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Territory of opportunities
Danchikov: To make small and medium business develop, the most important thing is not to interfere with it
Small and medium-sized businesses in Russia have yet to stand on their feet, but it is this segment of the economy that will lay the foundation for the sustainable development of the country's subjects. This conclusion was reached by the participants of the round table “Crisis - reboot”, which took place in Moscow during the week of entrepreneurship. The problems of medium-sized businessmen understood EastRussia.
The week of Russian entrepreneurship is a large-scale project that covers all regions of Russia. Since 12 on 25 May, the country hosted a lot of events dedicated to the development of small and medium business in the first place. This year, Yakutia is given special attention in a series of business events, where this year is declared the Year of Entrepreneurship. In addition, the cold republic is striking in the number of geniuses in the field of innovative developments.
Because we are pilots
In the Permanent Representation of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in Moscow at the round table "Crisis - Reloading" representatives of government bodies, heads of business structures and public associations of entrepreneurs of Yakutia and the capital region discussed the development of small and medium-sized businesses taking into account modern economic realities. Some told how they literally fucked "crisis", others - how they managed to stay afloat and even be in the black, the third - wrote out prescriptions for solving problems. The discussion was long, but productive.
The Chairman of the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Galina Danchikova, recalled that more than a month ago, Russian President Vladimir Putin held a meeting at the State Council, at which he considered a set of measures to develop small and medium-sized businesses in the country. "At the meeting it was noted that the share of small and medium businesses in GDP in Russia accounts for slightly more than 20 percent, in Japan and Canada, this figure is 57 percent, in Germany, almost 50 percent. But on the other hand, we all understand that we have certain opportunities and reserves. Together we can move in this direction. Both small and medium-sized businesses have a very large field of application, "she said to the audience.
Danchikova noted that the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) pays special attention to the creation of favorable conditions for the development of small and medium-sized businesses.
“We practically annually invest more than 1,5 billion rubles in supporting small and medium-sized businesses - this is taking into account, of course, the federal budget funds, municipal funds, funds from attracted extrabudgetary sources. If we proceed from the territory of the republic, this is not such a large volume, but we believe that this is a significant support for entrepreneurship, ”she shared.
In the republic, since 2012, a program for the development of entrepreneurship has been adopted and is being implemented. And now the Ministry of Territorial Development of the Russian Federation has declared Yakutia a pilot territory for the introduction of the best practices for creating a favorable business environment in the Far East. And it is no accident - the statistics are obvious.
"Today we maintain the positive dynamics of the main indicators of business development, and the number of registered entrepreneurs in 2014 was 53000 units. Turnover of small and medium-sized enterprises amounted to 2014 billion rubles in 257. In the budgetary system, the income of our small and medium-sized businesses in 2014, if we talk about all special tax regimes, amounted to about 2,8 billion rubles. This is a good indicator, although, of course, we have many more opportunities in this area, "the official said, moving from successes to business problems.
"Feature (Business in Yakutia - author's note) - transport costs incurred by small and medium businesses. And of course, small and medium businesses are more difficult to develop than businesses in the central territory of Russia, ”Danchikova continued. However, according to her, there are common problems for the whole country: insufficiently developed infrastructure, limited access to credit resources, lack of investment long-term financial resources, administrative barriers - gas connection, connection to electric networks.
“In order for small and medium business to develop, the most important thing is not to interfere with it, the most important thing is that all the rules that have been established are clear, accessible and do not change very often,” Danchikova summed up.
Yekaterina Kormilitsyna, Minister for Entrepreneurship and Tourism Development of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), called Yakutia a "territory of opportunity", noting that the region is actively studying the experience of introducing the practice of creating a favorable business environment of its neighbors, such as Tatarstan, Kaluga, Lipetsk, Ulyanovsk, the Rostov Region , China, Kazakhstan.
“The pilot territory of the republic requires new approaches and new directions, therefore we are looking for them. Under the new conditions for the development of the country, additional measures have been taken to support small businesses — tax regimes, property mechanisms, and financial instruments, Kormilitsyna explained. “The tasks for 2015 in the framework of our pilot project and the Year of Entrepreneurship, along with the improvement of the tax, property and financial instruments I have already mentioned, increase the availability of energy and engineering infrastructure, improve the conditions for construction of facilities, and increase legal literacy.”
Kormilitsyna identified a very serious problem concerning business in general: since last year, the method of providing subsidies to regions has changed. This method, along with indicators such as budgetary security of the regions, takes into account such an indicator as the population of the territories. “The population of the territories of the Far East, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the first place, is very low, and the territory is huge, so we lost significant resources to support the business. We have done all sorts of work, brought this issue to the level of the country's leadership, and today the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Finance have delegated to reconsider this method of subsidizing and supporting business, and not only business, but also subsidies in general to the Far Eastern territories, ”she commented EastRussia.
