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The Earth is small!

Will there be enough hectares in the Far East for all those who wish to Russians?

Intensive preparations for the implementation of the initiative to provide land plots in the Far East give rise to paradoxes. According to a number of experts, previous public estimates of 150-300 million hectares of vacant land were overstated. Since, despite the average population density in the macroregion of 1 person / sq. Km, in reality the land is not just "household", but also actively used.

The Earth is small!
One deer of 40 settlers is worth

The fact that the draft law on the "Far Eastern hectare", developed by the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, has not gone unnoticed, has caused a stormy and controversial reaction from public figures in Yakutia. Experts interviewed by EastRussia associated the excessive activity of activists both with the activities of local opposition forces (allegedly supervised by State Duma deputy Fedot Tumusov), and with some connivance of local authorities.

Be that as it may - but Yakutia made the largest number of proposals and amendments to the text of the bill. According to EastRussia, amendments were submitted in parallel through the State Assembly of Il Tumen, the Government of Yakutia, and the Public Chamber of the Republic. In many ways, the proposals overlapped: this concerned, for example, the establishment of a ban on the allocation of land plots in the territories of traditional nature management; overcoming the so-called "digital inequality" (the lack of the Internet in the settlements of the republic deprives citizens of the opportunity to declare on the electronic service).

At the same time, at the end of last year, in his interview, the chairman of the standing committee of the parliament of Yakutia on land relations, natural resources and ecology, Vladimir Prokopyev, suggested that the regions themselves determine how and what land to provide for the implementation of the law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" Since, having all the necessary information, they will be able to better make certain decisions on the provision of land within the framework of the Far Eastern hectare program.

Some public activists, if you do not take into account their political slogans, said that in Yakutia there is ... little land, therefore there is nothing to distribute. The logic is convincing: in the conditions of the harsh northern climate of Yakutia, the existence of permafrost and a very fragile ecosystem on its territory, the republic has developed unique types of traditional northern nature management and management (herd horse breeding, reindeer husbandry and keeping cattle in stables in winter). Deer and horses graze, roaming freely on pastures, foraging for themselves in summer and winter. This requires year-round, self-regenerating spacious pastures. For the rational management of the economy on the territory of the republic, at one time even scientifically grounded land use standards for breeding farm animals were developed.

So, according to the standards, one deer should have at least 40 hectares of pasture, and one horse - 16 hectares of land. That is, a herd of 100 deer needs an area of ​​40 square kilometers to feed, and a similar herd of horses needs 16 square kilometers.

All these territories, in the opinion of public figures, are public lands and, therefore, are not reflected in the cadastral record. Also, hunting and fishing grounds, places of gathering of wild plants, fishing grounds, lands of traditional nature management of indigenous small peoples of the North are not taken into account. At the initiative of public figures, all these lands should be removed from the law. “We have the entire territory of Yakutia - ancestral land, traditional use,” activists have repeatedly argued. The main idea, on the basis of which the idea of ​​a referendum was even formulated, was the exclusion of Yakutia from the regions in which the law will operate.

Another interesting thesis of the Yakut social activists is connected with the "unreliability" of their own population. As follows from the resolution of the Public Chamber of the Republic, “due to the fact that the distribution of land to private ownership involves the operation of the secondary market, in the conditions of the economic crisis, unemployment, low income of rural residents, the free land distributed over time will be sold for a penny and structures for unpaid loans. Whereas indigenous peoples simply cannot survive in the market conditions without agricultural land and forest resources. " And if so, in the North of Yakutia, agricultural land should not be sold and serve as collateral for loans, but should be regulated by a special law corresponding to the content of Art. 9 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

In general, the activity of Yakut social activists was not only regular, but also very noticeable - in particular, one of their memorable speeches was a picket in forty-degree frost on the day Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Trutnev arrived in the region. But, be that as it may, it is now obvious that the wave of protest caused in Yakutia by the bill "On the Far Eastern Hectare" is on the decline.

In one of his last speeches, the head of the Republic of Yakutia, Yegor Borisov, noted that the republic's authorities, developing a set of amendments to the draft law of the Ministry of Eastern Development, sought to make it, on the one hand, useful for local residents and the territory of Yakutia, on the other hand, to make it harmless for the republic. And at present they are continuing to work on the development of proposals for improving the draft law.

According to him, today, thanks to the efforts of the Yakut authorities, such Yakut territories as specially protected areas, traditional places of residence of northern peoples, and areas of mineral deposits are excluded from the territories covered by the bill. Thus, now more than 60% of the territory of the republic is excluded from the bill. Also, the bill now provides for the use of the republic's forest fund only as private household plots or for agricultural purposes.

The head of Yakutia also noted that the only thing in which the Yakut authorities failed to achieve success was the issue of extending the bill to the hunting grounds of the republic. Their proposal to exclude these lands from the territories of distribution of the bill has not yet been supported by federal departments, since this issue does not lie directly in the field of land use.

