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"The shot can not be single"
EastRussia talked with senator from Magadan Anatoly Shirokov
Member of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation from the Magadan Region Anatoly Shirokov - about how not to be mistaken in the choice of investment projects and to make "Sunny Magadan".
- Anatoly Ivanovich, in 2014, the Magadan region achieved the adoption of a bill extending the operation of the special economic zone (SEZ) to 2025. At the same time, its borders have not been extended to the whole region, but remained as before in the city of Magadan. What does this lead to in practice?
- The question of the boundaries of the special economic zone in Magadan has yet to work. If we turn to the text of the law, the boundaries of the SEZ are not extended. This is a serious inconvenience. For example, imported products that enter the territory of the Magadan region in Magadan can be sold at a price that takes into account the privilege of a special economic zone. But outside of this zone, they have a completely different cost. And this is perhaps the most insignificant example. And what to do with imported heavy mining equipment, which is extremely needed in the mines and mines of the territory? The list of such questions can be multiplied for a long time. But I think that the energy of the development process of legislation on the Magadan Special Economic Zone, which is attached to this project by Governor Vladimir Petrovich Pecheny and the regional government, will allow solving this problem as well.
For the territory of the Magadan region, a special economic zone is of great importance. Until now, the resources that came from the SEZ have been used to provide social projects in the area and to address issues of infrastructure, construction, and energy. This was facilitated by special customs and tax regimes of the special economic zone. Today, the law on the SEZ in the Magadan Region extends it to 2025, but now it is necessary to amend the Tax Code in order to earn tax preferences for the zone's participants again. Today the territory needs an investor very much, who will come, invest their money, and deposits will start to be developed, roads will be built, etc. In this sense, the importance of this mechanism can not be minimized at all, it is a very important thing that allows the region to develop. And of course, both for the government and for industrialists who work or can only come to the region, it is important that the scope of the special economic zone be extended to the whole territory of the region.
- Special economic zone, territory of advanced socio-economic development (TOSED), public-private partnership, etc. - These are separate mechanisms, which in essence have the same goal: attracting investments. What promising areas for the development of the territory could you single out in the Magadan region?
- You are absolutely right that these are different ways of solving the most important problem - attracting investments, but not only for the Magadan Region, but for the entire Far East in general. As for our territory, along with the existing special economic zone, the project of the territory of advanced development closest to implementation is connected with Omsukchan coals. The project is very interesting, because the quality of the anthracite, which lies there, is the highest. And its reserves under 100 million tons for open production are also impressive. Interest in this fuel is high among our partners in the Asia-Pacific region (South and North Korea, China, Vietnam, Japan). In addition, there is a very short transport shoulder - along the Sea of Okhotsk and then descend south along the meridian, so that the product can reach its consumer. There is not that long transport shoulder, which goes, say, on the territory of Russia from the Kuzbass coal deposits.
Moreover, this project is capable of giving the budget 20-57 million dollars in income tax per year, 5 million dollars in mineral extraction tax and up to 45 million dollars in other taxes a year. He will also load the construction industry of the region, catalyze the development of mining in the region, and will contribute to the construction of the federal highway Kolyma-Omsukchan-Omolon-Anadyr. Such a multiplicative effect, as they say now!
The problem is that this is an area where practically no one lives. And the first task that needs to be solved (which, by the way, rests on the development of many projects not only in the Magadan Region, but also in the Far East as a whole) is the lack of infrastructure. Roads, transport - a key link in this case, given the distance. ZAO Northeastern Coal Company gradually begins to invest in the development of the Omsukchan Tor. Polymetal also showed interest as a co-investor in the project, as the gold deposit is located nearby, for which the company received a license. However, developing a field is not enough. The produced goods, in this case coal, must be taken out to the consumer. For this purpose, the old road, which operated until the 1990-s, will be used and will soon be used. It appeared when the Omsukchansky Mining Plant was first established, then the Dalstroi Omsukchan Mining Administration. The road ran from the Omsukchan district to the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, to Pestra Dresva Bay, where there was a small port point. Now, on the remains of this road, a new road can be built and a new port created for transshipment of coal in the Pestraya Dresva bay.
