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"Everything is sparkling in the Second Five-Year Plan"
Yuri Chaika on investments in the Far East on the example of the Khabarovsk Territory
The legislation alone is not enough to fully fund the support of investors in the Far East. What directives should the government give to the state corporations so that investors more actively go to the Komsomolsk TOP, why expand the borders of the TOP and the Freeport and why should the Far East have a special approach, EastRussia explains the first deputy prime minister of the Khabarovsk Krai for investment and priority projects Yuri Chaika.
- Residents are gradually added, albeit not as active as in the "first wave." 25 companies already have the status of a resident. The main, most full-fledged TOP is, of course, Khabarovsk and its part in the form of the industrial park Avangard, which is provided with all infrastructure. That industrial park is almost full - at 90%. There are the largest number of residents who started working and producing products. This is understandable, it was a brownfield. Those parts of the two tops, where greenfield, "clean field" - of course, there only infrastructure is designed.
"But is something moving there too?"
- A water supply and sewerage system is being designed on the site in the Rakit TOR Khabarovsk. Only recently was approved the project of planning the territory, it gave us an opportunity to design the infrastructure. And to the residents this document gave the right to take plots and start designing their facilities. There are residents who already work. The missile is filled with 50%. Those who are interested in the TOR "Khabarovsk", and in "Komsomolsk" still have.
- So the boundaries of TOP are expanding?
- Indeed, in December we received an agreement on the creation of the TIC "Nikolayevsk" and the expansion of "Komsomolsk" to the ski resort "Kholdomi" and the agro-industrial cluster. There are real projects. In the agrocluster - two production facilities are being modernized, a new meat processing plant will be built. This resident wanted to come to "Sail", but around its production it is necessary to create large sanitary zones. Therefore, we decided to divide food production, and leave high technology on the "Sail". In the "Hold" need a system of artificial snow making, hotels. This is a good base, including for the preparation of the Olympic team.
- How many TOPs in the region have potential residents?
- Order 30. The approach to residency is simple - the investor's full right to assume all risks, including financing, and the maximum loyalty regime. The same goes for the Free Port. But the TOP is still a more rigid approach: an infrastructure is being built for the investor, and he must understand this.
- Are there projects that failed? For example, the group of companies "Energia" - nothing was heard of them, but were among the first in "Komsomolsk"?
- I communicate with them all the time. The company coordinates the price parameters of the contract with the supplier. In fact, only the scheme of interaction of companies that outsource with large players, state corporations, and those used to live by their own rules is built. Now their internal program of localization prompts to do so that some of the production produced by someone else. And we are in the manual mode, these points work out. "Energy" is important for long-term contracts.
- A state guarantee for the project from the government of the province - still relevant inquiry or not?
-We have our budget limitations. Unfortunately, the subjects of the Far East are such - we do not have a surplus to get guarantees, increase spending obligations, especially since any guarantee is in itself paid. And we want to work with investors who will not ask for guarantees. For us, the investor is one who either has financial resources, or is able to extract them independently. You can not return to this story. But the need for long-term contracts has remained, and not only with Energia.
- Have new players appeared?
- There was a comprehensive plan for the development of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, and part of it - activities aimed at localizing the production of the United Aircraft Corporation. The project of localization is qualitative enough: man-hours, volumes are prescribed. ТОР "Komsomolsk" will work, if all this turns out. Weakness is the absence of a mechanism that would allow for long-term contracts with residents of the TOP, direct contracts. The first project, implying changes to the federal legislation prepared by the Ministry of the Interior and approved by the JAB, did not agree on the economic block: they considered that this was not a market mechanism - to exclude the residents of the TOP from the competition procedures. Now there is a second wave of coordination of directives - instructions of the government of the Russian Federation to state corporations. We will still find a way out, because for residents of the TOP, aimed at interacting with state corporations, long-term contracts, exemption from annual competitions with an incomprehensible result is salvation.
- Is this kind of risk - not an integral part of the business?
- We need a guarantee that the investment will be returned. Win or not win is the biggest risk. Those who are already doing something in the market are ready to win without investing anything. But this will not allow them to build a new plant. Repulse your investments is the main condition for the start of new high-tech investment-intensive projects. Long term is determined by the financial and economic model of the project. Our position is to give investment back, to realize the main goal. In the TOP mode, it would be possible to find a mechanism for negotiating a long-term contract, for example, by an ABT supervisory board.
