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The Great Migration of Companies to the East: Meaning and Prospects

The Great Migration of Companies to the East: Meaning and Prospects

Rostislav Turovsky

Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of HSE, Scientific Editor East Russia

Rostislav Turovsky, Vice-President of the Center for Political Technologies:

- The topic of relocation of the head offices of the largest Russian companies to the Far East has become one of the most discussed in recent years - in connection with the policy of the federal authorities to create incentives for the economic growth of the region. At the same time, the solution to this issue has met with noticeable resistance from the companies themselves, and the actual “relocation” of companies to the Far East does not have significant motivation yet. As you know, the idea itself was expressed by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, which later entailed a series of consultations with companies, in which Deputy Prime Minister Yury Trutnev and the leadership of the Ministry for the Development of the Far East took part. But decision-making has been dragging on for a long time, and the companies themselves receive either conflicting or negative signals. In this regard, it is necessary to understand what the meanings and prospects of such a movement are, as well as what the Far East really needs.

Speaking about the relocation of companies to the Far East, as to any other region, one should, first of all, understand what exactly can be relocated, with what goals and consequences. First, the head office can relocate, i.e. management structure of the company. This will mean that the company's management and its main management personnel are constantly working and living not in Moscow, as is customary, but in the Far East. This requires strong incentives, since for top management this will mean the actual abandonment of the usual way of life, and for the company also the need to recruit ordinary employees in the region and city where the base office is located, and where their level of training may be low at first. ... Under the conditions of a centralized Russian system, the communication separation of the company's management from Moscow will occur, which may negatively affect the effectiveness of its lobbying activities, collecting information about the processes taking place in the capital, and interacting with the central authorities. For these obvious reasons, Russian companies gravitate towards Moscow, and if they are inextricably linked to a particular region, they create strong Moscow representations, which are responsible for important political functions. It is unlikely that any large Russian company, accustomed to working in the capital, will agree to such a risky maneuver for its interests and position. In Russia, there are practically no examples of large national companies whose management prefers to be located in other regions. One of the rare examples is Surgutneftegaz, which continues to be based in its "native" Surgut.

Secondly, a so-called can be located in the region. the profit center of the company, i.e. held her tax registration. For management, this does not mean the need to move to the region, and the company will simply have a distinction between its actual address, the Moscow address, where the administrative structures are located, and the legal address. This method is beneficial to the regions and a compromise for business. For the regions, in this case it will be important that the company does not withdraw funds from them, show significant profits in the regions and pay tax on this profit, the main part of which in Russia is credited to the regional budget. Moving the tax registration of a large company to the regions often turns out to be a political decision that is made by the federal authorities in favor of a particular territory, or is coordinated by the company and regional authorities. Regions in the conditions of a budget deficit can literally fight for one or another company to come to them as a tax resident. The placement of management personnel in the region is, of course, not fundamental.

The most striking example of the attempt of the federal authorities to strengthen the region's budget by transferring large taxpayers there became the manifestation of concern for St. Petersburg. The biggest step was the registration in this city of Gazprom Neft. It should be noted that this decision was a strong blow to the budget of another region, since in the times of R.Abramovich, Sibneft, later transformed into Gazprom Neft, was registered in the Omsk Region. But, one way or another, Gazprom Neft has become one of the leading taxpayers of the city on the Neva. Considering the fact that its capital status was in fact, it would have been possible to expect the relocation of administrative structures there, but with this problems arose. They are known to have resulted in long and scandalous attempts by Gazprom to build its office skyscraper in St. Petersburg, first in the form of Okhta Center, which provoked opposition from the public, now in the form of Lakhta Center, whose project is gradually being implemented . But years have passed, and the company's management does not show a keen interest in moving to St. Petersburg, still preferring Moscow.

In the process of trying to support St. Petersburg by moving offices around the country's map, another important decision was the registration of one of the largest state banks, Vneshtorgbank, there. Although, for example, retail "daughter" of Vneshtorgbank - VTB24 received a Moscow residence permit. Petersburg's registration was also acquired by Sovcomflot, Russia's largest state shipping company (which also has a Moscow office). In general, such a policy, conducted at the time when V.Matvienko worked as the governor of St. Petersburg, had good results for the city budget, but, of course, no mass character re-registration of large business in the northern capital did not acquire. In addition, we again emphasize that the speech was still about the capital region, located next to European countries, open to the outside world and having close communication links with Moscow.