Director of the Department for the Development of Small and Medium-sized Entrepreneurship and Competition of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation Natalia Larionova spoke about the state policy for the development of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. "Small business is very specific, and only local authorities can understand what kind of decision should be taken and carried out in such a way that it does not hurt, brought support." - specified Larionov.
"The Indians stole cattle from the Yakuts in Alaska"
At this introductory speech ended and began particulars concerning the business environment. We talked about crisis manifestations in which small businesses faced an increase in the cost of resources for their projects and unavailability of loans, touched on aspects of business education and its trends (short-term education is becoming more and more popular, at least according to Yandex and the President of the Russian Association business education Natalia Evtiheeva), as well as support and the role of young entrepreneurs (in particular, graduates of these same business schools). Representatives of banking institutions advertised new products to potential customers, corporations offered opportunities for the development of small and medium businesses.
The representative of JSC "Development Corporation of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" Ivan Nesterov argued why South Yakutia is a promising platform for new industries. On the basis of assessments of the prerequisites (availability of the infrastructure of large operating enterprises, development of the electric grid economy), he explained which specialized sites could be created in different areas. For example, in Aldan district - for the processing of timber products, the production of construction and related materials, and in Neryungri for the processing of coal products, industrial and municipal solid waste. In short, the opportunities for the development of small and medium businesses in South Yakutia are wide, and industrial parks are waiting for their residents.
"The Indians stole the cattle from the Yakuts in Alaska," Kirill Teteratnikov, general director of LLC "Group of independent consultants", began to speak so figuratively. - It's a pity that Alaska did not become a part of Yakutia, because this territory is comparable in size. It would be a sin not to take advantage of the potential of those countries where the climate is about the same as in Yakutia. " He shared his experience working with American and Chinese investors and focused on supporting innovative projects in general.
"What is the difference? Innovation is what we create today for the future, tomorrow. In the United States, the focus is on two programs in the innovation sphere: a small business support program for innovative research and another such program, which differs in that 40% is sold to universities and research centers. I came across the fact that in terms of supporting development programs for small and medium-sized businesses in Europe, a program was adopted with 80 billion euros (Financing - author's note), 6% is allocated to innovative companies of other countries and regions, including Russia. There is an opportunity for our small and medium-sized enterprises, "he told the idea to representatives of small and medium-sized businesses.
He stressed that today "dozens of memorandums on cooperation are signed, but it does not reach the point of practice".
"We need to strive for new, more targeted programs in dealing with foreign investors, particularly in the field of innovation. B2B - a platform for direct lending. This is a new alternative financing tool, bypassing the banking sector. Their importance lies in the fact that they provide an opportunity to attract independent financing from hundreds of thousands of different sources, including from abroad. The second direction is the acquisition of companies that possess the necessary technologies and qualified personnel abroad. The third is the search and acquisition of companies listed on the western (although now not so relevant), but now Asian exchanges. With the help of these companies, it is possible to attract the necessary investments for the implementation of innovative projects in the field of technology, including for Yakutia, "he said about the opportunities for attracting foreign investors for the implementation of small and medium-sized businesses.
Clever and clever
Who will be able to place innovative projects in technology parks in Yakutia? There are enough inventors in the republic, Ekaterina Kormilitsyna told EastRussia. For example, a very interesting innovative project, which has already been applied in the republic, is a modernization saw. The usual saw, which sawed the forest, the businessman took and perfected - made it portable, installing on a tractor. So overnight the inventor turned into a businessman - he got a patent, and now these saws have already been put into mass production.
“Our entrepreneurs have developed technologies that could improve the durability of rubber in conditions of extremely low temperatures. They were also applied, today this project is in a technopark, it has expanded. By the way, not only the Yakut people, but also the Khabarovsk people, the Amur Region, also want to use this product, ”said Kormilitsyna, EastRussia.
A completely new business area in the republic is the conservation of local natural resources. There is an entrepreneur in Yakutia, a manufacturer of meat and fish products, which harvests sublimated products and preserves them - crucian, venison. These products also put on stream.
"It would seem that in the conditions of the north it would be possible to use natural conditions - winter is long, but summer is also there, so canned products are needed in summer, especially in remote areas where people are engaged in foraging, pastures, forest land, Said Kormilitsyna. There are dozens of such examples for Yakutia, according to the official, "when we unite our support elements, we strive to support the start-up entrepreneurs, and those that modernize or improve the competitiveness of their business."
Vasily Vlasov, President of the NP Guild of Diamond and Jewelry Manufacturers of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), shared problems that are holding back the development of the jewelry business in Russia. Of course, in a crisis, people are not into luxury, but this segment of the economy should not be forgotten, especially when it comes to Yakutia.
