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The wars for the local ruble
Heads of rural settlements of Khabarovsk Krai have raised the issue of redistribution of powers
The draft laws on the repeal of the law of the Khabarovsk Territory from 26.11.2014 year No. 16 "On the fixing of local issues for local settlements" brought in the legislative Duma as early as 2017 the assembly of deputies of three settlements at once: Michurinsky and Elabuzhsky Khabarovsk region and Sophiysk settlement of Verkhnebureinsky district. All three projects consisted of the same two articles: the first was to recognize the law on the redistribution of powers between municipalities of different levels, and the second was to extend this rule to legal relations arising from 1 January 2018.
Given that the meeting of the Duma, which reviewed the projects, was held 31 January 2018 year, there were no chances for adopting changes in the formulations proposed by the settlements. In addition, on the eve of the Duma's special committee recommended to reject the draft laws, and in October 2017 in conclusion for three projects, Khabarovsk governor Vyacheslav Shport called their adoption impractical, stressing that not all settlements of the Khabarovsk Territory support such an initiative. Nevertheless, although the fight appeared to have been lost even before its beginning, two heads of settlements came out to represent the bills to the regional deputies: Alexander Shadrin, the head of Michurinsky, and Elena Zalata, the head of Yelabuga.
CREDENTIALS WITHOUT FUNDS
Local administrations are unhappy, Mr. Shadrin explained, that the powers assigned to the conduct of rural settlements in accordance with the 131-FZ were added from the year 2015, and the financing of their implementation was reduced. The redistribution took place within the framework of the general LSG reform. First, from 39 powers of local importance, the federal legislator left the villages 13 powers, without changing the standards for allocating taxes and fees to their budgets. Then the regional parliamentarians decided to adopt the regional law No. 16, redistributing to the level of settlements another 12 powers - to maintain a balance.
But just two days later the federal legislator adopted amendments to the Budget Code, reducing the norms of allocations to the budgets of villages in favor of the budgets of the districts - on the basis that the rural settlements will have 13 powers, and not 25. Settlements, said Alexander Shadrin, "previously repeatedly suggested" to transfer the powers back to the regions, since the financing remained with them. To fulfill the "disputed" powers of the settlement would continue - but already under agreements with their district authorities, provided co-financing from the district budgets is provided. And when the opinion of rural administrations could not be defended at various working groups and meetings, some of them decided to initiate amendments to the legislation.
"In October 2016, the heads of settlements of the Khabarovsk Territory in the amount of 66 people (one third of the number of rural settlements in the region .- EastRussia) signed a resolution on the termination of the 16-th regional law due to the fact that the powers are not financially secured, and the issue of ensuring "Alexander Shadrin told parliamentarians:" In December 2016, the consolidated response of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Khabarovsk Territory was received. "I will quote:" The financial support for the powers delegated to the rural settlements of the province by law No. 16 is taken into account by the authority local government in municipal districts when forming interbudgetary relations with settlements. "In 2017, the Krai government carried out work on the analysis of what means are needed to fulfill the powers transferred by the 16 law, only one third of the settlements answered, talked, and everything went on as usual. "
Rural settlements, said the head of Michurinsky, maybe, and would not have made the bill, were it not for the "unprecedented pressure of the inspection bodies." "50% of the time we work out the requests of the district and regional structures, 50% - the prosecutor's office and the inspectors." When we do our duties, the prosecutor's office and control bodies have nothing to reproach - they work under the letter of the law, in many matters help settlements understand, make the right decision The next reason is the decisions of the courts, which in financial terms from the point of view of their execution can exceed the budgets of the settlements several times, nobody cares about it. m to large families, - tens of millions of rubles, to provide living quarters for those in need of better housing conditions - tens of millions. "With budgets 10-15 million, or even less," he complained.
Now the district prosecutor's office, the head of Michurinsky continued, issued a suit demanding that the administration of settlements create municipal enterprises for the organization of funeral services, "but there are no funds for this in the budgets of the settlements." "And the next step will be the demand to bring the graveyards to the proper kind - millions of rubles are required for this, but they are not there, but there is a responsibility," he added.
Thus, Alexander Shadrin summed up, there was a paradoxical situation. Many settlements under agreements are forced to transfer the execution of their level authorities to the districts, as the profile ministries of the region refuse to work directly with each settlement. This happened, for example, with the authority for road safety in the Khabarovsk region. And settlements under agreements are obliged to allocate co-financing. At the same time, there is a special regional law on the transfer of part of the authority to the level of settlements - without their co-financing.