Considering the experience of St. Petersburg and the specifics of the Far East, let us now see what can happen with the relocation and re-registration of certain companies in the eastern regions of the country. The political leadership speaks primarily of state-owned companies, which it is easier to manage, but we will pay attention to large private businesses.

The geographical position and economic importance of the Far East are such that it is not necessary to count on real interest in moving there from the side of large Russian companies. For many Russian companies, the Far East is now a promising and priority region for new development, where they are looking for and finding interesting projects for themselves. This fact is undoubted. In addition, business understands the political situation as well, seeing that the country's leadership is counting on the Far East and the integration of Russia into the APR, ready to invest in this big budget money. The current deterioration in relations with the West may become an additional incentive for the country's "eastern" reorientation.

At the same time, there is not a single example of any company reallocating its resources in such a way that the Far East becomes for it the main producing region, which would be logically interconnected with the work of the management apparatus and tax registration there. Usually, this is a region of new development, where more raw materials can be mined, processing can be increased, but today it cannot even be said that in the long term for any company it will become successful and main. New projects, both on the continent and on the adjacent shelf, are, in fact, only scheduled, and their implementation depends heavily on Russian and foreign investment, the availability of markets, etc. At this stage, the dependence of the Far Eastern projects on the federal budget is critical, both from direct financing and from the benefits and guarantees that the state will provide to investors. Given the difficult budget situation in the country and the unclear prospects for its development, it would be naive to believe that the Far East will receive everything that was promised to it, and will soon begin to flourish. Speaking about the lessons already learned, it is worth remembering that, for example, the megaproject of the integrated development of South Yakutia, conceived several years ago, actually did not take place. Even the raw oil and gas projects that are familiar to Russia can be at risk, as evidenced by the actual abandonment of the Shtokman gas project on the Barents Sea shelf, which has been very active for several years and was considered one of the most promising for the country and Gazprom.

It should also take into account the importance for the country of East Siberia and its prospects. In this part of Russia are concentrated not smaller, and often large reserves of undeveloped minerals. It is not by chance that the development of the Far East is somehow correlated and combined in state and corporate programs with the development of Eastern Siberia. And often the Far East is a transit region for the export of products, and production is concentrated in Siberia (as in the case of oil, coal, etc.). Therefore, in terms of the location of new productions of various large companies, as well as the objective prerequisites for their registration, Eastern Siberia is not inferior to the Far East.

Under these conditions, the relocation of offices of large companies to the Far East is a purely political decision designed to demonstrate government priorities and encourage businesses to work more actively in the priority region. In reality, the Far East is interested in transferring the profit centers of large companies there, rather than their management structures. This interest is even greater because the development of the Far East involves various tax and other benefits, in connection with which the prospects for filling regional budgets with new projects do not look rosy or postponed for many years. Therefore, the real question of what regional and municipal budgets will actually receive from new projects is really serious, and whether these projects will be generally beneficial for them. For a positive answer to this question, moving to the Far East companies as large local taxpayers, rather than owners of shining office buildings, would be extremely important.

In the oil and gas sector, the two leading Russian state-owned companies - Rosneft and Gazprom - undoubtedly number the Far East among their most promising regions. One of the prospects is related to the development of the shelf as the main hope of the Russian fuel and energy complex for the long term. As you know, state-owned companies that have an actual monopoly on the development of the shelf in Russia, for a few years, staked out the bulk of more or less promising areas, and Rosneft's lobbying turned out to be more successful in this process. For the Far East, this means that, under favorable conditions, new Sakhalin projects will be included in production activities, then the shelf in the area of ​​the Magadan Region, Kamchatka and, finally, Chukotka. It is planned to launch new gas fields in Yakutia, as well as in Irkutsk region for the export of pipeline gas. The number of projects for the production of liquefied natural gas is expanding, with Rosneft trying to compete with Gazprom. The future of the oil industry on the continent is Yakutia, where Surgutneftegaz is already operating and Rosneft is also being consolidated.

