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Hone for the employer
How should the higher education system in the Far East change?
According to the Agency for the Development of Human Capital in the Far East (ARCHC), only 64% of graduates of Far Eastern educational institutions can get a job in their specialty. At the same time, those who graduated from higher educational institutions in specialty and magistracy programs find work in their specialty in 70% of cases, but those who studied at the baccalaureate are only 52%. That is, in fact, half of the young specialists at this level of training remain out of work.
The situation with the employment of young people varies by region. So, in Kamchatka, although the situation is far from normal, it is still more prosperous than in other Far Eastern regions: 70% of graduates can find a job here. But in Yakutia, the Amur Region and the Jewish Autonomous Region this indicator is only 30%. In the fact that it is extremely difficult to find work by profession, during the survey 68% of graduates of technical schools and 71% of graduates of high schools of the Far Eastern Federal District admitted.
All this takes place against the backdrop of a serious personnel shortage in the regions of the Far East. New investment projects are being implemented in the Far Eastern Federal District, and already operating enterprises are developing. According to the ARCHK, 2025 thousand new jobs should be created in the Far East by 115 in the Far East - these are the requirements of the region's economy. The structure of the labor market itself must change. If now most residents of the federal district are engaged in trade, then by 2021, growth should show such industries as, for example, shipbuilding and ship repair (by 40-45%), chemical industry (by 75-80%), gas processing 125-130%).
The situation looks somewhat paradoxical. Jobs in the Far Eastern regions - a surplus (and the number of vacancies will only grow). The Human Capital Development Agency invites specialists from other regions to work in the Far East, local authorities are ready to provide them with serious support. At the same time, "their" young specialists cannot find jobs in these thousands of jobs. What is the problem?
"The education system does not fully meet the requirements of regional economies, and it is necessary to bring demand and supply in line with the Far Eastern labor market," said Alexander Logunov, head of the social projects department of the ARCHK.
Only balancing the needs of employers and the education system will enable them to train those specialists who are needed in the labor market, they say in the Agency’s management. A reliable personnel forecast is also needed - that is, a real understanding of what kind of specialists Far Eastern employers need now and which will be needed in 5-10-15 years. And educational programs should be built primarily on the principle of practice-oriented. That is, young people should have a clear idea of what they will have to do, if they choose this or that profession, what will be the employers' requirements and working conditions for them.
- Until recently, the profession was chosen by habit or status, paying tribute to fashion or family traditions. As a result, only a small percentage of graduates today work in their specialty. It is necessary to change this system, focusing on the classic vocational orientation triangle: "I want - I can - in demand". The education system in the Far East should correspond to the needs of the new economy of the region, and not to train specialists in the disappearing professions, "Valentin Timakov, the General Director of the ARCHC, comments on the situation.
The Far Eastern Federal University began to apply this approach first. And long before the university received this status at all, and in the country they started talking about the fact that universities and employers should work together in training specialists. The university (at that time the Far Eastern State University) was oriented to the key enterprises for the region and their specific requests in the 90-ies of the last century. And there, where these requests were carried out, there was no shortage of good engineers, no problems with the employment of young people.
- Our branch was established in 1994, and in 23, we have polished all forms of cooperation with the Progress and Askold plants. Over the years, our graduates have made the engineering backbone of these enterprises, now they work at 600 plants, ”says EastRussia Yuri Ognev, director of the FEFU branch in Arsenyev, doctor of technical sciences, professor. - We know for sure that our graduates will be in demand, as the enterprises prepare them for themselves. Specialists of aircraft factories participate in the educational process, carry out the practice, the guys after the second course work without fail at the enterprises. And they see the future: they know what they will do, they see that their work is waiting for them to be stable, with a good salary.
