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Vanino: port of special purpose
With the advent of the Vaninsky seaport and the Komsomolsk-on-Amur railroad - Sovetskaya Gavan, in 1940-x, Russia received the second strategic access to the Pacific Ocean
Today, many production of the Far East and Siberia depend on the activities of the transport hub in Vanino. The successful geographical position and the presence of untapped coastline determine the future prospects of the port area as a rapidly developing center.
For this, the reconstruction of the Severnaya mine and the Bureinsky mine has been carried out, and the construction of the Pravoberezhny section is underway. Thus, by 2021 the company plans to increase production and production of coal from 5 million to 12 million tons. "The growth in production is necessary for the realization of enriched coal abroad. The domestic Russian market is limited. As for supplies to the world market, the possibilities are unlimited here, first of all we are talking about export to the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region, "stressed Alexander Dobrovolsky.
Sending of solid fuel through Vanino is organized from other regions of the Far East and Siberia, including from Mechel enterprises in Yakutia. "World coal prices in 2015 fell to new lows, and experts almost unanimously predicted no less severe for the industry 2016. After the third quarter, few people remembered such forecasts, as the spot price for premium coking coal by the end of the year almost doubled. As a result, coal, on the contrary, was given the status of the most effective commodity of the year, "said Oleg Korzhov, general director of PJSC" Mechel ".
Vanino as an export channel today is extremely important and timber exporters. This year, the commercial sea port intends to reload about an order of 1 million tons of timber products - this is almost double the indicator of 2016. Transshipment of timber cargoes (in addition to roundwood, such as lumber, fuel pellets, chipboard) through the commercial port is planned to increase such lumbermen as LLC "LAN", LLC "Nanaisk Forest Wholesale Trade", CJSC "Smena Trading", enterprises of the Holding " Business Marketing ». In addition, there are new cargo owners who have announced for the transshipment additional volumes of timber products, in particular LLC Rimbunan Hijau, whose main assets are concentrated in the Khabarovsk Territory.
"Over the past ten years, the volume of timber transportation through the port of Vanino declined. This trend has been strengthened since 2008 year, after increasing customs duties on roundwood exports. Over the past three years, the port has actively made efforts to replenish the cargo base at the expense of timber cargo, but the weak price environment did not allow achieving the desired results. Last year, the situation on international markets stabilized: the price decline actually stopped, then a small increase was recorded, which allowed us to increase the amount of timber transportation, "explained Valery Balakin, General Director of Port Vanino.
Through the Vanino port the products of the only steel plant "Amurmetal" in the Far East are being shipped. Although the volumes of ferrous metals transportation were subject to great fluctuations, including due to the financial troubles at the enterprise, metallurgists several years ago switched their shipments from Vladivostok to Vanino, which could save on rail transportation at the shortest distance. The revival of production and, as a result, the increase in the shipment of products are expected with the appearance of a strategic investor at the plant - recently Amurmetal was purchased by the company Torex. "I'm sure the hard times are over. We are making every effort to ensure the future development of the plant, "Vyacheslav Shport, the governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, said in this regard.
The Vanino trade port also operates with imports. The bulk of imported goods is accounted for by alumina, which is consumed by aluminum plants of "Rusal" in Siberia. In recent years, such shipments have maintained at the level of 1,1-1,3 million tons annually. With the participation of the commercial port and the Far Eastern Railway, alternative technologies for transportation of alumina were used, which gave a reserve of the capacity of the BAM infrastructure.
According to Tatiana Shengelia, general director of Trans Vanino Cargo LLC (freight forwarding company), instead of specialized mineral carriers for raw materials, several years ago, gondola cars, which were being unloaded after unloading, were actively used. Today, multi-turn soft containers are used to deliver cargo in an open rolling stock, which are manufactured from polypropylene fabric that does not allow moisture to pass through. In addition, the transport uses sealed liners - a large cloth bag, spread out on the entire gondola car and tied after the loading. "The Far Eastern road allowed to organize a production site at the station of Vanino for the preparation of wagons. And the aluminum plants introduced the technology of unloading raw materials from this container, "said Tatiana Shengelia.
For "Rusal" such transportation provides cost savings. Loading in a new type of packaging affects the processing speed of the vessel and improves the rhythm of the delivery of raw materials by rail. "The production of aluminum is an ongoing process, and the possibilities of placing raw materials in factories are limited. Therefore, it is very important to deliver the alumina rhythmically, in accordance with the declared volumes, "said the general director of LLC" Trans Vanino Cargo ".
We should not forget about the port's role in providing coastal shipping, primarily with Sakhalin, which is connected to the mainland by the Vanino-Kholmsk ferry line. Today it is provided by three specialized vessels that take on board freight cars and autofury. The island thus receives food, feed, fertilizers, oil products. The ferry also accepts cargo for large infrastructure projects. For example, in previous years through Vanino there were a lot of pipes for main gas and oil pipelines, and now equipment for the construction of Sakhalinskaya GRES-2 is coming.