"Rosneft" is often called among companies that can change their registration to the Far East. The company has one unconditional interest - the maintenance and expansion of oil exports in Chinese and in general in the east. But for this purpose, oil from Eastern Siberia is used, namely, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, and not the Far East itself, through which the pipe runs. Actually, Far Eastern production for Rosneft is undoubtedly important, but traditionally it is concentrated in the compact Sakhalin cluster, where LLC RN-Sakhalinmorneftegaz and the Sakhalin-1 joint venture operate, as well as at the Komsomolsk refinery in the Khabarovsk Territory. New projects for oil refining in Primorsky Krai and gas on Sakhalin do not yet have one hundred percent chance of implementation, as well as new production on the shelf. At the same time, Rosneft’s main production base remains in Siberia, the Volga region and the Caucasus, and processing and marketing of petroleum products are also developed there. The actual takeover of TNK-BP means the merger of assets in the same Western Siberia and Central Russia. Thus, the Far East for Rosneft is primarily a transit region for oil exports, as well as one of the many production centers with which the prospects are really connected, but one cannot say that they are the only ones for the company.

For Gazprom, the Far East is a completely new region where the company is gradually strengthening its position (in the recent past, we recall, the Siberian city of Tomsk was considered the main center of Gazprom’s eastern projects). This region is promising for the production of liquefied natural gas, which is already underway on Sakhalin, the extraction and / or transit of pipeline gas, and also for the gasification of the regions. As in the case of Rosneft, Gazprom has a number of new projects, such as LNG production in the Primorye Territory, gas production at the Chayandinskoye field in Yakutia, the launch of the Sakhalin-3 project and the Kirinskoye field, and others. The company has an Eastern Gas Program. At the same time, apart from the Sakhalin-2 joint venture (and, accordingly, the Sakhalin Energy company) in the Far East, Gazprom does not have any powerful local subsidiaries that could be considered as outposts of the company and major taxpayers. The Daltransgaz transport company is registered in the Khabarovsk Territory, which owns a pipe section. Important, but local importance is Kamchatgazprom. There are a number of gas supplying organizations, but in them Gazprom does not formally own a controlling stake. In connection with the problems in the Shtokman field, Sakhalin and the Kirinskoye field are acquiring critical importance for Gazprom Dobycha Shelf LLC, in respect of which a decision can be made to register on Sakhalin (now it is assigned to Moscow). In addition, Gazprom’s LNG Vladivostok is Gazprom’s local subsidiary in Primorsky Krai, but production itself does not yet exist.

At the same time, Gazprom's interests in Russia have a wide geography. The main producing region remains Yamal, the prospects for production, as in the case of Rosneft, are associated not only with the Far East, but also with the Arctic shelf. As for LNG, Gazprom has a similar project in the western direction, in the Leningrad Region. Export of pipeline gas to the West remains key, although, of course, they are trying and will try to balance it at the expense of eastern projects, in connection with which the Chayandinskoye and Kovykta fields and the Power of Siberia gas pipeline under construction acquire strategic importance not only for Gazprom, but also For Russia. But as already mentioned, Gazprom has not even singled out the Far East direction in the company's organizational structure, and so far we are talking about several scattered projects.

If we talk about private companies of the Russian fuel and energy sector, along with Rosneft, a big role in the Far East is played by Surgutneftegaz, which is closely involved in Yakutia. But for him, the Far East is the second most important platform without the prospect of becoming the first, it is important to compensate for the decline in production in Western Siberia, but it is unable to replace Surgut, which was and remains the "capital" of the company. It is interesting that the Far East is really critical for a completely different player in the country's oil industry - the Alliance group, which owns the Khabarovsk refinery and is one of the main companies supplying the Far East with fuel and lubricants. However, the company's office is located in Moscow, and here there is a gap between the main activity area and the management center (in addition, the Alliance group controls other assets in the region, for example, Khabarovsk airport). But there is no question of re-registering the oil company Alliance in the Far East.

In the coal industry, the Far East is also a promising region, but in this case there is no state company that could be "ordered" to go to these regions. Among the major players, the Far East has the greatest importance for the coal and metallurgical group Mechel, which controls production in Yakutia and a new export-oriented project of the Elginsky deposit (Nerungri registered its subsidiary Yakutugol). Kemerovo and Chelyabinsk regions remain the basic regions for Mechel, where it extracts the bulk of its coal and produces steel (and although the business originated in Kuzbass, the company is still registered in Moscow). But the Far East for the company is the region of the main perspective. Another thing is that the company itself is in a difficult financial situation, and the Elgin project because of this now somewhat "hung". Therefore, the eastward shift of Mechel is not so obvious.

