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Green light MTC
Transboundary international transport corridors of Primorye-1 and Primorye-2 reach the stage of practical implementation
For a number of years, the discussion of the construction of transit regional transport corridors in Primorye did not go beyond the plane of theoretical disciplines, remaining a "paper project" due to a complex of objective and subjective factors. It would seem that the implementation of the obvious "arithmetic" advantages, which are laid in the proximity of the ports of Primorye to the developing provinces of the Northeast of China, should have long ago turned into a successful experience of international cooperation. However, to combine the three components of success, namely - the acceleration of customs procedures at the border, the upgrade of transport and port infrastructure and political guarantees of loading by neighbors, in fact, is possible only now.
Free port - reset MTK
The project of international transport corridors, in fact, was completely rebooted in the Free Port Vladivostok paradigm. It is noteworthy that Minvostokrazvitiya Russia specifically ordered an updated investment "packaging" of the project, which took the team of the company McKinsey. According to the representatives of the department, the consultants not only were able to reassemble the project, laying out a return on investment in almost all infrastructural solutions. But they also achieved a horizontal level of understanding and support from the Chinese business community. At the same time, the Ministry for the Development of the Far East coordinated the development and development of the project with the State Committee for Development and Reform of the PRC.
The fact that from October 11th the seaside checkpoints have switched to the round-the-clock mode of operation (in accordance with the law "On the Free Port of Vladivostok") is an important signal to the neighbors that the principles laid down by the Russian side are consistently being implemented. The acceleration of the processes of creating the final working model of the regional ITC was greatly facilitated by the decree signed last week by the head of the Russian government, Dmitry Medvedev, on simplifying border procedures in the Freeport of Vladivostok: Rosselkhoznadzor and Rospotrebnadzor, which had never been practiced in reality, partially fall out of the control bodies. Such a serious acceleration and the transition of work to the Single Window regime, launched in the Free Port, is one of the key factors for accelerating the launch of projects of regional grand transport corridors, experts believe. Thus, the preferences already effective in the Free Port regime, the economic efficiency of the transit of the cargo flow, the volumes and guarantees of its positive dynamics, and, importantly, the reduction of bureaucratic barriers and simplification of customs procedures, all make the MTC projects as attractive as possible for possible Russian Investors, but also for our neighbors - China.
As the Governor of Primorye Vladimir Miklushevsky, documents are already ready for signing with the authorities of the Chinese server provinces that guarantee the volume of transit cargo. The Russian Government pays close attention to this issue. This means quite a specific conversation about the cargo loading of the corridors, the control of which will be entrusted to the MTK Management Company, specially created with the Chinese partners.
It is assumed that the financing of the creation of infrastructure facilities within the MTC will be provided by 20% by the Russian side, and by 80% by Chinese companies and banks. By the way, the Export-Import Bank of China (China Exim Bank) expressed readiness to participate in the development of the corridors "Primorye-1" and "Primorye-2". In addition, at the meeting of the governor of the region with the leaders of the large Chinese corporation "Longjian", the Chinese side expressed an active desire to participate in the construction of the road infrastructure of the ITC "Primorye-1". The company was repeatedly awarded with the state engineering award of the People's Republic of China for such projects as the Harbin Road Bridge over the Songhua River, the reconstruction and expansion of the Hailin-Yabuli section, a number of the main public roads of Suifenhe-Manchuria and others. In addition, the company has a wealth of experience in road construction and is interested in cooperation with Russia in the construction of transport infrastructure with great interest.
“Both transport corridors are operating, cargoes and passengers are moving along them today, but it is necessary to build a modern road infrastructure. We have already begun to modernize the “Primorye-1” transport corridor connecting Primorye with the Heilongjiang province, and we are gradually building this road in four-lane execution at the expense of the regional and federal budgets. Recently, builders have passed a new site with a length of 18 kilometers bypassing the city of Artyom and are ready to proceed to the next stage to the city of Bolshoy Kamen. For us, this site is very important, because in this city the largest investment project is being implemented - the shipbuilding plant “Zvezda”, - said Vladimir Miklushevsky.
From the speedy implementation of the ITC project, its modernization and the withdrawal of the volume of transit traffic to pre-planned indicators, the further economic development of the region will largely depend, experts say. The construction of transport corridors will allow Primorsky Krai and the Far East as a whole to gain competitive advantages in the market of international transit traffic, and also contribute to the development of domestic transportation.
