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Threat to China
The countries of the Asia-Pacific region are watching with growing interest the anti-corruption company that is going on in China for more than three years
The campaign itself officially "kicked off" in November 2012 after the XNUMXth CCP Congress. Corruption in China is indeed a problem that even the ruling Communist Party admits.
And, of course, the latest anti-corruption campaign was far from the only one in the practice of the Chinese leadership. However, it stands out for its duration - it has been stepped over in three years - and its breadth of coverage.
This is widely promoted by the Chinese media both at home and abroad. As a result, many, in particular in Russia, even envy the citizens of China that they have such a strict government and laws towards dishonest officials that spare even the most high-ranking and influential "servants of the people".
However, paradoxically, but over the years, despite the executions and life imprisonment of officials who dared to covet the state treasury and use their position for personal gain, corruption in China not only did not diminish, but also grew to such an extent that the party already openly calls it a threat to his power.
For several decades, the ruling regime in the PRC has been "resolutely and fiercely" fighting this pernicious phenomenon.
Without a doubt, the apparatus of state and public administration in China is the largest apparatus of this type in the world. A natural question arises: is this stratum breaking away from the people themselves, starting to live their own lives, neglecting public interests?
Of course, not everyone passes the test of authority. Today, even the main defects affecting this system have been officially identified.
- The value of connections and disregard for the law.
- Practice of presentations and gifts.
- Lack of distinction between public and private.
- Addiction to exclusive powers.
- Lack of ideals.
- Fall of moral foundations.
- Growth of greed.
- Social anemia.
Part of these vices is corruption, which is being fought relentlessly today. The leader of this struggle is the current Chairman of the CPC Xi Jinping, who believes that: "Either the party will defeat corruption, or corruption will defeat the party." After all, it is precisely the abuses of power, as they say in China, that give rise to "red eye disease" - indignation at the blatant stratification of property and impunity of party and government officials, expressed in popular concern.
And corruption issues are now of great concern to the Chinese society. According to opinion polls carried out in China, corruption is one of the ten most troubling problems for Chinese people; 65,9% of Chinese women generally consider corruption to be the main element that affects the maintenance of stability in Chinese society. Stability in society is the main task of its power. And in order to preserve it, in the fight against corruption in China there are no untouchables and there are no small, unimportant cases.
The slogan of today's struggle is the postulate that everyone should be destroyed - both "flies" and "tigers".
But do not think that the fight against abuse of power in China today is a company-by-company activity and began only recently. The fight against this began not with the arrival of a new leader, but was waged for a long time and continues with a noticeable increase. It is in this that the leadership of the country, delegated by the people, sees the guarantee of success - in constancy and immutability. For, according to the leadership of the PRC, it is the taint of power that jeopardizes the reputation of both the government itself and the party and the entire country before the rest of the world.
From 2000 to 2006, investigative actions were carried out against over 200 thousand corrupt officials. From January 2003 to August 2006, 67 government officials were punished. In seven years, the level of public satisfaction with the fight against corruption on social issues has increased from 5005 to 33 percent.
According to the Disciplinary Commission under the CPC Central Committee, six ways have been identified by which officials make wealth, these are: the distribution of land use permits, loan permits, tax reduction permits, manipulation of the stock market, cover for contraband or direct participation in it, provision of construction contracts for a fee. In a number of districts it has already become common for a corrupt official to send his relatives abroad and then transfer the money obtained by illegal means to them.
Here are just a few examples of corruption and the punishment of corrupt officials.
For example, he was expelled from the party, removed from all posts and brought to trial 57-year-old ex-vice-mayor of Beijing Liu Zhihua. Liu Zhihua was dismissed from the position of a mayor because, according to the report of the CCP's Central Commission for Disciplinary Inspection, "as a representative of the top leadership, he completely ignored the spirit of the party and inflicted not only a heavy socio-political blow, but also great economic losses." Liu was accused of accepting bribes worth several million yuan using the capacity of the vice-mayor and secretary general of the Beijing Municipal Government. He used the methods already noted: since 1999, overseeing real estate, sports and road projects in the Chinese capital, he transferred orders of contracts to his mistress.
