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Managing in a new way
Primorsky Krai intends to implement priorities through the project model
In business, the project management method has been used for a long time and has established itself as an effective tool for the implementation of complex and multi-stage tasks. Now this technology is coming to government bodies. In many regions, project management is used to implement specific initiatives. The Primorsky Territory along this path has advanced much further than others, becoming practically the only entity where an independent executive body has been created to manage projects - the project management department. Moreover, Primorye is the first of the Far Eastern regions to introduce a project management system into the work of executive authorities. And as the competition, which identifies the best practices for implementing project management in government bodies - the all-Russian "Project Olympus 2016", has shown - Primorye coped with this task more than successfully.
Before the systems of state administration in the Far East in recent years, several unordinary tasks have been posed, the effectiveness of which is not high by conventional methods. The Government of the Russian Federation designated the priority - the development of the Far East. Today, unprecedented measures have been created to support the Far Eastern regions, large-scale projects of state significance have been launched and are being implemented, first of all, projects for creating territories for outpacing socio-economic development, and attractiveness mechanisms for large international investors. Effective implementation of all these plans is impossible without transparency in management, personalization of responsibility, efficiency and validity of decisions made.
Technologies of project management just allow to reach the set goals, coordinate and increase the effectiveness of interaction of all project participants, implement projects in conditions of limited resources.
"Development, especially in current macroeconomic and political conditions, is simply impossible on the" old "government platform. If the management is aimed at the effectiveness of its activities, then to solve unique and priority tasks without project management can not do ", - says the director for work with government customers of the GC" Project PRACTICE "Ivan Filimoshkin. "If we talk about the region, then it faces a lot of diverse tasks that require the implementation of a large number of projects and programs. At the same time, the budget is one, the number of government bodies is limited. We have to choose which projects to implement, to what extent, what to emphasize special attention. To this end, special tools and a mechanism for project management have been developed, "agrees the vice-president of the Project Management Association SOVNET, an adviser to the head of the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation Yuri Trubitsyn.
In Primorsky Krai, the first in the Far East took the words of President Vladimir Putin, said in June 2015, about the need to create in each region special headquarters, project offices, which were the direct guide to action. In the structure of the authorities of Primorye, the Department of Project Management has appeared - a specialized body responsible for the implementation of the project-oriented system. The Governor of the province Vladimir Miklushevsky headed the project committee - this structure takes decisions on the opening of projects and programs, monitors the project activity at the top level.
Today experts distinguish three main types of management: process management, commission management and project management. Each type is effective in different situations.
- The process format is useful for repetitive tasks, for example, if you bake a certain amount of cakes every day or organize meetings in the civil service. The most effective thing is to debug the process and follow the algorithm every time. Leads are suitable for solving a specific problem or short-term task. Moreover, such problems and tasks can arise both in process and in project activities. Finally, when it is required to create a unique product or achieve a specific result with limited resources, to establish interaction with a large circle of participants, then project management is used. The bottom line is that the work is transferred from vertical subordination to the horizontal plane. A team of specialists from various fields is formed who work for a clearly defined goal, the work of each team member is planned in detail. At the same time, responsibility is completely personalized, each task has someone who is responsible for the result. Project management allows you to track the influence of external factors on the project, adjust actions, predict possible project risks, and choose a strategy for working with them. Only one thing remains unchanged - the goal of the project, - believes Yuri Trubitsyn.
The meaning of the project management is simple: the project creates a unique product in conditions of limitations, explain in the profile department of the administration of Primorye. Any project is focused on concentrating resources on solving priority problems. There were five such in Primorye.
First, the federal priority is to improve the investment climate. For this purpose, the project format is recommended by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives. Secondly, the creation of infrastructure facilities for the territories of advanced socio-economic development: for TOR "Nadezhdinskaya", "Mikhailovsky" and "Bolshoi Kamen."
"The choice of TOP projects as pilot was obvious. These are complex projects with strict parameters on terms and budget, requiring effective communication of a large number of participants - federal and regional authorities, grid companies and residents, "the project department explains. Thirdly, the project format "tried on" an important event - the second Pacific Tourist Forum. "We tried to cover the main types of possible projects - infrastructure, management and events," the department says.
