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Bring the Far East to the level of South Korea

Bring the Far East to the level of South Korea

Vyacheslav Shtyrov, Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, former President of Yakutia, on the peculiarities of the development of economic zones in the Far East.

- Vyacheslav Anatolyevich, now only the lazy does not speak about the draft law for the accelerated development of the Far East and the Baikal region. Your opinion, when will this law be adopted?

- Let's go back to the developments in the Far East. In 2006, an in-depth analysis of the situation in the region was carried out and it was concluded that without taking any drastic measures, the FEFD is increasingly stagnating. Having considered these materials, the Security Council of Russia decided to develop a strategy for the development of the Far East - in 2009 it was approved.

What is a strategy? This is a document that describes how the Far East should be. We even calculated the quantitative parameters that we want to achieve in the region in terms of gross regional product per capita in terms of living standards, housing security, and so on. Moreover, the reference point was taken not only to the Russian Federation, but also to neighboring countries. In short, by 2025, we had to bring the Far East somewhere to the level of South Korea.

Let's say you took this strategy. And how to implement it? The main tool was chosen such a mechanism of the state program of development of the Far East. With its development, too many copies were broken. A year ago, it was approved. The program easily performs the part assigned to the Government. This is what is done at the expense of the budget. But this is not enough. The state cannot have such a necessary amount of funds to move everything in the right direction in the Far East. It means that it is supposed that various kinds of capital should come here - Russian, foreign. And how will he come? For every ruble of public investment, 10-12 private rubles should be attracted. What are the conditions for this?

- Yes, in fact, these conditions are not ...

- It is more profitable to invest in the European part, where the population is larger, the market is larger, the transport infrastructure is developed and it is possible to connect to networks and so on. And here it is unprofitable. Therefore, the investor does not go. In addition to the program, you should create a special mechanism to get it here.

After the meeting of the State Council in November, 2012, under the leadership of President Vladimir Putin, the idea arose that it is high time in the region to create special working conditions for business and people's lives. Then it was decided to develop a special law that would establish certain preferences for those who work in the Far East: tax, tariff, preferential. And such work with 2012 year is underway.

- We, ordinary inhabitants of the Far East, do not believe that by the year of 2025 we will reach the level of South Korea ...

- I want to remind you that after World War II, South Korea exported only one product - sewing needles, which they made by hand. And, of course, no one believed that South Korea would reach any heights. But they did. And if you take our own history, the Soviet Union in 10-15 years in the 1930s followed the same path that other countries took in several decades. Everything is in our hands, the main thing is that the mechanisms for the implementation of these tasks are correctly targeted. The law is an important mechanism. I cannot say that the law will be adopted very simply, easily. Ahead, after the text appears, which really can already be discussed and taken as a basis and moved on as a law, there are many different disputes. Some say: “Why should special conditions be created for the Far East…” We have to prove, say: “Do you know that…” If we make equal legislative conditions for the West and for the East, it is inequality that results. Therefore, there is still a lot of work ahead.

- Let's discuss the features of those economic zones on which the development of the Far East is supposed to rely.

- I will say at once that this is a useful thing, but I do not think that the only thing, and the main thing, is that behind the scenes in this case there are many questions - the social nature, the agro-industrial complex, the construction of railways and so on. Nevertheless, it is necessary to do this. Now the law on the territories of advanced development, which was created by the southeast, is moving. Sometimes people ask how it relates to our law. This law will be integrated into our law - as a special case. We will therefore support him, help him to accept, he, in my opinion, even before our will be adopted. It is within the framework of this law that it is possible to create such special zones.

We must find such highlights that will be placed in these zones and give the result. If we take our republic, then, in my opinion, these are two such manufactures. We must fulfill our further dream, create a territory ahead of the zone for the jewelry and diamond industry. We have not solved many issues: there is no customs, there are no tax benefits. They live like wild sprouts: he who survives survives. And you could create something ... There is a gemopolis in Thailand, where the territory is fenced with a barbed wire fence and protected. At the entrance there is an administrative block in which the customs house is located, the assay office - all inspectors, tax inspections and so on. There gets raw materials - the same stones, semiprecious, precious, gold. And there are dozens of factories. They make finished products there and go back through this office to different parts of the globe. If they are sent for export, they generally have very large benefits. If they are inside, the benefits are smaller, but benefits. That is, in Yakutsk it is necessary to create lapidary diamond complexes.