At the same time, for one of the leading coal companies of the country - SUEK - its production in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories is not the main one (there are a number of its extracting and transport assets that are not connected to any one large macroregional "daughter"). The main importance for SUEK is Siberia with the deposits of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Kemerovo Region. Far Eastern geography of its activities is Sakhalinugol, once separated in the interests of O. Misevra from other assets of the MDM group, on the basis of which SUEK was created (currently based on the Sakhalin and Magadan assets of O. Misevra and the group of ICTs of St. Petersburg origin , But with the Moscow head office - the Eastern Mining Company, headed by the same O. Miseyrov, was established). But the prospects for the growth of coal production in the Far East, in addition to the above-mentioned Elga, are related more to the relatively new company Kolmar, which is controlled by the well-known oligarch G.Timchenko and intends to expand coal production in Yakutia, where all of its production base is concentrated. However, the office of this company is also located in Moscow.

The emergence of new players in the coal industry of the Far East may still be related to the development of large deposits of the Amur Region and the Chukotka Autonomous District, but there is not yet all clear with strategic investors, and the rate will probably be made for joint ventures with foreigners. Many coal companies see the Far East rather as a transit region, which led to the purchase of port complexes and projects for the construction of new ones.

A very specific situation has developed in such a profile direction of the Far Eastern economy as the extraction of gold and silver. The Far East is the base region for the Petropavlovsk Group, which is producing gold in the Amur Region and is implementing a new iron ore project in the Jewish Autonomous Region. But this group is based in London, and in Russia it has again a Moscow office. Also, the Far East is of strategic importance for the Polymetal Group, which is registered on the island of Jersey, has a London office, and in Russia, interestingly, is based in St. Petersburg. "Polymetal", actually under the control of the group of IST A.Nesis, is the leading silver producer in Russia, and its production is concentrated just in the Far East - in the Magadan Region. The company also produces large-scale gold mining. Outside the Far East in Russia, it almost does not work, and the Vorontsovskoye field in the Sverdlovsk region is not key for it.

In the future, the Far East will acquire an increasing importance for the leading gold mining company of Russia, Polyus Gold, whose main assets are historically located in Eastern Siberia. But the main strategic project of the company is the Natalka deposit in the Magadan region, another key project is the Nezhdaninskoye field in Yakutia. So far, however, the company has been producing in the Far East only at the Kuranakhskoye field in Yakutia. As for the company itself, which was formerly a project of M. Prokhorov, it also became for some time foreign (with registration in Jersey), and its main shareholder was S. Kerimov. In Russia, its subsidiary is based in Moscow. Initially, the British, or rather registered on the same island of Jersey, is the gold mining company Highland Gold Mining, which is mining in Khabarovsk and to a lesser extent - in the Trans-Baikal Territory and actually owned by the group of R.Abramovich (in Russia, her daughter is Russdragmet, in Moscow). The company of the owner of Severstal A.Mordashov Nordgold (also it extracts gold in Buryatia) is also engaged in gold production in the Far East. But this company is also international, with a registration in the Netherlands and a Moscow office.

Speaking about gold mining, it is worth noting that at one time, one of the major Russian producers was the Amur artel, located in the Khabarovsk Territory. But in the future she became a member of the Russian Platinum group and is a subsidiary of platinum mining in the same region (Russian Platinum is actually a member of the Alliance group and is based in Moscow with assets in the Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions). Perhaps, the only large and really local player was the company "Susumananzoloto", based in the Magadan region. The smaller gold producer is Kamchatka's Gold, but despite the "regional" name, it is registered in Moscow and belongs to the Renova group.

It should be noted that the Rosgeologia State Geological Exploration Holding, created relatively recently, is also represented in the Far East. However, its enterprises are scattered throughout the country, although, of course, geological exploration in the Far East is one of the regional priorities. So far the company, like most other state-owned corporations, maintains a Moscow residence permit.

As a result, ALROSA remains the only example of a company that is state owned and has retained a Far Eastern residence permit. True, as is known, control over it has long passed from the hands of regional authorities to the hands of the federal government. But, given the critical importance of the company for the region, the center allowed the regional authorities to keep the blocking stake and registration of the company in Yakutia (and also gave the region excise taxes on diamond mining). At the same time, the attempt to transform ALROSA into a diversified holding operating outside its base region failed.

Returning to state corporations and their presence in the Far East, special attention should be given to those of them who deal with infrastructure both from the point of view of internal provision of the region and its integration, and in terms of exports. In the Far East, both the leading state-owned companies engaged in power generation - RusHydro and Inter RAO UES - have interests.