In mid-April, a meeting of the competition commission was held at the Ministry for the Development of the Far East. Omsukchan TOR got into the plan for 2018 year. At the moment, it is necessary to bring the design documentation to mind, so that in a couple of years this TOR will work. There is a delay in time, but the project is such that it is impossible to make a mistake. The shot can not be idle, so caution still seems justified.
Is it profitable? Of course and certainly! The deposit is developing, jobs are being created, taxes are being paid to the local and federal budgets, the economic life is intensifying here in this piece of the Magadan Region, which has not yet been included in the economy. It will revive this region - it will become easier with the road project, which will go to Chukotka through Omsukchan and Omolon.
- Is there any progress in the construction of this road linking the Magadan Region and Anadyr today? And in the construction of an energy line in this direction?
- This year, the construction of the road has already begun. Colossal project! I would compare it, probably, with the construction of BAM. And this road is needed very much! Between the Magadan region and Chukotka, the automobile communication is carried out only in winter on winter roads, the rest of the time it simply does not exist. Not to mention that the flight from Magadan to Anadyr is real only through Moscow or Khabarovsk. The transport interconnection between the two regions that were once one subject of the country (Chukotka was part of the Magadan Region) is necessary.
If we talk about energy, we must start off again from the interests of the mining industry - the basic branch of the economy of the region. Projects of the mining industry on the Kolyma are energy-intensive. Ahead is the realization of the most ambitious project for the development of the mining industry of the Northeast of Russia - the development of the Yano-Kolyma gold province, which is located on the territory of two entities - Kolyma and Yakutia. Turning it into reality is simply impossible without the active construction of generating and transmitting capacities of the electric power industry.
Today in the region, of course, we have an overabundance of energy. People ask: there is the Kolyma HPP, where one of the four units operates, why build another Ust-Srednekanskaya HPP? But if we do not build the Ust-Srednekanskaya HPP now, then, say, Natalka will go into operation, and everything will not have energy. Therefore, in the long term, all energy will be in demand, and this prospect is not very distant, in three or four years there will already be large consumers.
In addition, another problem for the Magadan energy system is isolation. While inside the territory we do not have large consumers, but they are in Chukotka, in Yakutia. Hence the task was to link the power system of the Magadan Region with the energy systems of neighboring regions. And then the idea arose to create an energy ring, which would include the Khabarovsk Territory, Yakutia, Magadan Oblast, Chukotka and Kamchatka, so that electricity would be transferred to end users in this system. This will give a serious impetus to the development of, for example, the mining industry in these regions, create new jobs, facilitate the receipt of taxes in budgets of all levels and help overcome the situation that causes quite high tariffs for electricity. Today there are no consumers, and therefore the tariffs are high. As soon as large consumers appear, the tariff will decrease for both enterprises and the population.
- The situation with the company "Polyus Gold" affected the economy of the Magadan region and in general the reputation of the region? The news that Natalka was not launched at the end of last year was literally a "thunder from the blue".
- To be honest, in Magadan, many were influenced by Natalka's charm. And they were waiting for the introduction of this field into operation. Including the financial considerations associated with the formation of the regional budget. The budget of the Magadan region, like any Far Eastern or northern region, is socially overloaded. That is, the means that could be directed to the development of the region's economy and production are invested, for example, in compensation of public spending on housing and communal services, etc. Therefore, the increase in the revenue side of the budget, related to the activities of Natalka, was very much expected. But as a result, unfortunately, the hole in the budget was knocked out very powerful. Now the activities of both the government of Russia and the governor are aimed at making this facility work, especially since Polyus Gold has invested enormous money in it.
- Investors are not afraid?