MEANS FOR AUTHORITY
In 2015, 10% to 2% of allocations to the budgets of rural settlements for personal income tax decreased from 50% to 0% - deductions of income for renting or selling of unrestricted state-owned land. According to these sources, budget revenues, for example, Michurinsky rural settlements have decreased from 7,8 million rubles. up to 521 thousand rubles in 2016-m, the drop-out income in 2017 amounted to 8,48 million rubles. But the district has so far provided transfers only for 3,17 million rubles. In general, in the Khabarovsk region, it follows from the calculations of Alexander Shadrin, the falling income of settlements in 2017 exceeded 166,5 million rubles, and the district budget allocated only 56,86 million rubles to them. - or only 34,1% of the needs. Elabuga settlement district allocated 1,2 million rubles. subsidies for the fulfillment of the powers provided for by the 16-th regional law, with a total settlement budget of 13,6 million rubles.
"We heard on the committee of assurances that the Ministry of Finance of the region together with the regions until the end of 2017 year will work on the preparation of some unified methodology for the redistribution of funds, as I understand, there is no methodology, and we will wait for it, probably for a long time," - said Alexander Shadrin. He stressed that the region and the country are entering a "big pre-election period": 18 March will be the presidential election, in September this year - a series of campaigns, including the election of the governor of the Khabarovsk Territory. "How are we going to get ready to go to the polls, how can I look people in the eyes, if you live with them in the same street, in the same village?" It's not so easy for me, maybe the regional deputies are simply in this regard, "said the head .
The head of the Elabuga rural settlement, Elena Zalata, supplemented her colleague's speech with a few concrete examples. "Item 5 - road activities and road safety This is the most costly item of the cost of settlements after the culture.We have 40 km of local roads, of which only 2% have asphalt covering.For eight years I have been submitting documents for participation in the regional program - for overhauling 2 km of access road to Yelabuga Every year I get a refusal And if a district road service structure is created And is our road included in the regional program Maybe we will have a chance to get to our native village but on an asphalted road instead of a dusty road After each snowfall, the villages are cleaned according to the residual principle, and if the region had its own road service, then a different view would be quite different, "said Elena Zalata.
Similarly, she continued, the settlements can not solve the problems of providing housing to the needy ("We have 12 people in the queue, but 30 has not built a house in the village, and we can not enter into one program - co-financing is not under force"), prevention and ("There must be inventories of equipment and materials, but they are created only on paper, and reserves must be created in a businesslike manner in the neighborhood"), organization of funeral services ("We have three public cemeteries, they have inventoryed, two landscaped, but on 1 February we have a summons to the court on the suit okuratury area - the creation of a specialized service funeral services, and our arguments that 8-10 graves are not accepted in a year "). "And if this ritual service was created in the area - it could solve the problems of all settlements," - said Elena Zalata. "By accepting our bill, you will give us the opportunity to work for the benefit of people, and not justify themselves in courts." I have spent three out of five working days to visit ships. For three years we have not seen the promised methodology for calculating budgetary funds for additional powers, there are no standards , so the law needs to either adjust or cancel, "she added.
To the heads of the bills that introduced the drafts of settlements, the Edinburgh deputies were blamed for one thing - the inability to negotiate. "It's not easy for both the deputies and the governor, I think the solution of the issues of regional importance is not easy, so let's more constructively solve the issues together," Sergei Sergo Lugovskoy, speaker of the Legislative Assembly, said to Alexander Shadrin. Vice Speaker of the Territorial Parliament Yuri Matveev said that "there are other ways than to reject Law No. 16."
"There is a district, there are chapters, they sat down with the district team, and they carefully looked at all their 12 additional powers, what could be, perhaps, additional agreements were concluded with the participation of the regional services, and they did it with peace. "he asked Alexander Shadrin. "We have to delegate areas to the districts with co-financing, and the districts say openly: we have enough problems, and we need to close the" holes "too, we are ready for dialogue, but a large number of heads say that the level of settlements can not be heard," Alexander replied. Shadrin.
The head of the LSU profile committee Tatyana Movchan, after taking the floor after the speakers, recalled that the regional deputies cared first of all about the population when passing the 16 law, transferring the powers closest to the population to the level of settlements - especially in remote and remote areas, which the regions can not manage. "The main problem is not in the impossibility or unwillingness to carry out these powers, but in the absence of sufficient budget resources." In October 2016, an interdepartmental commission was set up by the governor, which revealed a gap between the funds allocated and the required ones, and the working group decided that the Finance Ministry should To develop a methodology for interbudgetary relations between the settlement and the district According to the Krai Government, the project is in agreement and will be proposed for discussion in the near future, " Spozhiv Movchan. She also said that there are examples of solving problems on the implementation of the 16 law: for example, in the Komsomolsk district of the Krai "issues are mostly settled," and these positive practices will be disseminated.
