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How and where will the components for Russian aircraft manufacturing be produced?
About the import substitution in the aviation industry, the production of additive machines and parts for the "Sukhoi Superjet 100" - in an interview with EastRussia told the head of the group of companies "Energy" Sergey Guskov and a member of the board of directors of GC "Energy" Olga Prokofyeva.
- The group of companies "Energy" became the anchor investor of the TD "Komsomolsk" (Khabarovsk Territory). Sergey, please tell us more about your project.
Sergey Guskov: Our project in the Far East is the first project in Russia, which is aimed at creating a new, highly modern enterprise for mechanical processing and production of structural elements for aviation. In total, we will be able to produce 1600 types of various parts for the aircraft. "Sukhoi Superjet 100". In addition, the construction of the plant is one of the first examples of a long-term agreement with the state customer, in this case with PJSC "Company Sukhoi". A development mechanism was developed that allows for the conclusion of long-term contracts, taking into account the available demand, in exchange for investment. The estimated cost of the project 7,3 billion rubles (of which 2 billion rubles - own funds, 5,3 billion rubles - loan money).
- What was the basis for the idea of building an enterprise?
SG: In our opinion, the project is in demand today for several reasons. First, the need for import substitution in civil aviation. For example, for civil aircraft, all tires today are made outside our country. And this is dangerous. In an unforeseen political situation, we must be able to replace imports with our own domestic products. And to do this all at once is almost impossible.Our project is focused on machining. This is when a plate of aluminum or titanium is produced by a certain workpiece of various parts for the aircraft body. Now in civil aviation the order of 4-5 million working hours of production is given for imports - China, Korea, etc. That is, we supply our titanium there, and then we get the finished parts. In technical terms - it's like a skeleton: the spine and ribs. The plane is built on the same principle. At the same time, aluminum and titanium parts are made abroad from our raw materials.
Secondly, we now have devalued the ruble exchange rate, and it is expensive to place orders abroad. This pulls the high end price of the aircraft.
Thirdly, world aviation is developing with the widespread use of contractors at various levels. The largest aircraft factory in the world is the Boeing plant, around which more than 300 highly specialized contracting companies are located. They produce different parts - fasteners, chassis, spare parts, etc. Such an arrangement reduces costs, because all small companies are deprived of the main problem of civil aviation - high overhead costs. They are: a) specialized, b) competition arises between suppliers - and prices fall. Accordingly, a competitive price is created for the final product - the aircraft. According to this scheme, the two largest companies of world aviation - “Boeing” and “Airbus” work.
The Soviet model of aviation was inherited from Soviet times. It is the complete opposite of the world. We built giant factories, which did everything themselves. Aluminum and rubber are brought to them, but the plane is already leaving. In modern conditions, this leads to unnecessary costs - some areas are underloaded, some are overloaded. So, we see that "Sukhoi Superjet 100»Has the best consumer properties, but due to excessive centralization, its cost cannot be lower, which affects the level of global sales. Our future enterprise is the first major project on the way to a new industrial model.
- What conditions are necessary for your business?
SG: This is a long-term order, the implementation of which requires qualified personnel. We decided to place production in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, as it is a city of aircraft builders. Already there is an agreement on joint training of personnel, which will begin one year before the release of the first product - in 3-4-th quarters of 2016 year.
Olga Prokofieva: Plus, TOR "Komsomolsk" guarantees the elements of state support and privileges of the territory of priority development. Also, its intention to invest in the project was expressed by the Development Fund for the Far East. The main problem of the Russian industry is the lack of long-term lending and financing - many private enterprises are faced with this. The creation of territories of priority development in the Far East allows to overcome such difficulties. We work with large state-owned banks, and TOR mechanisms help to obtain or increase equity capital.
- What was the basis of competencies for such production, which you are now organizing? How do you plan to implement the project?
SG: The enterprises of GC Energia make pipes for aviation hydraulics - chassis systems and other precise products for aviation. From the point of view of machining, we have good experience. Our technical team from scratch was built in Moscow factory on small arms. Many foreign athletes use our products at competitions. Shooting products are pure machining, high-precision, with minimal tolerances. On this team, which has such a different experience, we base our competencies.
