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In the Bohai stone spirals (photo of the day)

Travelers from Khabarovsk explored one of the Far Eastern mysteries of antiquity

"I just looked at Google maps for something interesting. At 10 km from the village of Terney in the Terneysky district of Primorsky Krai "discovered" the archaeological complex, - said East Russia phototraveler Cyril Chernykh. It appeared that there were buildings of Bohai culture (VI-IX century AD). One of them is the remains of the castle, the other is the signal tower, and the destination of the third one, consisting of several rings tapering to the top, is for certain unknown. Someone put forward a version with a temple. I went there, and returned with my hypothesis. "

In the Bohai stone spirals (photo of the day)
Photo: Kirill Chernykh
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"The next summer and vacation coincided with the idea that it is interesting to touch the historical part of the Far East. What was here before? Which states? Why is the story about them so meager? 

My route ran to the north of the Primorsky Territory, through the village of Terney, which has already become the goal of my travels more than once. I walked through the Sikhote-Alin Reserve, and further, to the north, through the taiga, to the remnants of the buildings of the state of Bohai, which was the first state formation-the state of the Tungus Manchurians, located in Manchuria, the Primorye Territory and in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

We made a friend early in the morning, having breakfasted hastily. They threw backpacks behind their backs, crossed from the village to the left bank of the Serebryanka, and moved up along the river bed. "

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"First the road, and then the trail walked along the mountains, mixing traces of people and animals, boots and deer hoofs, sometimes traces of a bear, but old, about a week ago, and he is not the master here in the kingdom of Ussuri tigers who are in the village although they do not, they regularly fall into the objectives of the protected photo traps.

My friend Eugene, being an employee of the reserve, could easily read the tracks and told about their owners: "Here was the otter," he explained. - But her house is not here, otherwise there would already be a path. And this was a bear, but it's small, its paw is not large, and even after the rains the track has blurred, it seems wider. "

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"It was not so difficult to reach the place of destination, although there were big blockages, after the typhoon Lionroc (August 2016 - East Russia) in some places can still be seen felled forests. The climb up the hill was steep, but in such places it is conventionality. It was more difficult to return back, we took a neighboring peak to capture the mountain from the side, because we made an additional climb and descent.

So, enriching along the way with new knowledge about forest inhabitants, we reached the foot of the unknown nameless mountain. It is at its top (444 m. - East Russia) there are picturesque wreckage of the structure of the Bohai, the destination of which can not yet be explained by archeologists. It looks like the remnants of a ramparts encircling the top of a mountain, like a spiral swirling to the very top. "

Video: Cyril Chernykh 

Video: Victor Chernyshov

"It is assumed that this is a fortress, but a spiral is, in my opinion, a road, and for wheeled vehicles!" And at the top is a viewing point, from which a stunning landscape opens on the Sikhote-Alin.

We saw the shaft, first expressed vaguely, like pieces of rock that just took the right shape, like, for example, on the Nanyu rocky cliffs, or in the "Tiger House" - local sights covered with myths and legends. "

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There was no one to write about these parts of the legend: the state of Bohai that reached its heyday, which was spread in these parts, was eventually broken down, some of the inhabitants moved to present-day China and Korea, some remained in these parts, and the Udege, the indigenous inhabitants of these regions, These are the remains of those tribes and peoples that inhabited the Bohai state.

After Bohai was conquered, these regions have finally stayed away from wars and civilization. In Europe, the Inquisition was introduced and abolished, new empires were created and old ones collapsed, new continents were opened, and peace reigned over the Ussuri taiga. The owner here was a tiger, local residents - scattered nationalities that became hunters and fishermen. And only fragments of fortresses and watchtowers remind of the events that once raged in this region. "

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Photos in material: Cyril Chernykh

History

Bohai (Chinese 渤海) or Parhe (cor.발해) (698-926), - the first state of the Tungus-Manchus, located on the territory of Manchuria, Primorsky Krai, and in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. After twenty years of resistance to the Khitan onslaught, the state of Bohai fell in 926. In its place, the Khitan created the vassal state of Dundan. Many Bohai people were forcibly resettled into Khitan territory. But the remaining Bohai population continued to fight for a long time. It raised uprisings, fled to Koryo, created a number of its own states - Late Bohai, Ding'an, Osason. Part of the Bohai fled to Koryo. According to many scholars, the provincial population of Bohai later became known as Jurchens..

The Bohai state was the first early state formation on the territory of the Russian Far East. It included large areas of Manchuria, Primorye and North Korea. In the north, it coexisted with the tribal association Heishui Mohe (“Heishui” - Black River - the ancient Chinese common name for the Amur and its tributaries), in the northwest - with the ancient Mongols (Shiwei), and in the southwest - with the Khitan, in the south - with the Korean state of Silla. 
   
The main reason for the emergence of the Bohai state was the presence of a productive economy (agriculture and animal husbandry) among the most developed Mohe tribes. However, the immediate impetus for the unification of the Mohesians into a single union, and then into a state, was the military pressure from the neighbors - first Kogure and the Turks, and then the Chinese Tang Empire. In the first half of the 630th century, the Chinese began active wars of conquest against the peoples of Central Asia, Manchuria and Korea. In 668, the First Khaganate of the Turkic nomads was destroyed, in XNUMX the ancient Korean state of Goguryeo.    

After the defeat of Goguryeo after the defeat of Goguryeo in the northern border regions of China (Yingzhou district, modern Chaoyang city), part of the mohe sumo, after thirty years of life in Chinese captivity, took advantage of the Khitan uprising in 696-697. and went northeast to their ancestral lands. This group of sumo mohe and part of the Kogures who came with them from under Yingzhou became the military-political nucleus around which the mohe was united. They successfully repelled the Chinese army sent to punish them, and in 698, their leader Da Zuorong proclaimed the formation of the state of Zhen. In 713, after the normalization of relations with the Chinese Tang empire, the state received a new name Bohai, under which it went down in history.   
 
Having received an award for "possession of Bohai" from Tang China, Da Zuorong formally recognized the suzerainty of the Tang empire over his state. His duties as a vassal ruler consisted in sending one of his sons to the Tang court as a hostage, in the regular sending of ambassadors to the Tang with "tribute". Many neighboring states had similar relations with China, in particular, the Korean state of Silla. The degree of dependence of these states on the Tang was inversely proportional to their military and economic power, as well as their distance from the empire. In the case of Bohai, his vassalage manifested itself where he was beneficial the Bohai rulers. Thus, the "tribute" and the "gifts" received in response to it were actually a form of international trade beneficial to both parties. Receiving the high title of wang (king) from the Chinese "Son of Heaven" raised the prestige of the ruler both in the eyes of his subjects and among the countries and peoples surrounding Bohai.    

At the same time, being unable to conquer Bohai by military means, China could not in any way significantly influence the domestic and foreign policy of this state. Bohai never once responded to China's demands for military assistance in its wars with its neighbors. Da Zozhong's successors significantly expanded the kingdom's territory and raised its international prestige among the Far Eastern countries. The most prominent Bohai rulers were Da Qinmao (737 - 793), under which a system of five capitals was formed, and Da Renxiu (818-830), during whose reign Bohai reached its peak and even heishui mohe were conquered by the Bohai. Country became universally accepted center of culture and education ", - reported
on the website of the Far Eastern Geological Institute.
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