The head of the region noted that the project of the transport corridor requires large investments, and Primorye is ready to conclude a concession agreement with the partner, which provides for the return of investments and dividends from income. "The concept of development of transport corridors was presented at the second Eastern Economic Forum. The financial model is approved by the government of the country, we offer investors a form of public-private partnership. I am confident that the implementation of these projects will bring great economic benefits not only to the Primorsky Territory, but also to the neighboring provinces of China, "stressed Vladimir Miklushevsky.
We note, according to experts, transport corridors can save Chinese shippers up to 700 million dollars a year, by reducing the way, respectively, the cost of transportation and save time. It is assumed that the main objects of transportation will be grain, soybeans, corn, as well as industrial goods, equipment and textiles in containers. According to calculations, by 2030, the potential additional freight turnover along the Primorye-1 international transport corridor may amount to about seven million tons of containerized cargo and five million tons of grain, and according to the MTC Primorye-2, up to 15 million tons of containers and 23 million tons of grain . In addition, transport corridors will open new markets for Primorye products, which will be produced at the enterprises of the Torah and the Free Port of Vladivostok.
In general, for today the freight base of the bordering Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang and Jilin, Yanbinsky AO, possible for transshipment through the ports of Primorye, according to various expert estimates, is from 100 to 250 million tons annually. The decision was already made within the framework of the regional program "Development of the Transport Complex in Primorsky Krai" for 2013-2020 to work on the launch of international transport corridors "Primorye-1" and "Primorye-2". And today the region passes to the systemic activity in solving these problems. This is a huge potential that can not be ignored.
According to Rostislav Turovsky, Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of Higher School of Economics, "the construction of transport corridors will allow Primorsky Krai and the Far East as a whole to gain competitive advantages in the international transit transport market, and also promote the development of domestic transportation."
The expert also notes that the federal authorities came up with the idea of constructing a hyper-high-speed transport system Hyperloop between the port of Zarubino and the border of China. "Recently, the Ministry of Transport of China has supported this idea, so the appearance of" hyper-pipelines "within the framework of" Primorye-2 "seems to be a realistic project that will further increase the efficiency of the transport corridor," Mr. Turovsky underlines.
Head of Transport Department of JSC "FEMRI" Mikhail Kholosha Stresses that for the further successful development of transit corridors in Primorye, only bilateral agreements between Russia and China are not enough.
"Macroeconomics is always greater than the sum of individual microeconomic objects or projects. Therefore, the corridor is not a simple sum, except for this, transit along corridors is a relationship of several, less often two, and more often of more countries, "the expert says. Without a multilateral format of interaction, it is impossible to manage, but it must be supplemented by bilateral and unilateral basic initiatives. "
"In addition, there is one more aspect that reveals the multifaceted and multiplicity of sides in the development of corridors. There are transcontinental routes that connect Europe and Asia: the Northern Sea Route, BAM, the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Central Trans-Caucasian Route, the Southern Sea Route (via the Suez Canal), etc. But they are also the basis of the regional transport network. MTC Primorje-1 and Primorye-2 are part of the regional corridors, which in turn (like a nesting doll in a nesting doll!) Are fragments of transcontinental corridors. Therefore, these corridors are not so much competing, complement each other so much as to cover the entire space of a huge continent, taking into account the interests of both private business and state tasks: the macroeconomic effect for the development of the territories. It is clear that the creation of corridors is a task of spatial economic development, which should take into account both macro- and microeconomic returns. The complexity consists in the complexity of taking into account all the necessary aspects: economic, political, state, social, etc. But this will minimize risks and ensure a long-term balance of mutual benefit for all participants. These processes are now the base platform on which the further development of the ITC project will be built, "Mikhail Kholosha, EastRussia correspondent, said.
A lot of hope for the construction of the MTC is also associated with the seaports. The growth of transit cargo, container transportation, the acceleration of customs procedures will increase the turnover of stevedoring companies, berth operators, - considers the General Director of the Sea Port of the Trinity Bay (MPBT) Vyacheslav Burin.
The berths of the port of Trinity, located in close proximity to the state border, railway and avtopehohoda make the port of Trinity the cornerstone link in the structure of the MTC Primorye-2. A large amount of work on studying the port's potential, carried out in due time by specialists, including foreign ones, makes it possible to make a confident conclusion: the development of the port in Trinity Bay and the improvement of its logistics infrastructure can be an extremely effective component of a project that can ensure the development of transport infrastructure in the region international cooperation. And in the future, further development in the framework of the Primorye-2 MTC may create a large port hub with a developed logistics infrastructure capable of serving a significant amount of international transit cargo.