The Vanino knot acquired the greatest importance with the growth of Russian coal exports. According to the Far Eastern Railways, if 2008 million tons of miners' products were delivered to Vanino in 1,1, then 2015 million tons were already delivered to 21,7. This was influenced by the creation of new transshipment facilities. Eight years ago in the Muchke Bay, the terminal of JSC "Daltransugol" (included in JSC "SUEK") earned. At that time, it became the most modern specialized port in the Far East. The complex gradually reached the projected level of handling of 12 million tons annually, after which SUEK began investing in doubling capacities.
According to the results of 2016, the terminal processed 19 million tons of coal, and plans to increase the volume to 2017 million tons in 22. In early January, Daltransugol unloaded 777 cars a day or so - almost 50 wagons, or 6,7%, more than a year ago. The company continues to develop its infrastructure. Last year, it opened traffic on a new connecting path length 3,5 km between the even neck of the Toki Park (Vanino station) and the station of non-public use Terminal, which is part of the port's reloading complex. Then the Terminal-2 station was introduced. According to Vladimir Shapoval, General Director of Daltransugol, it will allow part of the freight trains to bypass Toki by freeing the station capacities for other consignees of the Vanino junction.
This is explained by the appearance of new consignees. In 2017, the construction of the Far Eastern Vanino Port should begin at Cape Burny. The terminal's output for the annual design capacity of 15 million tons is planned for 2021 year. The complex will be focused on exporting products from the Elegest coal deposit (the Republic of Tyva) and other sections of Russia to the countries of South-East Asia.
A major port for the processing of coal and iron ore concentrate near the railway station Dyanka, near Vanino, is currently building Sakhatrans LLC. Such new companies as "Siberian Anthracite", "SDS-Ugol", and "Sibuglemet" are ready to export their products through the new terminal, but the bulk of the cargo turnover of the terminal will be formed due to the shipments of the CM "Kolmar", which develops two ore mining complexes in Yakutia : "Denisovsky" and "Inaglinsky". According to the results of 2017, the company plans to ship about 5 million tons of coal (while transportation is carried out through other terminals in the region), and in 2020 - 14,7 million tons.
With coal products, the active trading port is actively operating. At the beginning of 2017, he daily processed 208 wagons with coal against 126 in 2016. However, the increase in unloading negatively affected the ecological situation of the portside settlement. Local residents held several protest rallies, Rosprirodnadzor drew attention to the problem, which is going to conduct a large-scale check in the summer.
The stevedoring company was assured that they are taking measures to improve environmental safety. Storage areas where coal is stored are reinforced with reinforced concrete fence, dust suppression system is introduced when working with bulk cargo. "The installation for the port of Vanino was purchased precisely taking into account the weather conditions in the region and work directly in the winter, when dusting is intensified due to the delivery of dry coal," Valery Balakin, general director of Port Vanino said. In 2017, stevedore plans to increase the amount allocated for the implementation of environmental measures to 70 million rubles.
"The development strategy of the coal industry of our country is largely oriented towards trade relations with Asia. Meanwhile, coal cargo is not easy to handle in terms of ensuring environmental control. We, as a stevedore company engaged in transshipment of coal, intend to carry out a full range of environmental measures in order to reduce the impact of production processes on the village of Vanino and the water area, "Valery Balakin promised.
Destiny of residents
It would be wrong to say that the future of the Vanino transport hub is connected only with export coal. For example, JSC "Prime" intends to build a specialized terminal for reloading liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). The complex will receive railroad tank cars, and then ship products to sea-going gas carriers, following in the direction of the APR countries. The future stevedore has already been reached agreements with large LPG producers on the transportation of cargo through the future terminal. The volume of investments is estimated at 30,1 billion rubles.
The company "Remstal" plans to work with liquefied hydrocarbon gases, as well as light oil products in the neighboring Vanino of Sovetskaya Gavan. As the Far East Territory Center for Corporate Transport Services (the structure of Russian Railways) reported, it is planned to deliver products to it from the production facilities of Gazprom and Sibur subsidiaries located in Siberia. The forecast volume of cargo processing at the first stage will be 2 million tons annually with the subsequent increase to 10 million tons.
Bunkering of vessels in Vanino intends to engage the company "DV". Its specialized complex will be designed for processing 150 thousand tons annually. “There is a shortage of oil transshipment capacities from the berth to tankers in the region. Our project is aimed primarily at solving this problem. The seaport of Vanino is one of the most dynamically developing in Russia and has the necessary infrastructure for the implementation of such a project, ”said Nikolai Zvorygin, general director of Forum DV.