What we are distributing - the card will show

Almost the main element of the program for the provision of a hectare, as conceived by the developers, is a unique electronic system - a map posted on the Internet, on which users can “click” to choose their own plots to their liking. The system is being developed by order of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East by the IT company Prognoz. According to the Deputy Minister of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East Sergey Kachaev, at the moment, the interactive service for the provision of land plots is being updated with clarifying information about which territories are covered by the draft law and which are not.

“The resource contains information about the territories that are not subject to provision - such are, for example, specially protected natural areas, protected forests, lands of traditional nature use, areas near large cities or those territories in respect of which specific urban planning plans apply. After the process of entering all this information on the resource is over, an assessment of the total volume of land areas to be provided to Russians in accordance with the bill will be carried out, "he explained to the EastRussia correspondent.

Sergey Kachaev added that the first such assessment for pilot municipalities can be made as early as April.

At the same time, according to the opinion of the developer of the bill - the Ministry of the Eastern Development - the regions should already have real mechanisms for the preventive "reservation" of certain land plots to be provided within the framework of the Far Eastern hectare program. This reservation provides for the establishment of a certain temporary "moratorium" in cases where, for example, the site is used without being duly registered as the property. Or if there are specific initiatives in relation to the site, but they are not correctly reflected in the town planning plans. Or if a protected area regime is established on the site, but the boundaries of this protected zone are descriptive.

In other words, the site is marked in the system as prohibited for issuance, and the owner (or region) receives a time lag for bringing all documents into line. But the logical question that arises when considering such a booking scheme - whether the regional "armor" will become an object of speculation in order to "hold" profitable plots of land - the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East left unanswered.

At the same time, the EastRussia correspondent in the department was told that today, as part of the preparation of "pilot regions", their audit is being carried out in the Far Eastern regions. The first estimates based on it can be made in early April.
“It is assumed that the term for putting in order all existing property rights will be reflected in the law,” explained the representative of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East. “This means that after this period, the list of sites to be issued will be revised and supplemented.”

Pilot districts: unity of dissimilarities

Recall that the entry into force of the law will take place in three stages. At the first stage, only residents of the Far Eastern regions and only in the "pilot" regions will be able to receive land. At the second stage, the land allotment can be obtained in any municipal entity of the Far East, but again only the Far East will be able to exercise this right. At the third stage, any citizen of the Russian Federation will be able to obtain land in the Far East. Moreover, if several people apply for a particular site, at any stage it is received by the citizen who submitted the application first.

To date, all 9 subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District have decided on the pilot areas. At the same time, comparing the indicators of these regions, it is already possible to reveal differences in the approaches of the regions to the "Far Eastern hectare" project.

For example, it is noteworthy that the pilot districts currently defined by the regions have different potential. For example, in the Khabarovsk Territory, they are ready to allocate 0,915 million hectares of forests and another 11 hectares of land of former state farms within the Amur municipal district. This area will be enough to provide about 400 people. Since in the Amur region, with an area of ​​926 sq. km, so many people do not live, it is obvious that the allocated land, in addition to local residents, will also be enough for many immigrants. At the same time, there is a clear deficit on the territory of the Primorsky Territory in the Khanka District: the area of ​​this district with concentrated settlements is 770 square kilometers, and only 16269 hectares have been allocated for distribution in it. Meanwhile, in the Amur Region, enough is also provided for the issuance of free hectares of land. Its "pilot area" for the allocation of land plots to the Russians is Arkharinsky, with a size of 2730 sq. Km. Within its limits, the area of ​​land for free distribution is 700 thousand hectares. The choice by the regional authorities of the Arkharinsky district as a "pilot" is due to its favorable climatic characteristics and the presence of transport infrastructure on its territory. The plots allocated by the region on the territory of this region are fully suitable for the development of farming and personal subsidiary plots.

If we talk about the Jewish Autonomous Region, then its "pilot region" for the allocation of free hectares is Oktyabrsky. But the amount of land for free distribution to Russians on its territory has not yet been calculated. The region is now applying information about lands and land plots that are not subject to provision on its territory on a variety of maps. Work on mapping this information will end on March 15, after which it will be sent to the Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography to enter information into the database of an electronic service for providing citizens with land plots in the Far Eastern Federal District.

Based on this cartographic information, the places of possible provision of land plots on the territory will be determined
It is planned that in the pilot regions the law will come into force on May 1 - in other words, free land in the Far East will be distributed from the beginning of May. To date, the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East has approved a list of nine pilot regions, where it is planned to start distributing free "Far Eastern hectares". In Primorye, the Jewish Autonomous Region and the Amur Region, it is proposed to allocate land in areas bordering China. In the Khabarovsk Territory, as mentioned earlier - in the Amur Region, in Chukotka - in Anadyr, in the Magadan Region - on the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, in Yakutia - on the territory of the Namsky Ulus. Within the Kamchatka Territory, land will be allocated in the Ust-Bolsheretsky District, and in the Sakhalin Region - in Tymovsky.

