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Target - 2%
The Far East will work for export
As the chairman of the government noted, the measures applied earlier to develop the region did not bring economic benefits. He also listed three possible scenarios: either to substitute imports and focus on the domestic regional market, or focus on the all-Russian market, or develop export potential. However, the first scenario is not very promising because the DFO market is limited and amounts to only 5% of the country's GDP. The second scenario is difficult because of the poor transport accessibility of the region to large Russian consumption centers.
The development strategy of the Far East should be export-oriented - such an economic model for the region is considered optimal by the Russian government. According to the Ministry for the Development of the Far East, the export orientation of the Far Eastern industry is most economically justified, taking into account the specifics of this region.
The domestic market of the Far East today is less than 5% of the Russian GDP, and working on it is not very profitable. But the Asia-Pacific countries market is currently showing strong growth, access to this site can give regional enterprises a substantial profit. As for the market of the European part of the country, any possible benefit is negated by the inevitable transport costs due to the geographical remoteness of the Far East regions. The distance from the Far Eastern cities to the capitals of the Asian states is much less than to Moscow.
However, in order for the Russian Far Eastern exports to reach the stated ambitious indicators - 2% of the total import volume of the APR, significant efforts are needed. To increase the competitiveness of industry and entrepreneurship in the Far East, it is required to introduce not only tax and customs privileges, but also to establish various kinds of preferences and favorable conditions in the field of attracting personnel, leasing land, etc. The development of high-quality modern infrastructure is of great importance. greatly hinders the development of the Far Eastern business, and keeps investors from investing in the regional economy.
It is also necessary to solve the problem of personnel shortage, attract qualified workers and, if not suspend, then at least reduce the migration outflow from the Far Eastern regions. Now many residents, especially young people, prefer to leave for the European part of the country or abroad - just to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. However, if people in their hometown or nearby will see prospects for work and professional self-realization, for starting their own business, it is quite possible that they will refrain from moving. True, you cannot convince such residents of the Far East with promises of a "bright future": they want changes for the better here and now.
A number of experts are concerned that the development model of the economy, which is almost entirely focused on Asia, will further alienate the Far East from the rest of Russia. But otherwise, economic dependence and subsidies are inevitable, which certainly will not benefit the region. To put the Far East in even greater dependence on the center is clearly not to be. The main task is to make it a rich, actively developing region, and not a distant periphery. The only thing that needs to be recognized is that the orientation towards the export model can serve as a tactic rather than a long-term strategy.
Naturally, one should not completely abandon work in the domestic market. Entry into the Asian market will take time, and this period must be used to make Far Eastern products competitive at first “at home”, and then beyond.