By the way, this company recently became the second resident of the free port in the Vanino district. The first was the already mentioned LLC "Far East Vanino Port". Investments in the creation of its facilities will amount to 23,6 billion rubles. "The preferences of the free port regime on tax payments and deductions to extra-budgetary funds will save 7,5 billion rubles. For ten years ", - the general director of Open Company« Far East Vaninsky port »Victor Zaranov has counted up.
Obtaining the status of a free port resident will accelerate the project payback, Nikolay Zvorygin specified. “In the future, the possibility of duty-free importation of equipment necessary for activities will play an important role,” the head of Forum DV LLC added.
The application for obtaining the status of the resident of the free port was sent by other investors. Among those who intend to carry out stevedoring activities, LLC Prichal (a subsidiary of GC Rusal). The enterprise intends to build an alumina terminal in the water area of Vanino Bay with the capacity of 1,5 million tons per year. The volume of required investments is more than 5 billion rubles.
In total, according to the beginning of 2017, in the territory of Vaninsky district 19 projects have been preliminarily determined for implementation within the framework of the porto-franco regime with an investment volume of about 86 billion rubles. It is planned that the neighboring Soviet-Havana region will be able to receive this status. According to preliminary estimates, this will attract at least 37 projects with an investment of about 111 billion rubles.
For example, in the plans of LLC "Soviet-Havana Commercial Sea Port" - to build in the terminal a terminal for the shipments of iron ore to 7,1 million tons per year. Work with containers, fish products, grain is offered by Sea Port Novaya Sovetskaya Gavan LLC. The volumes will amount to 3,4 million tons with the subsequent increase to 6 million tons. In the area of the cape, where Remstal plans to build its reloading complex, it intends to create capacities for receiving black oil and diesel fuel of Terminal Black LLC - at the first stage they will amount to 0,4 million T.
The locomotive of growth
Meanwhile, the dynamics of cargo turnover of the Vanino knot depends on the development of the main approaches to it. This year the construction of the Lidoga-Vanino highway (1999 km), which began in 323, should be completed. By now, it remains to asphalt the last section, from 148-th to 155-th km. However, first of all, the increase in transshipment in ports gives the railway communication. At present, the annual carrying capacity of the single-track Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Sovetskaya Gavan line amounts to 33 million tons. In 2008, when the project for its development was launched (in 2013 was included in the modernization program of the Eastern RZD landfill), it did not exceed 12 million During this time, many stations were reconstructed and constructed, some second routes were laid along some of the distances, and a new Kuznetsovsky tunnel was built, which made it possible to exclude the narrowest point on this railway line.
According to Sergey Drokin, Deputy Chief Engineer of Far Eastern Railways, due to modernization from 2013 year, the Far Eastern road increases the carrying capacity by 7-10% annually, which allows to ensure the growth of cargo traffic to seaports. After the implementation of the Eastern Polygon program to 2020, the infrastructure in the direction of the Vanino junction will be ready to provide transportation at the level of 37,1 million tons. Works are also being carried out on other railroad tracks. In particular, according to the results of the year 2017, the carrying capacity of the BAM sections should increase: Tynda - New Urgal - from 19 to 25 million tons, New Urgal - Komsomolsk-on-Amur - from 18 to 22 million tons, Volochaevka-2 - Komsomolsk-on -Amure - from 19 to 22 million tons.
At the same time, the amount of consignments sent to Vanino and Sovgavan can exceed the target value of the Eastern Landfill program. Due to current stevedores and future residents of the free port, the potential cargo turnover of the Vanino-Sovgavan hub to 2025 can reach 83-86 million tons annually, and in 2030 exceed 100 million tons.
According to the director of the institute "Dalgiprotrans" Alexei Lobov, at one time the specialists of the project organization developed five stages of the development of the single-track Komsomolsk-on-Amur line - Sovgavan. The first two are being realized today within the framework of the program for the modernization of the Eastern range to 2020. The third and fourth stages include the construction of a continuous second track between Komsomolsk and Vanino. This will require at least 185 billion rubles, but as a result, the carrying capacity of the line will increase to 110 million tons. The fifth stage should be electrification, which should be done together with the Volochaevka-2-Komsomolsk-on-Amur site. Total costs in last year's prices will amount to 55 billion rubles. As a result, the railway will be able to provide transportation to the Vanino-Sovgavan junction at the level of 140 million tons per year.
At the same time, the construction of the second track must be carried out on a new route. "Engineering-geological conditions for the passage of the line are unique and complex for the network of Russian Railways. This is determined by the rough terrain, the combination of rocky and weak soils at the base of the roadbed, the very complex tectonic conditions of the area, the presence of areas with increased seismicity, "said Sergei Kudryavtsev, vice-rector for scientific work at the Far Eastern State Transport University. The specialists of the railway formed and sent to RZhD an investment application for the further development of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur-Vanino plot with the construction of second roads. The final decision should be made at the level of the Government of the Russian Federation.