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Vanino: port of special purpose
With the advent of the Vaninsky seaport and the Komsomolsk-on-Amur railroad - Sovetskaya Gavan, in 1940-x, Russia received the second strategic access to the Pacific Ocean
Today, many production of the Far East and Siberia depend on the activities of the transport hub in Vanino. The successful geographical position and the presence of untapped coastline determine the future prospects of the port area as a rapidly developing center.
For this, the reconstruction of the Severnaya mine and the Bureinsky open-pit mine was carried out, and the construction of the Pravoberezhny open-pit mine continues. Thus, by 2021, the company plans to increase coal mining and production from 5 million to 12 million tons. “The increase in production volumes is necessary for the sale of enriched coal abroad. The domestic Russian market is limited. As for deliveries to the world market, the possibilities are endless, first of all we are talking about export to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, ”stressed Alexander Dobrovolsky.
Solid fuel shipments through Vanino are organized from other regions of the Far East and Siberia, including from Mechel's enterprises in Yakutia. “World coal prices in 2015 dropped to new lows, and experts almost unanimously predicted 2016, no less difficult for the industry. After the third quarter, few recalled such forecasts, as the spot price for premium coking coal almost doubled by the end of the year. As a result, coal, on the contrary, was awarded the status of the most efficient commodity of the year, ”said Oleg Korzhov, General Director of Mechel PAO.
Vanino as an export channel today is extremely important and timber exporters. This year, the commercial sea port intends to reload about an order of 1 million tons of timber products - this is almost double the indicator of 2016. Transshipment of timber cargoes (in addition to roundwood, such as lumber, fuel pellets, chipboard) through the commercial port is planned to increase such lumbermen as LLC "LAN", LLC "Nanaisk Forest Wholesale Trade", CJSC "Smena Trading", enterprises of the Holding " Business Marketing ». In addition, there are new cargo owners who have announced for the transshipment additional volumes of timber products, in particular LLC Rimbunan Hijau, whose main assets are concentrated in the Khabarovsk Territory.
“Over the past ten years, the volume of timber transportation through the port of Vanino has been decreasing. This trend has strengthened since 2008, following an increase in customs duties on roundwood exports. Over the past three years, the port has been actively making efforts to replenish the cargo base with timber cargo, but the weak price environment did not allow achieving the desired results. Last year, the situation on international markets stabilized: the decline in prices actually stopped, then a slight increase was recorded, which allowed us to increase the volume of timber transportation, ”explained Valery Balakin, General Director of Port Vanino OJSC.
Products of Amurmetall, the only steel plant in the Far East, are shipped through the Vanino port. Although the volumes of ferrous metals transportation were subject to great fluctuations, including due to the problematic financial situation at the enterprise, metallurgists switched their shipments from Vladivostok to Vanino several years ago, thus saving on rail transportation over the shortest distance. A revival of production and, as a result, an increase in product shipments are expected with the appearance of a strategic investor at the plant - recently, Amurmetal was acquired by Torex during the auction. “I am sure the hard times are over. We are making every effort to ensure the future development of the plant, ”said Vyacheslav Shport, Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory.
Vanino commercial port also handles imports. The bulk of the imported cargo is alumina, which is consumed by Rusal's aluminum plants in Siberia. In recent years, such shipments have been kept at the level of 1,1-1,3 million tons annually. With the participation of the commercial port and the Far Eastern Railway, alternative technologies for the transportation of alumina were applied, which provided a reserve of the BAM's infrastructure throughput.
According to Tatiana Shengelia, General Director of Trans Vanino Cargo LLC (a freight forwarder company), instead of specialized mineral carriers for raw materials, a few years ago, they began to actively use gondola cars that are vacated after unloading. Today, for the delivery of cargo in open rolling stock, reusable flexible containers are used, which are made of polypropylene fabric that does not allow moisture to pass through. In addition, airtight liners are used in transportation - a large fabric bag spread over the entire gondola car and tied at the end of loading. “The Far Eastern Railway made it possible to organize a production site at Vanino station for the preparation of wagons. And aluminum smelters have introduced a technology for unloading raw materials from this container, ”said Tatiana Shengelia.
For Rusal, such transportation provides cost savings. Loading into a new type of container affects the speed of vessel handling and increases the rhythm of the delivery of raw materials by rail. “Aluminum production is a continuous process and there are limited possibilities for placing stocks of raw materials in factories. Therefore, it is very important to rhythmically supply alumina in accordance with the declared volumes, ”said the general director of Trans Vanino Cargo LLC.
We must not forget about the role of the port in providing coastal shipping, primarily with Sakhalin, which is connected to the mainland by the Vanino - Kholmsk ferry line. Today it is provided by three specialized vessels that take on board freight cars and trucks. In this way, the island receives food, feed, fertilizers, and oil products. The ferry also accepts cargo for large infrastructure projects. For example, in previous years, a large number of pipes for main gas and oil pipelines went through Vanino, and now equipment for the construction of Sakhalin GRES-2 is being delivered.