The advantage of the set of projects chosen in Primorye is that all of these are significant tasks for the region, the results of which should demonstrate the success of new management methods, recognizes Yuri Trubitsyn. “I would call it a risk that they all have a long implementation horizon and complex structural composition. Perhaps this is even more a program than a project. This makes the control problem more difficult. But if this problem is solved, it will be easier in the future. I would advise in these projects to allocate stages to demonstrate real results, “quick wins,” says the expert.
The authorities realized that without changing approaches to managing priority tasks, they will not be able to fulfill them - they will not have enough time. True, the project management is becoming in some places and "in a bad fashion": "when all of a sudden people start using terms and concepts, content with the outer shell and without missing the meanings behind these concepts," warns Yuri Trubitsyn. "This is one of the ways of the" established system "to counteract changes: to violently agree, formally report, reduce to familiar forms and, ultimately," survive "and this wave. Often this is accompanied by a deliberate or unintentional distortion of meanings, hidden or open sabotage, and leads to the discrediting of the whole idea, "the expert says.
"A project is always getting specific results in a specific time frame. If you can arrange to receive these results, relying only on existing processes or on an errand - you do not have to start a project. The project requires special expenses for its organization, creation for the duration of the project implementation of special temporary roles, temporary rules for their interaction, change of powers. These are additional difficulties, and they can be justified only by one - the significance of the goals achieved with the help of this project, "he continues. For each project in its passport, the goal, objectives, financial resources and organizational structure are determined. The result is visible from the goal. For example, a list of transport and utility infrastructure facilities with technical characteristics. The criterion for the success of the project is its implementation on time and budget. In the beginning and end point everything is simple, but what's between?
It is not easy to overturn the established ideas about how to manage. For a year of work, the Department of Project Management of Primorye has developed and approved a package of normative documents and methodologies. This is the basic Project Code that defines the concepts and regulating the activities of government bodies at all stages of the life cycle of projects - from initiation to completion, and a model of project competencies that selects employees who are most effective in project activities, as well as the Concept Development of project culture, explaining that the project management is primarily a special moral attitude of specialists: to achieve results, to teamwork, to work "baa ties ".
If the process of creating, for example, the infrastructure of the TOP was going in the usual format, it is obvious that the typical management tasks would be solved by the officials using the same methods. In particular, the holding of a mass of meetings, following which the protocols are usually born. On the basis of the protocols, instructions are sent to each department responsible for complying with them in a timely manner.
In the project approach for the implementation of the project, his supervisor personally answers. The task of the project manager is to link the numerous links and orient them to the result, assess the risks and minimize them.
"In the logic of project management, the project is not entrusted with the project, but at the start of the project it is determined, that is," agree "on what results should be received, in what terms, what resources to allocate, what conditions to create for obtaining these results," Yury Trubitsyn explains. - Arrangements are fixed in the project passport as a comprehensive solution: results against resources and conditions. And if resources, conditions or requirements for results change, then all arrangements can be revised. This is also very different from the exaggerated logic of decision-making in the "command system": "no matter what", "at any cost". Therefore, when implementing project management, it is extremely important to understand, agree and actively participate in the organization's first person. "
Such a management structure multiply increases the efficiency and transparency of decision making, makes the participants of the process a real team - this approach is typical for business. In Primorye, the project teams have already included employees of not only the profile department, but also other departments - the Department of Agriculture and Food, the Department of Transport and Road Facilities, the Department of Housing and Fuel Resources, the Department of Industry, the Primorsky Territory Investment Agency, Primorskiy Vodokanal and others.
How important coordination in any project is, shows an example of improving the investment climate. In Primorye, the role of a functional project office (that is, specializing in a particular area) in this area is performed by the Primorsky Territory Investment Agency. The agency acts as a link between representatives of government and business. It became a platform for regular strategic sessions with the participation of representatives of business, the scientific community, and public associations. In 2016, more than 120 experts took part in the discussions, 500 proposals were received, of which about 70% are included in the "road maps" to improve the investment climate.