Deputy Prime Minister of the Khabarovsk Krai Government on domestic policy Viktor Martsenko said that in the speeches of the heads "there are more emotions." "Yes, there is a theme, and the creation of a working group is proof that the work needs to be conducted," he admitted. "A number of municipal districts have quite successfully solved the problems of the implementation of the 16 law, and a number of them have begun to share power, there is no money, and we need a lot of money," said the deputy chairman. "Not everywhere heads of districts know how to negotiate with the heads of settlements, apparently, excessive ambitiousness ". The law can provide for the possibility of redistributing powers to the districts if they can not reach agreement with the settlements through agreements, he said, but only after a detailed analysis of the situation.
"And you know what I do not like most?" That the heads of settlements began to conduct not such public work - within the framework of the association of municipalities or the council of heads of municipal entities - but by calling methods, sometimes distorting the true state of affairs. you will relieve yourself of responsibility, but give it to the heads of the districts and the heads of the districts will not decide the issues of your settlement, "Victor Martsenko addressed the heads of the settlements. The Khabarovsk Krai Ministry of Finance has already developed a calculation methodology, and in February the draft document "will be submitted for discussion to the council of municipal entities" and the regional Duma, the official promised.
Initiative of rural settlements as a result was supported only by the Duma opposition. Elena Grezhnyakova from the LDPR drew attention to the fact that during the discussion of the issue on the committee "polar views" were quoted and it would be wrong to ignore and ignore the proposals of the heads of settlements, and Viktor Postnikov from the Communist Party said that "there is no peaceful solution to the question." "The district is in a privileged position, it is at the top of the pyramid of hierarchy, and it will dictate, and they will at least get rid of - they will not do anything!" The thought was sounded that the head would not go to solve local issues. Yes, he would not go to bury Mr. X. But he will decide the issues for all the settlements so that they can calmly do all this, "said the communist.
Vice Speaker Yury Matveyev spoke against the adoption of bills, but recalled that the village is home to 250 thousand people who "also want to feel comfortable," and one or two powers, it may be appropriate to return the areas. "Where do we build in the village? It's Topolevo, Mirnoe, Vostochnoe - the suburbs of Khabarovsk, where 94% .Where do we not build? I cite Sikachi-Alyan as an example." 30 more than a year did not introduce any square meter. 4 km from the village, but they can not start building a year and a half - there is no general layout of the village! And if it were in the area - probably, the general plan would have been, and the forest was distributed, and the construction began, "Yury Matveyev cited.
"I think the deputy corps is also interested in resolving the situation," said the speaker of the Duma, Sergei Lugovskoy, after which the bills of rural settlements were rejected by the majority of 23-24 votes from 31 who was present.
SETTLEMENTS ABOUT COSTS, AREAS - PROFIT INCOME
The head of the Khabarovsk region, where Michurinsky and Elabuzhskoye are located, Denis Udod agrees with the heads that the overall financial support for municipal authorities remains low. However, by simply redistributing powers, "shifting money from pocket to pocket" does not solve the problem, he is sure - "we have one pocket, it's common." "The question here is not whether it should go." Let's say that the authorities for execution in the district will go away - will the district have more money? The question should be put differently. "The security is low, because the tax system is built in this way. heads of settlements agree, "- says the head of the district.
According to him, today municipalities are asked for the investment climate, the creation of new enterprises, jobs that generate taxes. But the effect of this local budgets do not feel - the norms of deductions for personal income tax, the main municipal tax, all the time reduced. "The profit tax - we do not see it, the same with the tax on the extraction of common minerals - gravel, sand." Let's think, maybe some share of these taxes should be left in the municipality? But for the time being, it's impossible to influence the situation " , - Denis Udod says.
Settlements against this background, he believes, need not complain, but work on optimizing budgets. The authority of the settlements has already been gradually transferred to the level of the districts, the head of the district reminds: from 2016 from the first level of local self-government city planning powers left, with 2017 the questions on land and housing and communal services. "Today the settlements essentially have only culture and landscaping from the" financially heavy "powers," says the head of the district. "The main items of expenditure, if you take any budget is the maintenance of local self-government bodies, culture and roads, and then roads - not all : there are settlements that have a road fund, but they do not spend it.Take the budget of the same Elabuzhsky: from 13 million rubles of expenses 8,5 million rubles - the cost of maintaining the administration. Maybe this is first to understand. "
If we analyze intergovernmental relations in the Khabarovsk region, Denis Udod is sure, the picture will not be the worst in the province. "We have launched many co-financing programs for issues of local importance to the settlement level, for example, in a program for the sustainable development of rural areas, settlements can now enter directly - by applying to a regional agriculture ministry." We introduced co-financing practices from the district budget, and, in addition, -the estimated documentation so that they can enter the program.The capacious question is the road activity with respect to local roads located within the boundaries of settlements. We are able to get out of settlements, taking money from district programs, so we can negotiate: the question is deeper: in financial security, "Denis Udod sums up.