For RusHydro, the region is of the greatest importance, since the company includes OAO RAO ES Vostoka, which is the main operator of the Far Eastern energy system. Actually, RusHydro owns a number of hydropower plants throughout the country, but the largest of them, Sayano-Shushenskaya, is located in Eastern Siberia. Taking into account the new Boguchanskaya HPP in Eastern Siberia, about 30% of the installed capacity of the HPP RusHydro is concentrated. The Far East (primarily at the hydropower stations in the Amur and Magadan regions) accounts for about 16%. However, one should not forget about the significance of the Volga cascade of HPPs for RusHydro.

At the same time, taking into account RAO "ES of the East", it turns out that this company controls more than 24% of the installed capacity of the power plant in the holding as a whole (ie, RusHydro and RAO ES of the East combined), and taking into account power plants " RusHydro's share of the Far East is more than 36%, exceeding the share of Eastern Siberia. An important feature of RusHydro is that the company is registered in Krasnoyarsk, although the head office is located in Moscow. RAO "ES of the East", in its turn, is a completely Far Eastern company and holding, which includes a number of companies of regional significance, including. The Far Eastern Energy Company (Vladivostok office), the Far Eastern Distribution Company (Blagoveshchensk office), generating companies in Yakutia, Kamchatka, Magadan and Sakhalin regions. The company has offices in Moscow, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, but its legal address is in Khabarovsk. The Far Eastern Energy Company, in turn, controls the Far Eastern generating company, which combined the assets of the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, the Amur Region and the south of Yakutia. This company is also based in Khabarovsk.

The company "Inter RAO" only deploys its activities in the Far East (it is registered in Moscow). It is represented in the Amur Region by the Eastern Energy Company, which exports electricity. But important projects are planned here, such as the Khabarovsk combined-cycle power plant (built by the Eastern Energy Company), coal-fired power plants on the basis of the Erkowiec and Urgals fields. And the project of the Yerkovtsi TPP is seen as the largest new project of a thermal power plant in Russia, which is planned to be implemented together with China. Thus, the interest of Inter RAO in the Far East is to create local capacities for the export of electricity to China, but the company has many interests in other regions of the country.

State-owned companies that own transport infrastructure also have serious interests in the Far East. In connection with the construction of the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline, Transneft became such a player. In the Far East, in this connection, a subsidiary company of Transneft, OOO Dalnefteprovod, was founded, based in Khabarovsk. An important role is played by JSCo Russian Railways, taking into account large-scale reconstruction projects for BAM and Transsib (the company's branch is located in Khabarovsk, but its independence is extremely limited). Transportation of electricity in the Far East falls within the sphere of influence of the new state corporation Rosseti and the Federal Grid Company, which is part of its structure, with its backbone networks. They face the tasks of integrating isolated power systems into the all-Russian energy system, and this, in turn, involves the implementation of large investment projects. At the same time, these companies do not have a powerful Far Eastern structure either, due to the presence of RAO "ES of the East" there. Meanwhile, such important for the region sea transport and port complexes are mostly in private hands and very differentiated by ownership, not representing a single system. For example, the Far Eastern Shipping Company (FESCO) has long been transferred to Moscow hands and has recently owned, in fact, the Suma Group (the shipping company office is located in Moscow, Vladivostok has a branch and a controlled seaport). Although the Sakhalin Shipping Company, on the contrary, has retained local registration. The port complexes are divided among such companies as Kuzbassrazrezugol (Vostochny Port), Evraz Group (Nakhodka), Mechel (Posiet, Vanino), SUEK and the structure of G.Timchenko (Muchka Bay, Vanino District), Siberian Business Union And the same G. Tymchenko within the framework of his joint venture (Sukhodol), etc. and are, as a rule, their local subsidiaries. On the Far East port complexes, their owners really do make a big bet, because under Russian conditions the business seeks to control the ports on its own, in order to facilitate the conditions for cargo transportation.

Speaking about the real sector, the Far East is of particular importance for two large state-owned companies - the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) and the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). USC with its regional asset allocation structure includes the Far Eastern Shipbuilding and Shiprepairing Center (based in Vladivostok). Its main production facilities are located in the Baltic and in the Arkhangelsk region (the company is registered in St. Petersburg), and the Far East is seen as promising for the construction of ships for new export projects. At the same time, the new project for the shipyard Zvezda, intended for this purpose, is being implemented within the framework of a separate consortium under the actual control of Rosneft, and OSK is a minority shareholder in this project. In this connection, the task arises to load the capacities of the USC itself in the Far East, which is not so simple given that there are few orders for vessels in Russia, and they have to be divided among a number of stronger enterprises, primarily in St. Petersburg and Severodvinsk, with Which it is almost impossible to compete with.