- The field is actually large. Not so long ago Yury Petrovich Trutnev (Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Plenipotentiary of the President in the Far Eastern Federal District - comment of the author) held a meeting in Magadan, including on Natalka. According to the results, Polyus Gold was asked (and strongly) to do the following: to finalize the project as soon as possible in order to start work in the 2016 year — once; two - to fix in these changes in the project that the volume of production will be measured not in millions of processed tons of ore, but in a specific amount of gold (this will be included in the technical plan and, accordingly, in the license). Meanwhile, Natalka does not cease to be a unique gold deposit. And soon this negative strip will pass.
- Do energetics slacken because of Natalka? For example, at the completion of the construction of the line "Orotukan - Palatka - Central" did not allocate funding. Is it somehow related?
- From the federal budget in 2015, money was not allocated for this line and for the line that connects the villages of Ust-Omchug and Omchak. The latter goes directly to "Natalka" and to the "Pavlik" deposit. When "Natalka" goes into operation, there will immediately be a shortage of electricity. Pilot operation of "Pavlik" (it's nearby) has begun, and they are already short of energy resources. Therefore, the transmitting power must be built. And this is a very serious issue.
- Did foreign investors leave the region?
"On the contrary, I would like to say that the Chinese business is of traditional interest to us, and it is in the mining industry. Businessmen of South Korea are interested in deposits of antimony. However, business does not want to bear the costs of infrastructure. If, as in the TOR project, the state creates infrastructure components, and business is invested in production, then on these conditions, of course, investors are profitable and interesting.
- What other interesting investment projects can be implemented in the near and medium term in the region?
- For example, the project "Sunny Magadan" is interesting. Almost within the city limits there is a place that can be turned into a unique tourist-sports complex. You can build and ski slopes, and helipads, and the hotel, along with small restaurants. In the Magadan region, snow is very long - you can skate almost until June. And if to support technologically, even more longly. But again, the project rests on infrastructure components: a tourist is not enough to invite, he needs to provide a certain set of familiar conveniences. Unfortunately, while the Magadan region fully does not have this. But the project of construction of a four-star hotel in the city of Magadan has already been laid, which will allow this situation to be gradually leveled.
As for strategic investment projects, we must first of all say that the territory of the region is divided into zones of economic development. In each of them there is a project that can become a highlight and pull all the others behind it. Well, for example, a metallurgical plant. There are iron ore reserves, but to start processing ore, it is necessary to make infrastructure investments - to build the same road.
As soon as these things appear, the region will simply not be recognized. Remember, until the middle of the XIX century Siberia was a bearish corner. And there was a lot of everything: bread was grown, and copper and silver were mined. Why it was not commodity? Because there was no railway. As soon as the Trans-Siberian railway was built, all the resources of Siberia received a tremendous impetus for development. And when people ate Altai oil somewhere in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century, nobody was surprised, because the transport component was established.
"And when will the roads appear?"
- By rail the prospect is built up to 2030 year, the road to Chukotka is also up to 2030 year.
- What are the priority social problems in the region that need to be addressed?
- The root of all social problems of the Magadan region lies (here again, the language about it can be erased) in the weak development of infrastructure. Why is the number of villages reduced? Because people are moving to larger centers. There is migration inside the region: from the districts to the district centers, from the district centers to the city of Magadan, from Magadan to the central regions of the country or to more developed regions of Siberia and the Far East.
The big problem is to keep young people in the region. I recently complained in one of the conversations that the USE, like a vacuum cleaner, draws the most talented children from the regions, and they will not return. If a graduate graduates from a university in St. Petersburg, he will not return to Magadan and, especially, to the village of Yagodnoye. There is no one here that makes our life truly modern - roads, communication services, affordable Internet, cultural recreation opportunities, leisure, communication, etc.
We do not have enough doctors. Although recently there was a noticeable "trickle". The doctors are coming to work for us, because economically attractive conditions are created - housing, wages, benefits, etc. But doctors still do not have enough, because the living conditions are severe.