The mayor of a small town in southern China, Li Weimin, was sentenced to 20 years in prison for misusing nearly $ 14 million of budget funds. The ex-mayor lost all this amount in casinos in Hong Kong and Macau, having visited them 250 times.
The head of the National Bureau of Statistics, Qiu Xiaohua, was arrested for abuses in the amount of $ 1,25 million; Chairman of the Shenzhen Court of Bankruptcy Commission, who sold enterprises for pennies to his people; Zhu Junyi, head of the Shanghai social insurance department, arrested; Chen Lianyu, secretary of the Shanghai City Party, who was also a member of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee, was also arrested for abuse of funds from the Social Insurance Fund.
Only at the beginning 2000-x one official was shot, two were sentenced to suspended death. One of them, the assistant to the mayor of the Chinese city of Qingdao, was sentenced to death for bribery in the amount of 2 thousand dollars. The mayor's assistant, in exchange for money, provided contracts for the reconstruction of real estate, as well as the rights to lease and use land.
Often, without waiting for conviction, the guilty officials pass judgment on themselves.
The mayor of the Chinese city of Korla in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, against which a criminal case was opened on charges of corruption, committed suicide.
Vice Mayor of the Chinese city of Jilin, where an explosion occurred at a chemical plant and toxic substances were released into the Songhua River, Wang Wei was found dead in his home. Wang Wei stated immediately after the explosion that there was no danger of contamination of the area. However, later it became known that more than 100 tons of toxic substances got into the Sungari River, reaching Khabarovsk, and causing an international scandal.
Former deputy head of the Beijing Seismological Bureau, Du Fulai, was sentenced to 300 years in prison for embezzling 11 yuan of public funds. The special status of the territories does not help either. So for taking bribes, the head of the Transport and Labor Administration of the Macau Special Territory, Ou Wenlong, was arrested.
In the wake of a string of scandals involving social funds, the Department of Labor and Welfare ordered all regional offices to establish rapid reporting and released data that recently $ 900 million from these funds were misappropriated by various individuals. Ministry Vice Minister Liu Yongfu said that "poorly organized leadership in some places left loopholes for crime and huge losses."
On October 22, 2013, while reporting to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Attorney General of the People's Republic of China Cao Jianming noted that between January 2008 and August 2013-th Prosecutors across China initiated and investigated 151 cases against 350 people, among whom 198 were county-level officials, 781 were departmental cadres, and 13 were regional leaders, including a member of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee, the head of the Shanghai CPC City Committee Chen Liangyu (sentenced to 368 years in prison) and the head of the Chongqing CPC city committee Bo Xilai (sentenced to life imprisonment).
In 2014, more than 71 thousand people were convicted for corruption crimes. The Vice Chairman of the People's Political Consultative Council of the PRC Su Rong and the Deputy Chairman of the Central Military Council of the PRC Xu Tsaihou were brought to justice.
Recently, the Supreme People's Prosecutor's Office of the PRC reported that in 2015 alone, more than 54 corrupt officials were identified among government officials at all levels. This is one and a half percent less than a year ago, but the number of those accused of a bribe or fraud on an especially large scale has grown by 22.5 percent - more than 150 thousand dollars. The number of those detained in the rank of minister or head of the province increased by one and a half times - this is 41 people. Among them there is even a close confidant of the former chairman of the PRC.
The military, who have a certain "privilege", do not stand aside either. For example, the Chinese military is now prohibited from using premium-class foreign cars as official vehicles. The black list of vehicles that the military cannot use as official vehicles now includes vehicles worth more than $ 73 and an engine capacity of 3 liters or more.
