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Yakutia. XXI Century
- Yegor Afanasyevich, in recent years, the economy of Yakutia has significantly strengthened, the rise is felt literally in all spheres of life. In the media, it is even called the "Yakut phenomenon." What is the basis for the republican economic success today? How did you manage to create a climate of high investment attractiveness in Yakutia?
- Five years ago, we developed and approved in the government of the Russian Federation a plan - “Scheme for the integrated development of the productive forces, transport and energy of the republic before 2020 of the year”. We set ourselves specific goals and objectives for the development of the republic, its economy, and the productive forces, and set significant frontiers.
Additionally, 60 thousands of jobs should be created in the republic. According to this plan, we are working today. There are certain positive results, they make us happy, but they do not at all tune up to a benign mood, because this is only a small part of what needs to be done.
Yakutia is a land rich, rich in natural resources. But from sitting on this “treasure chest” there will be no sense. It is necessary to develop the existing resource potential, expand the transport and energy infrastructure, bring in powerful and responsible investors.
The mining industry, mining of diamonds and gold is strong in the republic. There is a unique agriculture. These are traditional industries that we support and develop. But we are well aware that only diamonds and agriculture can not go far. The territory is rich in hydrocarbon raw materials, therefore, it is necessary to develop oil and gas production. Gazprom is gradually entering the republic with its investment programs. For almost ten years, Surgutneftegaz has been successfully operating in Yakutia.
Of course, we must immediately think about the deep processing of the extracted resources. To attract capital here it is necessary to actively develop the infrastructure. We still do not have enough electricity, highways, railways. But even here there are serious changes. Built more than a thousand kilometers of power lines. The construction of the Berkakit-Tommot-Yakutsk railway is nearing completion. Hundreds of kilometers of roads are being built.
- What road construction programs are being implemented today?
- We have three federal highways. From the Amur region to Yakutsk - the federal road "Lena". From us to Magadan - the road "Kolyma". And the third road - “Vilyui” - goes to the Irkutsk region. In Yakutsk, all three federal roads intersect. On the roads "Lena" and "Kolyma" at the expense of federal funds are now being reconstructed. Today we are raising the question of building a bridge to Yakutsk across the Lena River. If we put the bridge, then all three roads will connect. Including iron. If we add to this aircraft, the river fleet, then we can talk about the creation in Yakutsk of one of the largest logistics centers in the Far East.
So there are a lot of roads, and not only federal ones. There are two republican roads, there are district and municipal roads, and a special fund has been created for their support, through which funding is provided. They started giving money to the settlements so that they could maintain their village roads.
This is all current work that needs to be done every day. And in the future, we are thinking about creating a meridian transport corridor from China to Europe through Yakutsk and the Northern Sea Route. This route is much shorter than the southern route and will give a huge benefit to a large number of participants in international trade.
- The global economy is primarily a process of distributing labor and a clear definition of the role of each region in the global economic pipeline. What do you think the role and place of Yakutia in the Russian economy and the economy of the Asia-Pacific region?
- The economy of any region depends on global processes. For example, Yakutia is a leader in the production of diamonds. And, of course, our diamond companies are highly dependent on international conjuncture. The situation is the same with oil and gas. Virtually any industry is involved in global processes. It can be said that our economy is already rather tightly integrated into the world economy and, of course, into the Far Eastern and Russian ones. Today it is important to see in what aspect we develop, it is important to see our priorities. Therefore, the plans are not only to produce oil, but also to establish local production of deep processed products.
- The process of modernization is underway in the republican economy. I would like to know more about this.
- We are engaged in diversification, changing the economy. We pay much attention to the processing of products manufactured in Yakutia. This also applies to agriculture. We supply processed milk and meat to Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and the Jewish Autonomous Region.
Previously, we simply exported milk and meat, today we export the finished product, and therefore, we get an additional cost here in Yakutia, which allows us to expand production.
This year, the plant for the production of basalt fiber, and this is also an upgrade.
I believe that economic renewal requires the technical re-equipment of traditional industries. Today there are a lot of questions in the mining industry. For example, in the mining of diamonds, we turn to the mining method, on transport we are working on upgrading equipment, etc.
Of course, you can not talk only about the economy. Radically modernized our health care, education. The process of equipping these industries with new appliances and technologies is underway. In Yakutsk, there is a strong perinatal center. Our doctors perform open heart surgery, kidney transplant operations.
We have not lost anything in the education system. The North-Eastern Federal University operates in Yakutia. We are expanding the system of vocational education, including the system of primary vocational education.
- How do you plan to combine the development of large industry and traditional occupations of local peoples, for example, reindeer herding? What is being done to preserve the traditional folk economic structure?
- Of course, it is necessary to preserve the culture and traditional way of the people. In our country, historically, it is mainly indigenous peoples that are engaged in agriculture. For us, this is not just a branch of production, it is a matter of social policy. In the Far East, Yakutia is one of the largest agricultural enterprises. For example, more than half of the cattle of the entire Far Eastern Federal District is located in Yakutia.