- That those wishing to move to Magadan promised to allocate not one but five hectares of land, somehow changed the situation?
"Five hectares is good, but it's essentially an attempt to apply the same incentives that Stolypin at the beginning of the XXth century undertook." Then in Central Russia there was agrarian overpopulation, and beyond the Urals, in Siberia and the Far East, there are many lands, but there are few people. Therefore, the state gave the peasant land in sufficient quantities to maintain a commodity economy, paid for the whole family's travel with household belongings, issued serious lifting, exempted from taxes for three years, etc. That is, the earth was, as it were, the core of the whole project, but not the only condition. The project proposed today is extremely important, very relevant, but it needs further development. Here we take in the taiga five hectares, and what? There is no infrastructure.
- You said about the outflow of youth from the region. Meanwhile, you have long been the rector of the North-Eastern State University (SVGU). What specialties are popular? Are there graduates of the university in the region?
- Here we must think and talk primarily about the needs of the area. Does the university fully meet the needs of the region? Not. This is reality. Although the school operates within the resources that it has. The most important thing on which the attention of the university is now concentrated is the development of engineering specialties. What are the benefits of a university training miners in the Magadan region? The guys here have grown, they know the region, they are ready to get a good education and stay to work. Right? In fact, for this to happen, you need funding. We need a modern laboratory and methodological base. There are no questions with practice, but the level of preparation should be high.
I will not hide, there are difficulties with the teaching staff, because in the mining industry earnings are seriously higher than in higher education institutions, so talented guys who could stay, defend the thesis and train future engineers, go on production. And in this sense, again, the issue is limited by financing. Due to the existing budgetary (even federal) funding it is impossible to do this, it allows to survive, but it does not contribute much to development. Extrabudgetary does not bring such real incomes, which would allow solving large-scale tasks for the university. The solvency of the region's population is not very high. Megabogaty Magadans - in fact, a myth.
Nevertheless, we can say that a lot of our graduates work in the region. They are teachers, miners, auto engineers, builders, economists, lawyers and many others.
- Are there any innovative developments at the university?
- Today, for example, in our Polytechnic Institute of the St. Petersburg State University, a modern electronic map of earthquakes, already happened and potential, which may occur in the Magadan region, is being developed. Or, again I will give an example, we have participated for the third year (we speak out of habit) in the federal program of the federal “Decision of cases in the field of mining”. Recently, a competition of youth innovation projects was held across the region: 30 projects received support, of which 24 are students of the SSU.
- For example?
- Creation of a farm for growing rabbits in Magadan. Therefore, our students are already ready to create small businesses. It is precisely this, practically oriented view of the problems that he engenders in the university. But the university, as a regional university, from the activities and simply availability of which in the region depends on the social health of the territory, needs the support of the federal center.
- If we talk about small and medium business in general, then this is the main segment of the economy of almost any region. How do entrepreneurs in the Magadan Region support entrepreneurs?
- Small and medium-sized businesses are developing. But, of course, like throughout the country, he has the same problems, only they are exacerbated by the northern specifics - remoteness, complexity of transport logistics, etc. Take, for example, the obligation of the entrepreneur to pay the employee and his family on vacation once every two years, and multiply this duty on the operating air tariffs ... The heaviest burden on any business! And we pay for it, consumers, because these entrepreneurial investments are invested in the price of their product. Hence, its final product also competitiveness begins to lose .....
Nevertheless, in our region, in addition to the service sector, enterprises in agriculture are successfully developing - growing potatoes, cabbage, and meat and dairy production.
- Why do not we see Magadan fish on the shelves?
- It's a big question. In Magadan, there are not too many of her in stores. But this is a global issue, which is very, very slowly solved. I think, first of all, here is the imperfection of our legislation regulating fisheries. An extremely multifaceted problem! There is a second reason: fish, that is, but as in the saying "overseas, a heifer, a half-bag, and a ruble transportation." Russia catches a huge number of valuable fish species, but to the population of the central regions of the country this fish comes in very small quantities. All this is connected with the infrastructure - transport, road, transportation.