The Vanino knot acquired the greatest importance with the growth of Russian coal exports. According to the Far Eastern Railway, if in 2008 1,1 million tons of miners' products were delivered to Vanino, then in 2015 - already 21,7 million tons. This was influenced by the creation of new transshipment capacities. Eight years ago, the terminal of Daltransugol JSC (part of SUEK JSC) started operating in Muchka Bay. At that time, it became the most modern specialized port in the Far East. The complex gradually reached the design level of transshipment of 12 million tons annually, after which SUEK began to invest in doubling its capacity.
At the end of 2016, the terminal processed 19 million tons of coal, and in 2017 plans to increase the volume to 22 million tons. At the beginning of January, Daltransugol unloaded 777 wagons on an average daily basis - almost 50 wagons, or 6,7%, more than a year earlier. The company continues to develop its infrastructure. Last year, it opened traffic on a new connecting track 3,5 km long between the even mouth of Toki Park (Vanino station) and the non-public terminal Terminal, which is part of the port's transshipment complex. Then Terminal-2 station was introduced. According to the general director of Daltransugol, Vladimir Shapoval, it will allow some of the freight trains to bypass Toka, freeing up station capacities for other consignees of the Vanino hub.
This is explained by the appearance of new consignees. In 2017, the construction of the Far Eastern Vanino Port should begin at Cape Burny. The terminal's output for the annual design capacity of 15 million tons is planned for 2021 year. The complex will be focused on exporting products from the Elegest coal deposit (the Republic of Tyva) and other sections of Russia to the countries of South-East Asia.
A major port for the processing of coal and iron ore concentrate near the railway station Dyanka, near Vanino, is currently building Sakhatrans LLC. Such new companies as "Siberian Anthracite", "SDS-Ugol", and "Sibuglemet" are ready to export their products through the new terminal, but the bulk of the cargo turnover of the terminal will be formed due to the shipments of the CM "Kolmar", which develops two ore mining complexes in Yakutia : "Denisovsky" and "Inaglinsky". According to the results of 2017, the company plans to ship about 5 million tons of coal (while transportation is carried out through other terminals in the region), and in 2020 - 14,7 million tons.
With coal products, the active trading port is actively operating. At the beginning of 2017, he daily processed 208 wagons with coal against 126 in 2016. However, the increase in unloading negatively affected the ecological situation of the portside settlement. Local residents held several protest rallies, Rosprirodnadzor drew attention to the problem, which is going to conduct a large-scale check in the summer.
The stevedoring company was assured that they are taking measures to improve environmental safety. Storage areas where coal is stored are reinforced with reinforced concrete fence, dust suppression system is introduced when working with bulk cargo. "The installation for the port of Vanino was purchased precisely taking into account the weather conditions in the region and work directly in the winter, when dusting is intensified due to the delivery of dry coal," Valery Balakin, general director of Port Vanino said. In 2017, stevedore plans to increase the amount allocated for the implementation of environmental measures to 70 million rubles.
“The development strategy of the coal industry in our country is largely focused on trade relations with Asia. Meanwhile, the coal cargo is not easy to handle from the point of view of ensuring environmental control. As a stevedoring company engaged in coal transshipment, we intend to carry out a full range of environmental measures in order to reduce the impact of production processes on the Vanino village and the water area, ”Valery Balakin promised.
Destiny of residents
It would be wrong to say that the future of the Vanino transport hub is connected only with export coal. For example, JSC "Prime" intends to build a specialized terminal for reloading liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). The complex will receive railroad tank cars, and then ship products to sea-going gas carriers, following in the direction of the APR countries. The future stevedore has already been reached agreements with large LPG producers on the transportation of cargo through the future terminal. The volume of investments is estimated at 30,1 billion rubles.
Remstal is planning to work with liquefied petroleum gases and light oil products in Sovetskaya Gavan, neighboring Vanino. As reported in the Far Eastern territorial center of corporate transport services (structure of JSC "Russian Railways"), the delivery of products to its address is planned to be carried out from the production facilities of subsidiaries "Gazprom" and "Sibur" located in Siberia. The forecasted volume of cargo handling at the first stage will be 2 million tons annually with a subsequent increase to 10 million tons.
The company "Forum DV" intends to bunker ships in Vanino. Its specialized complex will be designed to process 150 thousand tons annually. “There is a shortage of capacities in the region for transshipment of oil products from the berth to tankers. Our project is aimed primarily at solving this problem. The seaport of Vanino is one of the most dynamically developing in Russia and has the necessary infrastructure for the implementation of such a project ", - said Nikolay Zvorygin, General Director of Forum DV LLC.