On the contrary, the aircraft plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was and remains one of the leaders of the Russian aircraft industry, playing key roles in the production of both military and civilian (Sukhoi Superjet 100 project) aircraft. Now it is a branch of the Moscow-based Sukhoi company, which, in turn, belongs to UAC (the second Sukhoi plant is located in Novosibirsk). It is worth recalling about the helicopter plant in Arsenyev (Progress company), which is part of the Russian Helicopters holding company (controlled by Rostec), along with several other Russian plants.

Attempts at creating new machine-building capacities in the Far East meanwhile are just beginning. In this regard, the region is becoming a growth point for Sollers, which, together with the Japanese, creates automobile production. But still, this company is managed from Moscow, and its main plant remains Ulyanovsk.

In other sectors of the Far Eastern economy, on the contrary, one can find a large number of players of local origin, including in the fishing, forestry, construction materials production, etc. At the same time, breakthrough development projects for the Far East, as a rule, are not connected with them. A special position, of course, is occupied by the fishing industry, another major specialization of the Far East in Russia, which, in turn, makes the Far Eastern business one of the largest in the country (with players such as the Preobrazhenskaya base of the trawling fleet, the Nakhodka base of active marine fishing and others). This is perhaps a rare example of the situation when it is the Far East that manages its assets (by the way, information was also discussed that the Hong Kong company Pacific Andes is actually in control of a significant part of these assets). Now here comes the expansion, for example, from such an influential Moscow company as Russian Sea - Production (controlled by G. Timchenko and M. Vorobyov), which buys local fishing companies. Yes, and manipulations with the distribution of quotas for the catch of a particular fish product can change the situation in the industry in a most radical way.

So, none of the state-owned companies currently have objective prerequisites for resettlement to the Far East. For Rosneft and Gazprom, this is a promising region, but not so much as to throw all its forces and resources at it and go there to "live." Inter RAO, Transneft, Russian Railways, USC and UAC are in the same position. On the other hand, such a state-owned company as ALROSA is traditionally based in the Far East, and it is quite relevant that Yakutia retain at least partial control over it. The company RusHydro has “shifted” to the greatest extent to the East, but it already has a legal address in Krasnoyarsk, which is quite logical. In the Far East, it is represented by JSC RAO Energy Systems of the East, which is locally registered, as are the companies included in this holding. This situation is also quite logical.

In fact, the main territorial gap exists among those private companies that carry out almost all production activities in the Far East, but are based in Moscow or abroad. This is how the production of gold and silver is organized, for which the Far East is indeed the most important macro-region of the country. The same characteristics characterize the group "Alliance", "Colmar".

The transfer of the administrative apparatus to the Far East looks like a completely far-fetched measure. It is noteworthy that the Ministry of Development and Development creates for itself two main offices - in Moscow and Vladivostok. Artificial separation of the management structures of state-owned companies from the capital will only lead to organizational difficulties and a reduction in their weight. It is well known that even companies with local registration have large Moscow offices, and often the registration itself is of a purely formal nature and is a political decision only taken earlier.

More important is the question of tax registration, which is also an artificial measure, but it can promote redistribution of taxes from the capital cities to the regions of the Far East. However, in this case, there will be a question about the "right" place of registration of companies. For example, a new fight will break out between Khabarovsk and Vladivostok. The question arises of the expediency of large taxpayers coming to Sakhalin, whose budget is already growing due to new projects. Therefore, the authorities, taking such a decision and "pushing" the company to the East, will have to be calculated so that it helps to equalize regional tax potentials.

In essence, the Far East is really interested in the fact that companies operating there pay more taxes to regional and municipal budgets. To do this, they do not need to be relocated to the Far East, but it is necessary that, if not themselves, then at least their subsidiaries would increase turnover and pay taxes in the territory. It is also important that the “local” companies remaining in the macroregion, incl. fishers did not completely dissolve in federal holdings. Now there are unused opportunities to create or strengthen subsidiaries in the Far East (both public and private companies) that can become major regional taxpayers. Such a policy is more subtle, but can have good results for the macro-region. 

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