At the level of some territories of the Far East, laws have been passed that the fishermen purposefully direct part of the catch for sale to the localities of their regions. There is such a norm in the Magadan region. It emerged as an implementation of the urgent demand of the governor - Vladimir Petrovich Pechenogo.
- How do you see the role of the Magadan Region in Russia's strategy of "turning to the East"?
- The East is also heterogeneous. If we have an east associated with the direction of Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, then the Magadan region is unlikely to play a leading role due to its geographical location. But if we start talking about such things as, for example, creating a single transport corridor between the American continent and the Eurasian ... The project, by the way, was first developed in 1905. And Dalstroi (Dalstroy - the state trust for road and industrial construction in the Upper Kolyma area - a specialized state institute that implemented the development of the North-East of the USSR in 1930-1950-X - author's note) began work on the construction of the road to Chukotka in order to then go through a tunnel under the Bering Strait into the territory of the United States. But the war began - and the idea was abandoned. If we talk about this, the value of the Magadan region is great. As a matter of fact, only Magadan can be a base for building such a railway, and a highway to Chukotka: consumables, etc. it will be easier to deliver by sea, the port of Magadan is the closest, and it works all year round.
When these infrastructural projects begin to be implemented, accordingly, the mineral-raw material wealth will also go into circulation. This will contribute to the growth of Russia's gross domestic product, will give impetus to the development of the Far East and strengthen the interconnection, economic, primarily with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR).
- Are tourist connections with the eastern neighbors surely already established? How do you assess the tourist potential of the Magadan Region? What kind of tourists do you expect this summer season - Russian or foreign? And which places are still popular in the region? How are things going with the development, for example, of the resort "Talaya"? Routes to the lake of Jack London?
- For tourism, the Magadan region has everything except infrastructure. We are able to receive somewhere up to 14 thousand tourists. At the same time they come to us from abroad, even from Brazil. But in fact we take a thousand a year. What is the reason? Well, first, I repeat, the tourist, especially a foreigner, is spoiled by the service. Secondly, the complexity of logistics. Thirdly, it is expensive: the cost of a ticket from Moscow round-trip comes to 1 thousand dollars - it turns out that it is cheaper to fly to New York.
What is being done in the region to promote "home" recreation? Resort "Talaya" works with 1940-ies - dirt and water are better than in Matsesta, as doctors say. Today there is a serious repair in all buildings of the resort - you can already relax with comfort. But you need to offer services level higher, corresponding to the level of four, five stars, so that a foreigner will go. Therefore, while "Talaya" remains all the same an internal resting place. Although the activities of the Magadan region, the administration, the governor personally in the development of Taloy, are so active that it simply amazes. The resort has unique balneological mud, procedures, salt room. Magadans come here on vacation. In the summer, "Talai" is used as a place for children's recreation.
- How can I get to Lake London London?
- I tell you: almost 520 km along the road from Magadan, plus 60 km more. Overcoming this short section is not easy - the road is of very poor quality - you need to make very serious investments in it in order to get to this beautiful place (unfortunately, and I only saw it in the photos). Nearby is the Lake of dancing graylings. The grayling, when spawning, flies out of the water and begins to dance like on its tail. This is an unmatched spectacle. But without the "Ural" and other heavy equipment can not do.
- And for you Magadan region what does it mean?
- I was born in Novosibirsk, studied in Tomsk, which I love and love my alma mater - Tomsk University. Then he moved to Magadan. And now I don’t know ... When they ask me in Magadan who I am, I answer: “I am a Siberian,” and when they ask me in Siberia, I say that it’s Magadan. Although with age I began to relate to Siberia with some particular trepidation. I even have Shukshin emotions waking up, when I roam past the birch trees, when you listen to songs, who sing (they still sing) ... But in my heart I am no longer a Siberian, but a Magadan.