It is gratifying to see that now our main customer, the Sukhoi Company, is actively interacting with our engineering services, which help at the design stage, selecting equipment, developing control programs.
Now "Sukhoi Superjet-100"On 80% consists of imported parts, 20% is done inside Russia. With the beginning of your work will the ratio change?
SG: «Sukhoi Superjet-100"Originally planned as a product of international cooperation.
The main components - electronics, navigation systems - exist in Russia, but mostly for combat aircraft that do not require international certification. In order for the aircraft to be approved by all carriers, certification is needed, so the engines, for example,Sukhoi Superjet-100"- French.With the collapse of the Soviet Union, our planes were no longer allowed into European countries due to the fact that our engines are not only more powerful, but also more noisy. For example, "TU-134" flies between any Russian cities 10% faster than "Airbus" or "Boeing". But at the same time it is louder. This leads to the fact that a significant part of the components, 80%, we have to buy abroad. Basically, it's electronics and engines.
- And we will strive to do this electronics in Russia? Or we do not have such competencies?
SG: We have very good engine competencies in the country. I think that in this area of production Russia has a good prospect. We have a number of powerful factories: NPO Saturn in Rybinsk, Ufa Engine-Building Production Association (UMPO), capable of creating competitive products. The work model of foreign companies is aimed at the economic effect - so that the service life is as long as possible, and at the same time, there is a saving in fuel consumption. And we always had another task - to make the plane fly quickly and reliably. All the current aviation industry is based on Soviet developments. But now many innovative developments are being carried out and being implemented. The first aircraft created from scratch in civil aviation, - "Sukhoi Superjet-100". Next in line is Irkut MS-21 (Medium-Medium-sized Aircraft of the 21st Century).
- Do you have any cooperation with the manufacturers of Irkut MS-21?
SG: We have a format of mutual relations with the state customer double. On the one hand, our main customer is KNAAZ ("Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Plant named after Yu.A. Gagarin"), which produces parts for "Sukhoi Superjet-100". But, if the negative situation on their release develops, for example - the drop in sales, the agreement clause will come into force, guaranteeing the download under different programs, including "MS-21". The enterprise that we are creating is a universal factory, on which it is possible to produce parts of different applications - for aircraft building, shipbuilding. Even for the construction industry.
What is a big part of our machines? This is a computer and a large cabinet, where they make three-dimensional parts for different purposes. On modern machines there is no work with your hands, there is work with your head. This is the programmer’s task. He needs to consider how best to use the workpiece for the production of the greatest number of parts. There should be a lot of such factories in the country, because there is no one at old enterprises to work on universal equipment. And it is already impossible to produce products that are in demand on the market today.
- Are there similar plants in Russia?
SG: Not yet. At high prices for oil, these production were created inside any concerns, i.e. at aircraft manufacturing and defense enterprises have their own workshops, but their capacities are insufficient to cover the current needs of industrial production. Demand for machining in civil aviation, which goes for imports, is about 4-5 million working hours. We are not starting today, but in 2 years. Now there are several large programs - for "IL-76", it requires a huge amount of machining for the re-equipment of all civil aviation; On "MS-21" - medium-sized fuselage aircraft, which was very long waited; On "Dry SuperJet 100", which paves its way at the expense of new consumer properties. And, for a number of smaller aircraft. All this leads to the fact that demand will exceed supply, and such plants will necessarily appear somewhere else.
OP: I want to note that such a plant can easily be reoriented to another production: automotive, shipbuilding. The production is determined by the size of the machine. For such industrial cities, which in Russia are many, it will be an excellent solution: they will have the opportunity to work with different customers, the dependence on the mono industry will go away. We hope that after this idea is realized in our country, it will be picked up in other places.
