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"In the DFO, we must work with reality"
VCIOM shared such different assessments of the Far East
The image of the Far East as a territory of dynamic development in the minds of Russians has received an increasing spread over the past three years. For this it is necessary to be grateful to the mass media, who have worked on this way. But with the very reality that the Far Eastern themselves do not value very well, according to the director of the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion Valery Fedorov, there is still "work to be done." "This sphere is more dense, it requires fivefold efforts," he said at a meeting with sociologists and representatives of the press, which took place on Wednesday in the electronic room of the Presidential Library in the Pacific State University.
- We have been working with them for a long time, and the data that I will give were obtained as a result of the research that we conducted last summer, in July-August 2017. Here, two components are the all-Russian poll, where we interviewed exactly those who, as a rule, never visited the Far East, and we studied the internal image of the region by interviewing the respondents already here in the Far Eastern Federal District, "the head of VTsIOM said.
According to him, "in the mental map of our compatriots the Far East and its development potential ranks fourth".
- The place is stable, confirmed by our polls in both 2016 and 2017. Forward missed the Central, European part of Russia, Crimea and the South, but outstripped Siberia, the Urals, the Northwest, the Volga region. A place, I would say, is not bad, - noted the guest of Khabarovsk sociologists.
THEY ABOUT US
According to VTsIOM, among the potential for the development of the region and the advantages of life in the Far East, Russians called both tangible and intangible factors.
- People believe that there is an opportunity here to earn good money and provide for their family. In second place is the environmental situation, Russians think that it is not bad here, in third place is the affordability of housing. And then there is such an interesting factor as the proximity to the regions of Southeast Asia, some, probably, at the same time think about Thailand and Indonesia. And then, in decreasing order: opportunities for career and professional growth, for work in a specialty, the possibility of educating children, but they talk about it less often. Developed infrastructure is rarely talked about, and the possibility of sports and cultural leisure is the least pronounced attractive feature of the Far East. I repeat: in the first place is money, and there is an opinion that you can earn good money here, - said Valery Fedorov.
He added that Russians were also asked to assess how life in the Far East differs from life in their own place of permanent residence. “Our cooperation with the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East already has its own history, from 2015 to 2017 there is a certain dynamic here,” said Fedorov.
“It can be seen that richness and culture are clearly not the strongest side of the Far East, this is the reddest segment,” he commented on the slides of his presentation. - The quality of educational services is also not smooth here, although the respondents, probably, have not been to the University of the Pacific. But with the environment, everything is much better than with the places of permanent residence of Russians. Better, by the way, is the Far East in terms of the possibilities of starting your own business. That is, for some, the Far East is an empty zone, which means that an unoccupied niche can be taken and hilled up. And also in the positive zone there is such an interesting factor as communication between people, relations between them, - the researcher continues. - There is an opinion, as we can see from this survey, and it is quite stable that relations between people are better here than in the cities of the respondents' residence. I do not know what it is based on this opinion, but it is.
According to Fedorov, in addition to representations of Russians about the Far East, as a place where you can earn (business opportunity), there is also the idea that you can also find a job for a highly paid job.
- Now let's move on to the estimates of your fellow countrymen, here are all the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, the dynamics are again in three years. The diagram shows the difference between positive and negative answers, that is, between the proportion of those who are satisfied and who are not satisfied, the general director of VTsIOM goes to the "clearing" of the Far East's internal ideas about themselves. - The greenest thing in Chukotka, for all three years, indicators 22, 24, 26, respectively.
Also in Yakutia is not bad enough, although in recent years the downward trend is likely to be dealt with by Aisen Nikolayev, the new governor-in-charge.
And other regions have different ways. On Sakhalin, we see improvements, if in previous years we saw a negative balance, now there is a significant improvement. In Kamchatka, we also see that the region is emerging from the negative zone, but only in 2017 the balance has shifted to a positive direction.
In the Khabarovsk Territory we see jumps, in 2015 this is + 16, in 2016 - zero balance, this means that the share of satisfied people is equal to the share of those who are dissatisfied, well, in 2017 again in positive territory, they have risen higher.
The Amur Region is in a negative. Therefore, probably, the governor was appointed minister of the entire Far East, will solve the problems of the whole macroregion.
And in Magadan Oblast, we see a rather negative trend, and a new governor. Of course, the anti-leader, I will not open any new secrets for you, the Jewish Autonomous Region, a steadily negative balance, in 2017, minus 9.
But, as Alexander Levintal said at the last East Economic Forum, after seeing these data, the federal center can not but plan the allocation of increased amounts of funding to the EAO. I admired him. This is a real ability to turn weakness into strength.
The views of Russians and residents of the Far East on the region as a territory for priority development differ, too, Valery Fedorov noted.
- State policy in relation to the Far East, here they compared two target audiences - the Far East and not the Far East, but the citizens of Russia. We gave a number of judgments and asked our respondents to treat them in one way or another. That is the priority of the development of the Far East for the President of the Russian Federation, a priority or not? Yes, it is a priority, according to 42% of Russians, and only 24% of the Far East. The difference between declarations and real life is very clear here, - said the head of the main center for the study of opinions in the country.
According to VTsIOM, 41% of Russians believe that the Russian government supports the development policy of the Far East, while Far Eastern Russians - only 28%. But when testing a negative judgment: “The Far East is no different from other regions of Russia, and the Russian leadership does not attach much importance to it”, he was supported by 12% of Russians and 28% of residents of the Far Eastern Federal District.