“We respect the opinion of the regional authorities and the public. All constructive proposals are considered. We take into account the opinion of the Far Eastern regions as much as possible ”- explained to the ER correspondent in the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East.

The ministry also noted that while the project to "allocate a Far Eastern hectare" has not started, it is difficult to judge which lands of which regions are most interested in Russians.

Preliminary estimates of the amount of land are overstated by 10 times - expert

In December, the draft law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" passed the first reading in the State Duma. At the moment, it is preparing for consideration by the State Duma in the second reading. According to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, the second readings may take place in March.

“Preliminary estimates of the size of the land available for free distribution in the Far East are not that overstated, but greatly multiplied - approximately 10 times. Initially, in order to understand what area the Far Eastern regions have for providing free hectares, it was necessary to subtract all uninhabited territories from their total area (those that are located at a distance of 50 km from settlements). In general, in order for the draft law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" to work, it is necessary that it be applied only to territories where urban and rural settlement systems take place. Since the settlers should settle only in those places in the Far East where they can rely on the already existing infrastructure. And there are very few such “free” territories within the Far Eastern regions - they are almost entirely in private ownership. At the same time, the bill should apply only to zones with favorable conditions for life, and, that is, located south of the Far North. Since the settlers will not go to places with harsh living conditions, such as, for example, the northern regions of Yakutia, to deal with hectares, ”commented Associate Professor of the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Vladimir Gorlov.

In his opinion, the law "On the Far Eastern Hectare" will be effective if it contains an article providing for a simplified land allocation procedure for recipients of free land plots. Since, if a Russian has to go through the existing modern full procedure - expensive and bureaucratic - in order to obtain a land plot under the Far Eastern hectare program, he will run the risk of non-repayment of the expenses incurred during this procedure. In other words, in this case his farm will be unprofitable at first. In order to ensure that the land plots allocated in accordance with the bill are not just profitable, but not idle, in the Far Eastern regions, it is necessary to organize the shooting of videos with illustrative examples of their successful use. At the same time, all educational work in the framework of the provision of free hectares in the Far East should be carried out based on the fact that the population of those regions that are currently characterized by the highest unemployment rate and in which there are quite a few rural residents.

“As the idea behind the draft law 'On the Far Eastern Hectare', so it alone will not give any result in the economic sector of the Far East. And it should be noted that today this macro-region does not need free hectares (now it is not so expensive to buy a hectare on its territory - its price does not exceed $ 1000), but the development of local infrastructure and provision of employment for the population. At the same time, the cultivation of the Far Eastern hectare as such, and even more so the organization of this or that economy on its territory and the creation of infrastructure facilities on it, require significant investment. Therefore, this bill appears to be nothing more than a PR-action of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East. Moreover, it is anticultural in nature, since thanks to its implementation, instead of making engineering decisions and, on their basis, engaging in youth development cities in the Far East, the Russian authorities are distributing hectares on its territory. And the maximum, at the same time, what they will be able to achieve is to give 1000 land plots to the Russians for use within 10 years. Which is not a serious achievement for Russia, ”said Yuri Krupnov, Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the Institute for Demography, Migration and Regional Development, a non-profit organization.

In his opinion, the unemployed Russian population, including residents of the North Caucasus, with all the announced prospects of acquiring a Far Eastern hectare today, will not go to the Far East for better living conditions, but where there will be “easy” earnings and there is no need significant investments in the arrangement of their place of residence, that is, first of all, in Moscow.

ER Help:

It will be possible to get ownership of land only if it is used for the declared purpose. At the same time, proposals are being made to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, providing for at least twice within 5 years to document the use of the site. Owning land, a Russian cannot sell, exchange or transfer it to foreign citizens.

The registration of the site is of a declarative procedure. To implement it, a person must register on the portal of public services The received login and password can be used to go to the map of land plots and select a land plot, where only free (not occupied by other users) plots will be indicated. The user independently forms the boundaries of the desired area - this is allowed by the map tools.

An application for the provision of a land plot is submitted electronically on the website Www.nationalnews.rp ... According to the bill discussed in the State Duma, this service will start working on May 1. It is currently in test mode. Within 30 days after submitting the application, the land plot is provided for free use. The whole process of obtaining a plot does not require any monetary payments from a Russian.

In addition, the site is currently Www.nationalnews.rp contains a section that describes the intended purpose of these or those issued land. At the same time, in the future, it is planned to conduct "educational" work with people who acquire a site in the Far East. Information and educational materials are now being developed that describe the project in detail. Also on the site Www.nationalnews.rp in the future, a section will be created with answers to frequently recurring questions and cases with practical stories on the use of land plots will be posted.
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