There are also new agreements. So, in the fall, the Far Eastern Federal University signed an agreement on targeted training of specialists with Russia's largest gas and oil refining company SIBUR. At the same time, concrete enterprises are meant, on which young professionals will be involved. Now the company is preparing a large project "ZapSibNeftehim" in Tobolsk - its construction will be completed in 2019 year. The Far East project is being worked out also to launch the Amur gas chemical complex. But not only: SIBUR produces products at 23 production sites in Russia, and young literate specialists are needed everywhere.
- The social function of the university is training specialists for jobs for various enterprises. Universities traditionally try to create very close ties with the enterprises of the region where the university is located, - says Anna Tyshetskaya, Deputy Vice-Rector for Academic and Educational Work of FEFU. - SIBUR is one of the investment partners of the Far Eastern Federal District. Now he is studying the possibility of implementing a project for the construction of the Amur Gas Chemical Complex. According to the plan, those guys who are now graduating from specialized specialties for the SIBUR company will start their careers at other plants of the company, for example, in Tobolsk. Therefore, in this case, it is not just about training for a specific job, but about the development of human capital in the Far East.
Selection of the guys who will study according to the FEFU program "commissioned" by SIBUR has already taken place.
- The company "SIBUR" selects among the students 2-3 courses the most promising. For those who passed the selection, together with the company, an individual educational trajectory, a program of practices and the subject of final works are being worked out, - Anna Tyshetskaya says. - Following the results of the interviews that took place in May and November of 2017, SIBUR noted the very high level of training of engineers in FEFU. But FEFU cooperates with a large number of industrial partners. Therefore, training programs are universal. Our specialists are going to work not only in SIBUR, and "tightening up" the curriculum to the needs of a particular employer is a standard move in the practice of any university.
And in the company they say: in general, the scheme of interaction between the enterprise and the university is already run-in, because the basic universities of SIBUR are in all regions of its presence (in Nizhny Novgorod, Blagoveshchensk, Perm, Tomsk, Tobolsk).
- We interact with FEFU according to the scenario implemented with other partner universities. First of all, we conduct interviews with students, identify "gray areas" in the competencies that are necessary to work at SIBUR enterprises. We are currently considering the possibility of further employment of students in the position of the ZapSibNeftekhim complex under construction near Tobolsk, assessing knowledge of chemical technologies, the ability to build mathematical models of technological processes, knowledge of foreign languages and competence in working with databases, - says the head of the SIBUR Corporate University Julia Vorotnikova. - Together with the university, we are working on an additional program to the main training, which includes lectures from experts at the company's production sites. Themes of diploma projects are selected by the department for the problems of the target enterprise, while the scientific consultant is an expert from the future place of employment of the graduate. Students of the target group undergo practical training at their intended place of work, mastering skills that will be useful at a specific workplace.
As explained by Julia Vorotnikova, first of all the company is interested in graduates in such areas as chemical technology, electric power engineering, automation of technological processes. In fact, these are the specialties that the Agency for Human Capital Development called the most promising and "fast-growing" in the Far East in the next 5-7 years. In addition, SIBUR intends to prepare on the basis of FEFU lawyers in the field of contract management, as well as builders with knowledge of English and Chinese.
- Similar programs appeared as a solution to the issue of early adaptation of students to the corporate and industrial culture of SIBUR, the development of popular competencies in the field of digitalization, design work and immersion in the specifics of the company's activities, "says Yulia Vorotnikova. - Unlike our target students, graduates of other universities longer adapt to the company's value system, often increasing their production expertise only after graduation.
Of course, FEFU has room to grow. Now, for example, through the University’s Career Center every year, all 1600 students find work, while the Center offers 4000 jobs to children annually (and thousands of people study at FNU 22). Naturally, not everyone will get into targeted educational programs offered by SIBUR and other strategic partners of the university for the training of specialists - Rosneft, Gazprom, Russian Helicopters, RusHydro, Rosatom and others.
However, if the link "university is an employer" or, according to Valentin Timakov, the principle "I want - I can - is in demand" will work, the situation with the employment of young professionals will gradually change. As with the shortage of trained personnel in enterprises.