In fact, what we do in Russia is the translation of world experience into Russian economic realities. We have developments in the field of additive machines (the idea is very popular in the USA), when the part is made of the powder of the corresponding material. In the US in recent years 10 such technologies are used in the automotive, aircraft, nanotechnology, in the production of electrodes. So, in the States, the pistol is made entirely on an additive machine - "grown." And at the same time, according to the characteristics - by strength, by the range of flight bullets - exceeds the analog, created in the usual production. This is the technology of the future.
In Russia, the niche is still free. Additive machines we will do ourselves. Now they are at the stage of development.
- Is not it easier to buy them abroad?
OP: Here we are talking about effective import substitution in the industry, so you need to do your own. Moreover, the country has scientific competencies and personnel who are capable of it. For example, one of our leading scientific curators deeply behind 70. He is one of the designers who was associated with the space industry. He has the knowledge and competence to make this machine and pass on his experience to the future generation. Development together with the launch of production will take 4 year.
Plus - the majority of additive machines - dual-use, so with any deterioration of the political situation, their delivery to Russia may stop.
SG: In addition, production on these machines is quite efficient and economical. There is a so-called subtraction method. There is a plate from which the part is cut out, and the material utilization factor is 15%. That is, in other words, out of a ton of metal, only 150 kg of parts are obtained. Additive technology is different. The metal is turned into powder, and the part is grown from the powder. Thus, 70% of the material is used.
- How do companies interact within the group, and does this synergy affect the outcome?
SG: "The Ural Instrument-Making Research Institute" carries out scientific and research and development work in the field of production of pipe air products. Here, the development of new technologies for practical implementation in production is being done. Work order 30-ti high-end specialists. And we have forty patents in this area. Engineering teams intersect.
Energy Group - one of the first in Russia was certified by the international quality system - ISO. Modern industry requires 100% customer confidence. Our products today go directly to KAMAZ, and this is achieved only because we have a zero level of marriage. If somewhere in a difficult moment the cardan shaft cracks, the equipment will not go any further. And this is unacceptable. The scientific and technical team and technologists in the field of quality assessment follow this.
OP: In addition, enterprises intersect not in terms of technology, but in terms of industrial park management. Initially, we began to develop a machining enterprise in the town of Krasnoturyinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, as part of a federal program for the development of single-industry towns. Energia GC is one of the managing companies of IP Bogoslovsky together with Rusal Holding, represented by Bogoslovsky Aluminum Plant and the Government of the Sverdlovsk Region, represented by the Middle Urals Development Corporation. We have become one of those who are the first to realize the development of a single-industry city under the industrial park development program. The city-forming enterprise in this company town is the Theological Aluminum Plant (BAZ), which produces components for the automotive industry and small developments for the shipbuilding industry. Having this experience, later we entered into negotiations with PJSC “Company“ Sukhoi ”.” In the process, we learned that the Ministry of the Russian Federation for the development of the Far East had been created and a program for the development of single-industry towns was started, in which we can participate and apply our accumulated management experience. Together with the Ministry of Eastern Development and the Government of the Khabarovsk Territory, we have formed a model for the development of the TDM Komsomolsk.
The mission and task of our company is not just to build a factory that will produce a set of parts, but to create the first example of a successful developing city and production. We have already started the training program: together with the Government of the Khabarovsk Territory, we will create an engineering school - a secondary school with a specialization. There is a need to give the children an initial technical education and to raise a generation of specialists from the school bench, which in the future will work with us.
- You talked about starting the plant in 2 year. And where can you get specialists by this time? Will there be enough professionals?
SG: We have tightly discussed this issue with the personnel service of Sukhoi. In their opinion, the most acute issue is the lack of specialists with high ranks. There are basic specialists. Employees after a year of practice on similar equipment receive the necessary knowledge to become high-level specialists. It turns out that as such there are resources. We hope that a joint training program will allow them to transform them into highly skilled masters in mechanic processing. In addition, we see that there may be some migration of specialists from the central regions of Russia in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. We and our employees will be sent to a new production on a long-term basis. The region is actively engaged in attracting professional staff, for which it creates a comfortable social infrastructure. We want to help in this, so that people do not just come to work on a shift basis for certain money, but they also stay there.