In 2003, gold and diamonds were excluded from the list of currency values and equated to ordinary goods, the turnover of which is supervised by the Civil Code. "However, the whole train of laws, which was adopted in the Soviet era, we all remember what strictness was control, he unfortunately remained. This lock keeps the locomotive and does not allow it to move forward, "Vlasov said. The jewelry community of Russia developed a bill that was approved by all four public business organizations (RUIE, OPORA, CCI, Delovaya Rossiya), but, as Vlasov explained, "with the exception of the three or four amendments that made the last law in our industry 41 law on precious metals and precious stones, the government puts it aside. "
"Today, the jewelry industry, producing $ 1 billion worth of jewelry on 5-6, is capable of producing 18-20 billion of these products - we all have it, but we spend on gold jewelry, roughly speaking, 20% of gold, while in The rest of the world 60-65% of the gold produced goes to making jewelry. Diamonds - why get them ?! Okay technical ... Jeweler where? Do not put them in the safe ?! And what to look at these pieces of glass ?! Of these, you need to make jewelry, "- he outlined the industry's prospects.
Vlasov also noted the creditworthiness of jewelry production. "Imagine the percentage of the loan plus 18% VAT - and all this must be paid instantly, when the diamond manufacturer buys raw materials from the miner. This manufacturer will sell the diamond through 5-6 months on the market. Let us transfer this tax not at the time of signing the contract, but at the time of receiving the proceeds for this diamond, "he suggested solving the problem.
Even more pessimistic, he looked at the jewelry industry, which is based on small and medium-sized businesses, the general director of the Association "Jewelers Guild of Russia" Eduard Utkin.
“We are experiencing a very serious crisis today. The demand for jewelry fell somewhere around 40%. 30-35% dropped jewelry production because many companies are trying to produce goods to the warehouse, but according to forecasts (and the forecasts are negative, the crisis will last a long time), it’s necessary to prepare for more difficult times than now, ”he began .
What are the causes of the fall of the industry? First and foremost, Utkin singles out, a significant decrease in the solvency of the population. "Jewelry - those items that begin to buy in the last turn, when the standard of living improves, and do not buy in the first place, when there are some hardships. Therefore, today we are on the crest of the crisis with our products, "he said. In addition, the expert continued, the need to increase the cost for products: the jewelry products are made from precious metals and stones, and, as a matter of fact, as currency values remained, remained to reduce demand. The third reason he highlighted the lack of confidence in the industry. "Confidence to each other fell in the very environment of entrepreneurs, their counterparties and partners. The confidence of consumers in the output of our products has fallen, "he continued. And explained that if the first two reasons are still difficult to resolve, then you can raise the level of confidence - for this, a Declaration of the participants of the Russian jewelry market was developed: those jewelers who will sign it will lead the fair game on the market.
Chickens without laughter
If elite segments of small and medium-sized businesses shed tears, then the national industries benefit from the crisis and import substitution programs. This example is JSC "Neryungrinskaya poultry farm". Founded in the beginning of the 2000-ies on the basis of the subsidiary farm "Yakutuglya" and the state farm "Yuzhnoyakutsky", it was engaged first in the egg direction. In 2009, the poultry farm earned its full power by launching a meat line. There is no analogue to the state-of-the-art broiler house in Yakutia: the nearest similar production is in Blagoveshchensk.
"We produce over 43 million eggs per year, ranking second after the Yakut Poultry Factory. Today Neryungrinskaya poultry farm is the only producer of poultry meat in the republic, and therefore it can be said that in Neryungri district practically 100%, in the republic, I think, we occupy half the volume. The rest is imported products, "Ivan Sleptsov, Chairman of the Board of Directors of OJSC Neryungrinskaya Poultry Factory, shared with EastRussia.
According to Sleptsov, frozen meat is also brought to Neryungri, but people prefer local chilled products.
"Of course, our volumes can not be compared with giants (" Prioskolie "," Petelinka "), but we work for ourselves, for the inhabitants of the republic, so that the northerners eat fresh quality products without additives," he said.
“We are not standing still, we are developing. Our volumes are small, but life too. At the current stage in 2014, 4 thousand tons (Of chicken meat - author's note) we produce, next year we plan to enter 7-6,5 thousand tons, ”the chairman of the board of the company opened the plans of the company. Poultry farm, said Sleptsov, in the near future is going to cooperate with China.
"We want to introduce Chinese experience in the technology of litter disposal. Litter is a very good organic fertilizer. We can, after processing litter, make good fertilizers for our plant growers, "he said.
Recalling your entrepreneurial experience (heads production from 2003 onwards - author's comment), Sleptsov believes that the person involved in the agricultural business in the north should be exempted from taxes, at least not for the first three years, but for the first five years, until he closes the loans, and then should make preferential tariffs. But how much does the production of one chicken cost, EastRussia did not recognize. "We do not sell below the cost", - the expert summed up.