And the second - just need on the basis of basalt fibers, because we still have raw materials. I would say that not every basalt can be suitable for production. He must have certain qualities, properties, we have them. And there are already worked out technologies, after all the project we started together in "Rosnano". There is already experience of production and insulation for the national economy, which found its buyer.

- Now people already understand that it is much more profitable to buy basalt than the same polystyrene.

- Experiments are being conducted on the production of reinforcement for building structures. This is generally a revolution, which means that we must give up metal, save it. Trial works are being carried out on the use of structures made from basalt for road and underground mines. "Alrosa" is testing there ... Why is it important for underground mines? Because there is an aggressive environment. Waters, which are struggling in underground mines, carry in themselves different salts, substances. Metal corrosion is exposed, constantly they have problems, crashes. Here, maybe, our basalt structures will find application. They are tested there. We still have to go further, make them products for the production of pipes and everything else. That is, this would be an important direction in the development of composite and structural materials. In the Soviet Union, entire institutions worked on this topic. Then the business was abandoned, but now it is reborn on a new technological level. You can place a whole series of such productions in Yakutsk and make a special zone for them. I think it would have found its own application in the entire Far East. And on the other hand, it is possible to expand from here to other entities, it is quite possible to create similar enterprises in Primorye and so on.

- The same housing and communal services of the State Unitary Enterprise Utilities prefer to buy Izover, than our Sakhabazalt. And why should they not buy from Sakhabazalt material that is durable, better and healthier less dangerous ?!

- We have adopted a special law on the new state-contract system, which treats purchases in a new way. It provides more opportunities for purchases from local producers. There are attempts to shield unscrupulous suppliers, who have nothing but a pen, when they cut prices sharply and so on. Let's see how this law will work now. This is the first.

And secondly, we have a whole section in our law on the Far East, which directly orients us that Far Eastern enterprises should receive priority in public procurement. Of course, I will tell you directly that the Federal and Anti-Monopoly Service and the Price Committee are protesting against this ... Nevertheless, we will decide.

- How do you feel about the situation in the Crimea, where at the moment they are investing heavily? Everyone has concerns, will other regions be affected in this regard?

- The government has decided to act in relation to the Crimea in economic terms in approximately the same vein in which we are working on the Far East. They want to create a special economic zone there. By this, the Government wants to ensure that most of the projects that can be implemented in the Crimea are connected with agriculture, with tourism, and with the help of private capital. As we talk about the Far East, they also talk about the Crimea: it is necessary to create such conditions there that the capital would go there without thinking that it is profitable and so on. This will remove the burden from public funds, the budget, if all this succeeds. You will say: where to get capital and so on. But look, what was the outflow of capital from Russia for all these years? Yes, of course, there were foreign investors, foreigners bought our shares - the so-called. speculative capital, but they will come and go. The lion’s share is the profit earned by our companies. These capitals are there, they must be returned to the country and sent in streams for the development of the country. This, of course, is not an administrative way, but the creation of conditions. Government investments will also be required - this is understandable. It is necessary to make a bridge across the Kerch Strait, it is necessary to tighten the infrastructure, which, unfortunately, was destroyed during the time when Crimea was part of Ukraine.

Our specialists who work there say that there is a lot of work on infrastructure in the Crimea, on power plants - there is not enough electricity. Gasification of settlements. There is a gas there, but its extraction still needs to be organized. On the construction of roads, on the restoration of large objects that may be of national importance - such as “Artek” and so on. It seems that we have reserves, they are growing, so I do not think that this will affect the problems of the Far East painfully.

Published in the newspaper "Your Right"

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