- What are the advantages of the law on TORs and what does the state do to support single-industry cities? Do you assess the creation of a territory for advanced development as a step forward in the development of the Far East? If there was no TOP regime, would you go into this project?
OP: Until now, frankly speaking, we dragged monotowners on our shoulders (Krasnoturyinsk - author's note). When we entered the project, it should have been dynamically developing. But due to a number of circumstances, the project was delayed for a long time, because the system of interaction between the regional and federal authorities turned out to be complicated. 3 year we financed the project at our expense, many times we intended to get out of it, but the inner faith and the desire to bring things to the end still helped. The Law on TOP became an important catalyst for accelerating development processes for both Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Krasnoturinsk. The experience that the state has accumulated, including in monocities, will be used in the territories of advanced development.
The approach to the development of a monotown is more complex than to the development of the region. From our point of view, just the TORs will allow us to implement an example of the positive experience of the development of remote regions and territories of Russia. We will not make a "city-sade" from the Far East tomorrow. But, at least, in small steps we can correct the situation at the rate of movement in order to come in the future to a good result.
Would we come to the site without TOP? I think that, most likely, yes, because there is one of the most important factors for us - this is the demand for our products. The project appeared precisely because the company "Sukhoi" already had this need. In one form or another, we would have started the implementation of the project, but still would have asked for some kind of support from the state. Since, to develop production without state support, for today, it is almost impossible.
- And what is most valuable for you, except for the plant, at the point where you go?
SG: - There are 3 elements in the structure of Khabarovsk, which allow us and any other business to successfully develop: this is a basic order; these are privileges that allow developing at the initial stage, and state co-financing.
- Do you get into the program of co-financing of the Development Fund for the Far East?
SG: We are in the process of negotiating with the Fund for the Development of the Far East. Agreements on formal grounds are already ready. Our project falls into the list of priority projects this year. We expect that we will finish the formal work in the coming months and come out to sign a financing agreement. We hope that the Fund will enter our share capital.
- Is the investment agreement eligible for concessional loans? Obtaining loans for production provides some benefits?
SG: There is a special program of the Ministry of Industry and Trade that allows subsidizing the interest rate on the loan up to 70% of the refinancing rate. We got into it. Within the framework of the contest, the Ministry of Industry and Trade determines priority projects that receive the right to a subsidy. In fact, upon obtaining this right, a loan is made for 14% per annum and it can be reduced to 8%. We have a long-term project, big investments will be made for implementation. Payback is about 5 years with stable economic conditions. Therefore, any reduction in costs is important, especially since the loan begins to be serviced before the revenue appears.
- Products that you are going to do will be focused only on the domestic market?
SG: There is enough universal production. The products produced at our facilities - in addition to the basic order, we will necessarily direct both to the domestic market and to export. Now the situation at the exchange rate is such that our services on the world market are relatively cheaper than the services of foreign competitors. Plus, the Asia-Pacific region (APR) is the most dynamically developing market in the world. We are looking at the experience of Japan and the United States. In this regard, the geography of the Far East is very convenient. In the same Komsomolsk-on-Amur there is a river and an international airport, which, in our opinion, draws a clear perspective.
HelpThe group of companies "Energia" works in the sector of machine building, metallurgy, management of territories. Also, GC Energia carries out a number of developments in the R & D sector, in the field of processing man-caused waste with the production of rare and rare-earth elements.
The assets of Energy Group are:
JSC UralTrubMash. Modernized production of precision tubes. 33% of the Management Company of the Bogoslovsky Industrial Park. Sverdlovsk Region, Krasnoturinsk.
At the Bogoslovskiy FE, located on the basis of the Krasnoturinsk mono-city, the project "Epsilon" will be based - the production of parts, mainly focused on the automotive sector, with a significant section of the foundry.
Another major investment project of the company, Epsilon 2, became the anchor resident of the Komsomolsk Tor. This is a plant for the production of parts for aircraft manufacturing by the method of machining, the level of the center of industry value. The basic customer of Epsilon-2 LLC is PJSC Company Sukhoi.