From Tumangan - to Primorye
Recall that since 1990 years - the period of the sharp drop in freight turnover of the Far Eastern ports caused by the economic crisis, production stagnation, inflation and a number of other processes, the idea of creating international transit corridors, even then - according to experts, would become a powerful economic factor for supporting and developing the regional Economy of the south of the Far East. In particular, Primorye, which has berths equipped with loading equipment, empty quay walls and free working hands, ready to undertake any work.
Having transformed from the projects of Tumangan-1 and Tumangan-2, which have a clearly geopolitical tinge and are ambiguous in economic, social and political aspects, over the decades, the main logistic direction of the ITC has migrated to Russia's purely territorial affiliation.
For reference: The initial essence of the Tumangan project was the creation of the International Special Economic Zone (IUEZ), provisionally named as Small Tumen and Big Tumen. The first option covered the territory in 1000 sq. M. Km in the form of a triangle, the peaks of which abut the port of Rajin (DPRK), Hunchun (PRC) and the port of Posiet (Russia). The second option extended to the territory of 10000 sq. M. Km, the borders of which are located in the triangle of the port of Chongzhin (DPRK), Yenji (PRC) and Vladivostok (Russia). The project, in fact, provided the PRC with a direct access to the sea along the Tumen River, passing the territory of Russia and the DPRK.
The Tumangan Initiative project collapsed - neither Russia nor the DPRK found an opportunity to find a mutually beneficial and acceptable option to cede the claims of the PRC by creating an economic zone to get a direct access to the sea. Although already at this stage, the parameters of the transit cargo turnover of the ports Rajin, Ungan and Chundzin were already indicated in the project, for example, the North Korean side (the concept of the Free Trade Economic Zone "Rajin Songbon"): first about 20 million tons per year, in the second stage - 50 million T, and the third - another plus 50 million tons.
The project has died, but some parts of it have been implemented. The objective potential for the implementation of initial ideas, both related to the Tumen River project itself, and more broadly - the formation of an integrated economic zone and the creation of permanent transport routes, including for the transit of transit traffic, was appreciated, and after some time, having changed The main accents of the routes, partially reorienting the vectors of interests, eventually revived in the purely Russian concept of the ITC called Primorje-1 (north) and Primorye 2 (south).
For reference: The transport corridors Primorje-1 (Suifenhe-Nakhodka) and Primorye-2 (Hunchun-Zarubino) are aimed at attracting cargo transit from China by intercepting cargo flows between the northeast of China and its southern and central parts. MTC Primorje-1 will connect the bordering Chinese city of Suifenhe, Grodekovo station, the Primorsky Border Region and ports in the east of the region. Through this corridor, goods from the Chinese province can follow the shortest route to the APR countries through Russian ports in the east of Primorye. At present, a number of highways of this transport route have begun work on modernization and reconstruction at the expense of the regional and federal budgets. "Primorye-2" will connect the ports of the south-west of Primorye - Posiet, Zarubino and Slavyanka - with the provinces of China.
Against the backdrop of all the positive changes in the solution of the issue with the construction of the MTC in Primorye, a fly in the ointment, as before, as well as 20 years ago, unfortunately, there remains the problem of "low speeds" and high costs. The conducted run-through measurements of containers show that the cost of transporting the 20TEU container from the border town of Mudanjiang to the Russian city of Primorye in Shanghai today is about 1250 US dollars, and the speed of passing the cargo from door to door takes 85 hours. Russian indicators, unfortunately, are still far from the standard of Shanghai. The way from the same Mudanjiang only to the Russian port is 220 hours. And 50% of the time "eats" customs procedures. Yuri Trutnev, the presidential envoy in the Far Eastern Federal District, paid attention to the speed of movement inside the transit corridor last year: "In order to talk about the functioning of transport corridors, they should be attractive and profitable. Therefore, the speed of traffic along these corridors is of fundamental importance. To ensure the speed of traffic in a completely different mode, customs should work. Especially in terms of transit cargo. Changes in the customs regime we need to achieve within the Free Port of Vladivostok. "
For the sake of justice, the control measurements were carried out before the entry of new standards for the work of the checkpoints, mentioned above. Will it be possible to save those same 50% of the time, if the customs will give "good"? We are likely to find out about this in the very near future.