269 square. km, so many people do not live, it is obvious that the allocated land in addition to local residents, is enough for many more settlers. At the same time, there is a clear shortage in the territory of Primorsky Krai in the Khanka district: the area of this district with concentrated settlements is 2730 sq. Km, and only 700 ha is allocated for distribution in it. Meanwhile, in the Amur region for the issuance of free hectares of land is also provided enough. Its “pilot area” for the allocation of land to Russians is Arkharinsky, the size of 14600 sq. Km. Within its boundaries, the land area under the free distribution is 20 thousand hectares. The choice of the authorities of the Arkharinsky region as a “pilot” region is due to its favorable climate characteristics and the presence of transport infrastructure on its territory. Selected areas of the area in the area are fully suitable for the development of private farms and private farms.
If we talk about the Jewish Autonomous Region, then Oktyabrsky is its "pilot area" for allocating free hectares. But the amount of land for free distribution to Russians on its territory has not yet been calculated. In the region, information is now being provided on land and land that is not subject to granting on its territory to various maps. The work on mapping this information will be completed on 15 March, after which it will be sent to the Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography to enter information into the database of the electronic service for providing citizens with land plots on the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Based on this cartographic information, locations for the possible allocation of land plots in the territory will be determined.
It is planned that in the pilot regions the law will enter into force with 1 May - in other words, the distribution of free land in the Far East will be from the beginning of May. To date, the Ministry of Territorial Development has approved a list of nine pilot regions, where it is planned to start distributing free "Far Eastern hectares". In Primorye, the Jewish Autonomous Region and the Amur Region, it is proposed to allocate land in the regions bordering China. In the Khabarovsk Territory, as mentioned earlier - in the Amur region, in Chukotka - in Anadyr, in the Magadan region - on the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk, in Yakutia - in the territory of the Nam Ulus. Within the Kamchatka Territory, the land will be allocated in the Ust-Bolsheretsky District, the Sakhalin Region in Tymovsk.
“We respect the opinions of regional authorities and the public. All constructive suggestions are considered. We take into account the opinion of the Far Eastern regions as much as possible, ”explained the ER correspondent in the Ministry of Eastern and Eastern Development.
The office also noted that while the project on “allocating Far Eastern hectares” was not launched, it is difficult to judge about the lands of which regions the Russians are most interested in.
Preliminary estimates of the amount of land are overstated in 10 times - expert
In December, the bill "On the Far Eastern Hectare" passed its first reading in the State Duma. At the moment he is preparing for consideration by the State Duma in the second reading. According to Minvostokrazvitiya, the second reading can take place in March.
"Preliminary estimates of the amount of land available for free distribution in the Far East of the earth are not that inflated, but greatly multiplied - about 10 times. Initially, in order to understand what the area for granting free hectares is located in the Far Eastern regions, it was necessary to subtract from their total area all uninhabited territories (those that are at a distance of 50 km from populated areas). And in general, in order for the bill "On the Far Eastern Hectare" to work, it is necessary that it be extended only to the territories in which urban and rural settlement systems take place. Since the settlers should settle only in those places in the Far East, where they can rely on the already existing infrastructure. And such "free" territories within the Far Eastern regions are extremely small - they are almost completely in private ownership. At the same time, the bill should apply only to zones with favorable conditions for life, but, that is, located south of the Far North. Since in places with harsh living conditions, such as, for example, the northern regions of Yakutia, the settlers will not go in for hectares, "commented the associate professor of the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia at the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Vladimir Gorlov.
In his opinion, the law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" will be effective if it includes an article providing for the beneficiaries of free land plots a simplified land acquisition procedure. Since, if a Russian citizen has to undergo an existing full-fledged full procedure - expensive and bureaucratized - to obtain a land plot under the Far Eastern hectare program, he will have a risk of unpaid costs incurred during this procedure. In other words, in this case, his economy will be unprofitable at first. In order to ensure that the land plots allocated in accordance with the bill are not that which made a profit, but did not stand idle, in the Far Eastern regions it is necessary to organize the shooting of video clips with illustrative examples of their successful use. At the same time, all educational work in the framework of granting free hectares in the Far East should be based on the fact that the acquisition of these land plots is primarily interested in the population of those regions for which the highest unemployment rate currently exists and in which there are quite a few Rural residents.
"As an idea laid down in the draft law" On the Far Eastern Hectare ", it will not in itself produce any result in the economic sector of the Far East. And it should be noted that today this macroregion needs not free hectares (now it is not so expensive to purchase a hectare on its territory - its price does not exceed 1000 $), but in the development of local infrastructure and employment of the population. At the same time, cultivation as such of the Far Eastern hectare, and even more so the organization of one or another farm on its territory and the creation of infrastructure facilities on it require significant capital investments. Therefore, this bill seems to be nothing more than a PR-action of the Minsk region. Moreover, it is anti-cultural in nature, because thanks to its implementation, instead of making engineering decisions and based on them to engage in youth development cities in the Far East, the Russian authorities are engaged in the distribution of hectares on its territory. And the maximum, at the same time, what they can achieve is to give the Russians 1000 sites for use within 10 years. What is not a major achievement for Russia, "Yury Krupnov, chairman of the Supervisory Board of the non-profit organization Institute of Demography, Migration and Regional Development, assured.
In his view, the unemployed Russian population, including residents of the North Caucasus, with all the prospects for the acquisition of the Far Eastern hectare announced today, will go for better living conditions not to the Far East, but to where there will be "easy" earnings and no need Substantial investments in the arrangement of their place of residence, that is, first of all, in Moscow.
To get land in the property it will be possible only if it is used for the stated purpose. At the same time, Minvostokrazvitiya is now submitting proposals that at least twice within 5 years will document the use of the site. Owning the same land, a Russian can not sell it, exchange or transfer it to foreign citizens.
Registration of the site is declarative. For its implementation, a person must register at the portal of public services Www.gosuslugi.ru. The received login and password can be used to go to the map of land plots and select a land plot where only vacant (not occupied by other users) areas will be indicated. The user independently forms the boundaries of the desired area - this allows him to make map tools.
An application for the provision of land is provided electronically on the website Www.nationalnews.rp . According to the draft law discussed in the State Duma, this service will be launched by 1 in May. Currently it works in test mode. Within 30 days from the submission of the application, the land is provided for free use. The entire process of obtaining a site does not require any money payments from the Russian.
In addition, at the moment the site Www.nationalnews.rp contains a section that describes the purpose of certain issued lands. At the same time, in the future, it is planned to conduct “enlightenment” work with people purchasing a site in the Far East. Information and educational materials are being developed, which tell in detail about the project. Also on site Www.nationalnews.rp In the future a section will be created with answers to frequently recurring questions and cases with practical stories on the use of land plots will be posted.