“It has become common in Beijing for a senior military man to rent an Audi A8 to a businessman with real (military) license plates, real documents and a driver in uniform,” Chen Zerong, a law professor at Sichuan University, told the Hong Kong newspaper South China Morning Post. "A businessman pays $ 130 a year to give the impression that he has good connections with the military." This, too, is now abruptly suppressed.
Officials at all levels are now required to submit information about where their children study. In the case of studying abroad, prove the legality of the income that allows you to pay for this study.
The biggest tiger brought to justice is undoubtedly the ex-minister of public security, secretary of the Political and Legal Commission of the CPC Central Committee, which oversaw the security organs, courts and prosecutors, member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Central Committee Zhou Yongkang. He was expelled from the ranks of the Communist Party and arrested. Party associates considered that "his behavior seriously undermined the reputation of the party, brought significant harm to the cause of the party and the people, and was accompanied by serious consequences." The Politburo heard a report from the Party Commission on Zhou Yongkang's abuses and submitted the documents to law enforcement agencies. On June 11, 2015, Zhou Yongkang was sentenced to life in prison.
A month ago, China launched a judicial investigation against the former deputy head of the Shanghai administration, Ai Baojun. The CCP's Central Commission for Discipline Inspection found that Ai Baojun had illegally “received gifts and money and used his official position to provide his relatives with commercial benefits. He illegally appropriated state property. In addition, it was found that Ai Baojun "repeatedly violated the internal party norms by going to private clubs and playing golf."
It is interesting that special attention is paid to the moral side of the activities of officials and their families. The so-called "excesses". General indignation and punishment was caused, for example, by the fact when 23-year-old the son of the head of the Chancellery of the Central Committee of the party with an official salary of less than 20 thousand dollars a year Ling Jihua crashed in a Ferrari. Recently, a journalist noticed that in front-page photographs of the head of the Yiwu City Construction Department, the boss always wears a different watch. Hours were counted 25 pieces. The chief was summoned to the party committee, was unable to report on the sources of the purchase of the watch and was removed from office. The same happened with another head of the department, who was noticed with more than 20 expensive belts.
If earlier they tried not to advertise the disclosures among the highest echelons of power, today the publicity and media coverage of such processes has become the norm. Party committees are now examining the guilty person and the materials of the proceedings are being passed on to the press. If the accused is convicted of embezzlement, immoral behavior and violation of party discipline, he is reprimanded, demoted or expelled from the party and removed from his posts. Then the prosecutor's office steps into the case: charges are brought against him, an arrest is made, preparations for trial begin. According to Chinese law, if the amount of illegal income is more than 100 thousand yuan (about a million rubles), this is punishable by from 10 years in prison to life with confiscation of property. In the presence of aggravating circumstances, the death penalty may be imposed.
TOGETHER WITH THE PEOPLE AND THE WHOLE WORLD
The fight against corruption in China is now being dealt with everywhere: there is the General Directorate for Combating Corruption of the Supreme People's Prosecutor's Office of the PRC, a special department in the Ministry of State Control, the Anti-Corruption Commission, and anti-corruption departments have been established throughout the country in prosecutorial bodies at all levels. As China's Attorney General Jia Chunwang once said, "The incorruptibility of the government and strict adherence to the law are two goals that China has long sought."
As the professor of law at the People's University, a member of the Special Advisory Committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of China, Hu Jiaqun:
“However, the success of the anti-corruption struggle does not depend on the number of corrupt officials put on trial, but on how many of them still remain in society. In this regard, it is much more important to study the causes of corruption crimes and applied preventive measures.
Following the meeting of the CPC Central Disciplinary Commission, a communiqué was issued, which identified seven priorities for fighting corruption this year, including: combating nepotism; investigations of the activities of officials responsible for state enterprises and state contracts (regardless of the rank of the official and his status); strengthening international cooperation for the extradition of suspected corruption crimes and the return to the country of their "assets".
In addition, China itself, as a member of APEC, believes that corruption is one of the most serious threats to the creation of a good political and economic system in the APR region and the whole world. And here China is now ready for cooperation, including with Russia.