- And this is the only thing that prevents people from being filled with residents of the Komsomolsk TOP?
- There is still a problem of lack of production facilities. Here we went on the road that turned out to be successful for Khabarovsk Krai - the way of industrial parks. The same investor, as in the "Vanguard", created there a legal entity - "Industrial Park" Parus ", comes to the site on the site" Parus ". The basic ideology is to build production facilities. He will build, and we will help financially, organizationally, so that all this will take place.
- Residents of TOR more. Do you already consider budget returns?
- We consider the effectiveness of the TOP on the basis of business plans. In fact, all the promised taxes were recorded. It is clear that for the first few years, the TOPs have practically no budgetary effectiveness, will be closed "to zero", and even give a load to the federal budget - to compensate for the falling income of insurance funds. This is the cost, even if we do not build the infrastructure. Of course, we need to achieve the efficiency that would allow these costs to be covered. We are sure that the TOP is an effective mechanism. But it is clear that it "flashes" only in the second five-year plan. Residents will pay half of taxes, jobs will appear, the market will become clear.
- Did anyone calculate the approximate benefit for the investor from TOR?
- We started the average performance of projects, not the biggest. VAT resident then pays, then he reimbursed, and we did not take it into account. It is clear that taxes depend on each other: as soon as the property tax is paid, the taxable base decreases, the profit decreases. There are many interdependent articles. However, with the cost of the investment project in 2 billion rubles. at least 1 billion rubles. will be registered as fixed assets. This will give the basis for property tax - 2,2%, or 22 million. Profit takes at least 10% of investment per year. And so it is possible to calculate that the investor saves somewhere 60-70% on taxes, and this may be 20% savings on investment.
- Is the Freeport regime different in terms of benefits?
- For taxes, a little yes, since in the TOP the property tax in Khabarovsk Krai is higher for the second five years, and for the Free Port - only 0,5%. The land tax in SPV is also zeroed for five years, in the TOP - for three years. But if an investor needs infrastructure, it's more profitable, of course, THOR: you save a lot on pipes, electricity and everything else. Difficult to compare. In my opinion, the TOP is more profitable, but it is more local. Free port, if, as we expect, after the spring session of the State Duma and amendments to the law, both Khabarovsk and the Sovgavan municipal district will be included in it, as there is no looking back on any borders.
- Khabarovsk airport will enter Khabarovsky Krai free port?
- Yes. Why is Khabarovsk so important for us, because the airport is an 8-day visa-free regime, it's tourism. The city immediately becomes more interesting for tourists. In the case of Sovetskaya Gavan, we call neighboring territories, which actually do not have a border - in Vanino the SPV regime has been in effect since last summer. Evaluation of the effect of the Free Port is already there - waiting for the order of 200 billion rubles. Investment. Three projects, which are now registered, are more than 50 billion rubles. Investments, large projects, and they, believe me, do a very great job. Millions of tons of soil are passing, roads are being built. They need help. It will be very cool if it all shoots and earns. The investments will be discarded in five years.
- It turns out that while there are no problems at the federal level, in addition to the FAS position on the issue of long-term contracts for residents of the TOP,
- The problems really are basically normative. One of them - we ask to zero the import duties on sugar cane for the sugar factory project for $ 200 million, which is ready to build Thai Sutech Engineering. But so far and could not convince the Ministry of Agriculture. The position is as follows: we have a single customs area. If it is impossible to correct the customs legislation, how to improve the project and the point of view of payback? There is an order from Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Trutnev to develop support measures for sugar producers in the Far East, but it has not yet been implemented.
This is a general approach of the economic bloc of the government - one cannot give preference to one and thus violate the market rule. Our approach is different.
- Is the Far East special?
- It is special not because here some people live special. And because the conditions are radically different. There are no such territories in the world, although Canada and Australia are somewhat similar. But it is just such a combination of the size and the neighborhood of the state with a billion population - there is nowhere else. It is clear that for the development of the potential of the Far East, in order to use this competitive advantage, we need people to live here, and investments to come. Otherwise it will not work.