On our coat of arms - the figure of a horse. It symbolizes the old way of life of the Yakut people. And small nations are engaged in reindeer herding. For them, deer is a lifetime. We took reindeer herding under state custody. Created nomadic schools. That is, by all means we strive to preserve their usual way of life.
Today, large industrial projects are being implemented in the republic. From the work of industry, we get taxes and form a budget. Agriculture is supported from this budget. Here is a relationship.
- The North-Eastern Federal University operates in Yakutia. Has science developed in this university, will the university become a strong scientific center?
- It is already a large scientific center where university, applied and academic science are combined.
A large research program focused on permafrost behavior. University specialists are engaged in development for the construction complex. For specific problems, research and production teams are created at the university, which include both representatives of fundamental and applied science. And to help research teams with research funding, a republican venture capital fund was created.
- Today, the Far East is experiencing a shortage of qualified personnel. Is there a problem in the republic, are there programs aimed at attracting and retaining specialists?
- First, in Yakutia, for quite a long time, there has been a natural increase in population, which is only in several regions of the Russian Federation. In terms of staffing in terms of qualifications, we have very good performance. And the level of education Yakutia looks good. In terms of age, we are also younger than many. But the problem of lack of specialists is still there. Because the growth rate of the economy in the republic is noticeably higher than the rate of training. For example, we have practically built a railway, and there are no personnel to work on it. To solve the problem, they specially opened a railway technical school in Nizhny Bestyakh, but it will give the first graduates only in a few years.
Also in Yakutia, a new mining-geological technical school was created to provide the industry with surveyors and geologists. And we will continue this work. In the republic, nothing is lost in the field of personnel training. The system of vocational schools is fully preserved. Many specialists with higher education are trained outside the republic at the expense of the regional budget. We even have a special ministry in charge of all issues of vocational education, training and placement of personnel. In general, there is a shortage of personnel, but we know how to solve the problem, and I am sure that Yakutia will always be provided with the necessary number of specialists.
- In Yakutia live people of various nationalities. Every nation has its own culture. Are there any state support programs for national cultures?
- Today in the world there are deep processes of assimilation of peoples. Some ethnic groups as cultural units disappear completely. The situation is aggravated by the inevitable process of globalization, the development of information technologies. And we have something to lose. The peoples of Yakutia have their own dances, their singing, their own rich language. Therefore, the policy of the leadership of the republic today is aimed at the preservation of national cultures. And we are sure that it is necessary not only to preserve what has developed over the centuries, but also to develop it. By the way, this applies not only to indigenous peoples. It is no secret that now the Russian language is subject to clogging, certain disastrous for him influences. We strive to ensure that each person knows their language and their national culture, and knows it deeply.
Therefore, we support good initiatives of national-cultural associations. A special executive body, the Department of Peoples' Affairs of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), was also created.
And recently, the Yakuts established two Guinness records at once. Last year, more than 1 300 people simultaneously played on the khomus. And this summer, in the framework of the national holiday Ysyakh, more than 15 thousands of Yakut people participated in the Osuokhai - the Yakut dance. These facts are officially recorded in the Guinness Book of Records.
- Yegor Afanasyevich, in July in the republic the international sports games “Children of Asia” took place, which have already become traditional. They became a real holiday for residents of Yakutia and guests of the competition. Tell us, on what principles is the policy of supporting sports in general and youth in particular being built?
- Games “Children of Asia” is in fact a great and joyful event for all participants, all residents of Yakutia. This year they were held for the fifth time. We received the best reviews. Of course it's nice. We in the republic love sports, have their sport traditions. Our athletes participate in competitions of the highest levels. Achieve significant results. Especially in archery, wrestling, running, shot put. We instill a love for the sport since childhood.
Of course, it is nice to hear about achievements, medals and records, but sport and physical education are still tools for solving many important issues. In fact, through sport you can achieve success in all areas. To instill in the younger generation a sense of purpose, responsibility, patriotism. A healthy person is a healthy nation, and ultimately a healthy economy. We set a goal for people to be healthy both in body and soul, in order to have an active life position, the desire to act.
This requires real business, serious financial efforts, and not verbal declarations. We invest a lot of money in sport, and private business provides serious support.
But money, of course, is not all. It is important that the Yakut people themselves take the initiative, especially in rural areas, where a significant part of the population of the republic lives. For example, for more than ten years in Yakutia there exists a social movement of good deeds “My Yakutia in the 21st century”. Activists of the movement, as a rule, through general rural gatherings make decisions about the construction of certain objects necessary in this particular area, help to raise funds, come to us for help. And the government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is always going to meet. After all, the field knows better what is really needed. So we built hundreds of objects in the republic, including sports ones.