- The most negative judgment was that the development of the Far East is carried out on a residual principle. Total 7% of Russians think so, and among the Far Easterners this opinion is the most popular - 32%, - noted the disproportion in the assessments sociologist.
According to him, the same imbalance was shown by a sample of characteristics of the processes taking place in the Far East. If the respondents in Russia chose such "epithets" as priority (22%), modern (23%), stable (17%), innovative (17%), then among local residents the leaders are slow (32%), passive ( 23%), stable (23%), priority (15%), modern (19%).
- This suggests that the dynamics of the macroregion's development seems to be high from the outside, and not high enough for those who live here. Although it is also impossible to say that there are no signs of the development of some new interesting projects either, - summed up the interlocutor of those who had gathered for a meeting at PNU.
PROMISE - DOES NOT MEAN MARRIED
- The well-known "Far Eastern hectare", you probably already tired, so many copies around it broke. But sociological research is needed to confirm our feelings or refute them. I propose these figures to compare whether you are going along with our people or vice versa, - the Moscow speaker replaced the topic.
According to him, awareness of the hectare is quite high: among local residents it is 87%, of which 37 is very well informed. Among Russians, awareness is 62%. The attractiveness of obtaining a hectare among the Far East - 24%, among Russians - 20. "20 percent - this is the order of 23 million people have a great interest in the" Far Eastern hectare. " But to promise is not to marry. This truth is also understood by many, "added Valery Fedorov.
Separately, he dwelled on migration forecasts and moods. Thus, among the Far Easterners over the course of all three years, 55-59% of the respondents say that they have no desire to leave, and from 40 to 43% would like to leave. “This is most pronounced in the youngest group, 18-24 years old, but this is not the specificity of the region and not the specificity of Russia, but a phenomenon in all countries of the world. It is young people who are the most mobile, they have the least obligations and most resources, health, desires, and aspirations. And with age, we see that the desire to leave is much less, but among pensioners from the Far East, only 23% are thinking about leaving, ”the head of VTsIOM commented on the numerical layouts.
Among the Russians for 2017 year 23% had no plans to move to the Far East, but 9% said that there are such plans for relocation. Another 27% answered that they had thought about such plans, but did not make any efforts. "Practice shows that they are realizing their intentions to move from 9% only 1%", - said Fedorov.
He also specified from which regions of the Far East are eager to leave for the mainland. So, in the Magadan region this is from 60 to 64%, this is the first place in the Far Eastern Federal District, the second position behind Chukotka is from 52 to 57%. In Yakutia, the percentage of potential otgezhantov grew from 40 to 56 in three years.
"If I'm not mistaken, at the presidential elections Yakutia was the leader in voting for the popular candidate Grudinin, so the relationship between the desires to leave and change of power can be seen quite clearly," commented the general director of the center.
In Kamchatka, the number of those wishing to leave has grown to 50%. In the Khabarovsk Territory, on the contrary, there has been a positive trend - from 46% fell to 43. On Sakhalin, migration sentiments are growing, from 27 to 44%. “This trend is at odds with the proportion of those who are satisfied with life in the region, that is, our satisfaction is improving, but not at the pace that is necessary,” Fedorov said.
According to him, the situation looks best in Primorsky Krai, in the last two years it's 33% wishing to leave.
Among the reasons why people want to leave the Far East, the most common is low income, salaries are not satisfied (29%). Lack of opportunities for professional implementation - 21%. Not satisfied with the level of infrastructure development, living conditions in general - 31%. The high cost of living, the imbalance between expenses and income - 29%. Unfavorable climate - 23%. “Everything here falls into decay, it’s uncomfortable to live here” - 22%.
"Every fifth person who wants to leave does not see any trends for development, does not see a purposeful policy for the development of the region and believes that everything goes in the opposite direction and the region is degrading. But almost no one wants to leave because of the high level of crime, social tension or low level of culture, - summed up Valery Fedorov.
COSMIC PROSPECTS AND PROTEST
Answering media questions, Valery Fyodorov noted that the Far East is a protest region, but not a support region for the Communist Party.
- The Far Eastern regions are more protest - when the results of the elections are summed up, Chukotka, Magadan, Sakhalin, Kamchatka - their results are not a very pleasant surprise for those who are watching them in Moscow. We have been doing this for a quarter of a century, and we know that these are protest regions. But the protest is not shifted to the red, then not to the zone of sympathy for the Communist Party. Rather - to the Liberal Democratic Party, at least as long as it is headed by Vladimir Volfovich. There is a protest potential, people's moods, but is there a protest reality, an opportunity and a need to really find people, take to the streets and defend their rights, express their discontent. One does not always go over to the other, - the sociologist issued his verdict on the possibilities of the revolutionary situation in the Far Eastern Federal District.
Valery Fedorov also highly appreciated the efforts of the media to create an image of the Far East from the domestic audience. "What do those who do not live here think about you? This is the territory of development, innovation, advanced progress. The media did a good job: the picture of the Far East today for those who have never been here and will not be, it's not decay, degradation, collapse, bridges and roads that are being built, and even space cruisers that plow the galaxy's expanses. "Five" to the media. But now we need to work with reality. This sphere is more dense, and it requires fivefold efforts, "Fedorov said.