In Primorsky Krai, Ivan Filimoshkin believes, they applied the practice of selecting pilot projects "truly right, choosing strategically important and at the same time managed projects." "Among the pilot, I would first of all singled out a program to increase investment attractiveness. Being one of the authors of methodical recommendations on application of project management in solving such problems, I believe that creating conditions for business development and attracting investments can be effectively implemented only in the form of portfolio management and interlinked performance of projects and non-project activities in this portfolio, "the expert says. .
At the annual competition “Project Olympus-2016”, which is held by the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation, the region received first place in the nomination “Organization of Project Office Activities” and the third in the nomination “Integrated Project Management System”.
Over the year, Primorsky Krai "managed to create the main elements of the project management system - the regulatory framework, the project management bodies, the information system and, most importantly, the competent staff, the same elements have yet to be created at the federal level. The regional administration can already "act as a full participant in the formation of a single vertically integrated project management system in the Russian Federation," Ivan Filimoshkin believes. "But what exactly it is not necessary to do to the regions is to wait on the part of the federal center for" guidance to action "and only" to do as it is written and recommended, "he warns.
It is in the regions that the largest number of initiatives for the introduction of project management in the government are now concentrated, says Yury Trubitsyn. Federal initiatives to implement project management are only in the stage of launching, and in some ways the regions-leaders really overtook the center. But at the Russian level now "unlike regions where often only the project management is possible at the first stages, only management of project activities is said, and this is programs and portfolios," the expert stresses. This will give the regions a chance to more systematically look at their project activities and identify steps to modernize it. The Center also directs the subjects to analyze the current objectives of the projects - their correct wording and adjustment determines the success of the project.
“Another hope of the regions is editing the law on civil service in order to make possible the material motivation of officials for participating in projects. A systemic solution of this issue must be found, ”he notes. The expert recommends "to closely monitor the work and recommendations that come from the federal center at the regional level, but not to try to copy them, but to analyze what has been done, to identify areas for improvement."
Among the best practices of Primorye, which are worthy of replication, Ivan Filimonoshkin lists the formation of a central project office and the appointment of a coordinator of project activities from the top management of the region. "Another best practice is the attention paid to the formation of the project culture. It is enough to go to the site of the Department of Project Management of Primorsky Krai to discover not only the concept of the development of that culture, but also how this culture begins to "germinate" among civil servants, "he said. According to Yuri Trubitsyn, in Primorye they proposed an "independent, original model" of competences in the field of project management, which relies on universally recognized standards and regional developments in assessing the personal competencies of civil servants. "The topic is extremely important and complex. It will be interesting to follow the approbation and development of the model. This experience can clearly be used in other regions, "he said.
At the same time, the project management in Primorsky Krai is only now at the stage of formation. "And the most difficult is yet to come, we must systematically and consistently move forward. We need convincing evidence of the effectiveness of project management and a systematic expansion of the circle of supporters. " "Project management should be replicated exactly where it is effective. And effectively project management is primarily where there is an understanding of the purpose and limited resources, and first of all time - the only irreplaceable resource. It is very important here not to get carried away and not to start using project approaches to manage operations, as it happened in some other regions, "Ivan Filimoshkin believes.
Project management in the public sector is receiving increasing attention: the introduction of project management methods is determined by one of the key tools to increase the effectiveness of the government and executive authorities and is fixed in a new version of the Basic Directions of the Government of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2018, signed 14 May 2015 by the Chairman of the Government Dmitry Medvedev.
The "Project Olympus" contest is conducted by the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation from the year 2014. Federal and regional ministries, departments, subordinate institutions, state companies, state corporations and development institutions, companies with state participation, regional administrations, governments of the constituent entities of the Federation, executive bodies are invited to participate in the competition.
In 2016, the Central Bank, the Avtodor Group of Companies, the Project Management Departments of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Primorsky Krai were announced the winners of the competition.