By the way, this company recently became the second resident of the free port in the Vanino region. The first was the aforementioned LLC Far East Vanino Port. Investments in the creation of its capacities will amount to 23,6 billion rubles. “The preferences of the free port regime on tax payments and deductions to off-budget funds will save 7,5 billion rubles. in ten years ", - calculated the general director of LLC" Far East Vanino port "Viktor Sokhrannov.
Obtaining the status of a free port resident will accelerate the project payback, Nikolay Zvorygin specified. “In the future, the possibility of duty-free importation of equipment necessary for activities will play an important role,” the head of Forum DV LLC added.
Other investors applied for the status of a free port resident. Among those who intend to carry out stevedoring activities, LLC "Prichal" (a subsidiary of the GC "Rusal"). The enterprise intends to build an alumina terminal with a capacity of 1,5 million tons per year in the water area of the Vanino Bay. The volume of required investments is over 5 billion rubles.
In total, as of the beginning of 2017, 19 projects were preliminarily identified in the Vaninsky district for implementation under the free port regime with an investment volume of about 86 billion rubles. It is planned that the neighboring Sovetsko-Gavansky region will also be able to receive this status. According to preliminary estimates, this will allow attracting at least 37 projects with an investment of about 111 billion rubles.
For example, Sovetsko-Gavanskoe Commercial Sea Port LLC plans to build a terminal in the region for shipping iron ore up to 7,1 million tons per year. The Sea Port Novaya Sovetskaya Gavan LLC intends to work with containers, fish products, grain. The volumes will amount to 3,4 million tons with a subsequent increase to 6 million tons. In the area of the cape, where Remstal plans to build its transshipment complex, Terminal Black LLC intends to create capacities for receiving fuel oil and diesel fuel - at the first stage, they will amount to 0,4 million tons
The locomotive of growth
Meanwhile, the dynamics of the Vanino junction's turnover depends on the development of main approaches to it. This year, the construction of the Lidoga-Vanino motorway (length - 1999 km), which began in 323, should be completed. By now, it remains to asphalt the last section, from 148th to 155th km. However, first of all, the increase in transshipment in ports is provided by railway communication. At present, the annual carrying capacity of the single-track line Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Sovetskaya Gavan is 33 million tons.In 2008, when the project for its development was launched (in 2013 it was included in the modernization program of the Eastern range of Russian Railways), it did not exceed 12 million t. During this time, many stations were reconstructed and built, second tracks were laid on some sections, and a new Kuznetsovsky tunnel was erected, which eliminated the narrowest point on this railway direction.
According to Sergey Drokin, Deputy Chief Engineer of the Far Eastern Railway, due to modernization since 2013, the Far Eastern Railway has been increasing its carrying capacity by an average of 7-10% annually, which makes it possible to ensure an increase in cargo traffic to seaports. Upon completion of the Eastern polygon program by 2020, the infrastructure in the direction of the Vanino junction will be ready to provide transportation at the level of 37,1 million tons. Work is also underway in other directions of the railway. In particular, by the end of 2017, the carrying capacity should increase on the BAM sections: Tynda - Novy Urgal - from 19 to 25 million tons, Novy Urgal - Komsomolsk-on-Amur - from 18 to 22 million tons, Volochaevka-2 - Komsomolsk-on -Amur - from 19 to 22 million tons.
At the same time, the amount of consignments sent to Vanino and Sovgavan can exceed the target value of the Eastern Landfill program. Due to current stevedores and future residents of the free port, the potential cargo turnover of the Vanino-Sovgavan hub to 2025 can reach 83-86 million tons annually, and in 2030 exceed 100 million tons.
According to Aleksey Lobov, director of the Dalgiprotrans Institute, at one time the specialists of the design organization developed five stages of development of the single-track line Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Sovgavan. The first two are being implemented today as part of the Eastern Range Modernization Program until 2020. The third and fourth stages include the construction of a continuous second track between Komsomolsk and Vanino. This will require at least RUB 185 billion, but as a result the line's carrying capacity will increase to 110 million tons. The fifth stage should be electrification, which should be done together with the Volochaevka-2 - Komsomolsk-on-Amur section. The total costs in last year's prices will amount to RUB 55 billion. As a result, the railway will be able to provide transportation to the Vanino-Sovgavan junction at the level of 140 million tons per year.
At the same time, the construction of the second track must be carried out on a new route. "Engineering-geological conditions for the passage of the line are unique and complex for the network of Russian Railways. This is determined by the rough terrain, the combination of rocky and weak soils at the base of the roadbed, the very complex tectonic conditions of the area, the presence of areas with increased seismicity, "said Sergei Kudryavtsev, vice-rector for scientific work at the Far Eastern State Transport University. The specialists of the railway formed and sent to RZhD an investment application for the further development of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Vanino plot with the construction of second roads. The final decision should be made at the level of the Government of the Russian Federation.