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Entering housing in the Khabarovsk Territory reached a peak
According to Rosstat, the Khabarovsk Territory showed the largest drop in the index of entrepreneurial confidence in construction among the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District last year. In the last quarter of 2014, it reached -23%. In the first quarter of 2014, this index was -18%, it is lower only in the Magadan region (-27%), although at the end of last year it was -12%. The respondents from the Khabarovsk Territory named “the high cost of materials, structures, products” as the main factor constraining the activity of builders.
Also, according to the agency, the average cost of housing in the region in 2014 amounted to 48,8 thousand rubles per square meter. m. This is the fourth cheapest indicator in the Far Eastern Federal District (ahead are the Jewish Autonomous Region, Primorsky Krai, Amur Region). At the same time, the average cost of housing in rural areas of the region is estimated by Rosstat at 32 thousand rubles. per sq. m, in cities and urban-type settlements - 51,2 thousand rubles. On average, in the Far Eastern Federal District, a square meter costs 47,4 thousand rubles, and the cost does not differ much in rural areas and in cities. In Russia, the average cost of a square is 37,8 thousand rubles, and in the countryside - 36,2 thousand rubles, in cities - 37,9 thousand rubles.
In his opinion, the situation in the construction industry here consists of three main positions. Firstly, there is a sufficiently local monopoly, and secondly, the limited supply of budget mortgage lending due to the small number of people who live here, and the high cost of housing. If to compare with the average Russian indicators, apartments here are much more expensive.
“Taking these circumstances into account, dear Dmitry Anatolyevich, we would ask for your instructions - when implementing paragraphs 39 and 40 of the government’s“ anti-crisis plan ”, in a special priority order, take into account the development of the Far East,” he asked the prime minister.
The participants of the round table in the Ministry of Construction of the Khabarovsk Territory, which took place in late March, said that the construction industry is facing a difficult year. As the deputy chairman of the regional government on construction issues Sergei Ignatovich said, last year the commissioning of housing reached an impressive figure - 443 thousand square meters. m. “A normal result in comparison with 2013, but this is taking into account 90 thousand square meters. m for floods, which were financed by the federal government, ”he added. “The governor demands that we do not allow a decrease in volumes this year - 450-460 thousand square meters. m. We must be ready for this - entrepreneurs, design organizations, the building materials industry, ”the official said. The second task set by the head of the region for the industry is to create a positive investment climate, since the region still “has problems with land allocation and obtaining construction permits”. The third task is the development of PSEDA. A management company for the Komsomolsk PSEDA has already been created, design work is underway on infrastructure facilities. “Plus dams, they need about 12. We already have projects in Khabarovsk, a lot of work is to be done, several billions will be allocated for these purposes,” said Sergey Ignatovich.
Deputy Minister of Construction Valentin Omelchenko claims that there is a technical opportunity to increase construction volumes. Last year, manufacturers of building materials covered the needs of builders in full. At the same time, the capacities available at the beginning of 2015 make it possible to double the production of bricks and prefabricated reinforced concrete and one and a half times the production of crushed stone and thermal insulation. The launch of new capacities for the production of bricks in 2013 on the basis of LLC "Khabarovsk Plant of Building Ceramics" made it possible to increase the provision of the region with building and facing bricks to 80%.
What do the prospects depend on?
In the construction industry of the Khabarovsk Territory, there are about 1,3 thousand enterprises, of which 1243 are small and medium-sized businesses (the number of employees is about 40 thousand people). In 2014, the volume of contract work performed amounted to 53,6 billion rubles, this is the fourth place in the Far Eastern Federal District. The total commissioning of housing at the end of 2014 reached 443,2 thousand sq. m (according to this indicator, the region is in third place after Primorye and Yakutia in the Far Eastern Federal District), including 94,4 thousand - this is individual housing construction. For flood victims, 90,7 thousand sq. m of housing. The share of low-rise construction in 2014 was 41%, or 185 thousand square meters. m. This is more than twice the figure for 2011.
According to the Far Eastern "Sberbank", mortgages account for about 60-70% of the financing of construction projects. This year, a program of a preferential mortgage rate of 11,9% was launched, with an all-Russian limit of 200 billion rubles, there is no layout for the regions. The Far Eastern Sberbank expects to issue about 2,4 thousand of such loans - this is based on last year's figures and is based on the forecast for the delivery of housing. As the first deputy chairman for construction noted, last year the region issued 10 thousand mortgage loans for a total of 19,9 billion rubles.
The chief architect of the region, Alexander Selemenev, claims that up to 2,5 million square meters can be built on promising areas of the region with a total area of 6 thousand hectares. m of housing. In Khabarovsk, the prospect for the next five years will be the northern part of the city, where it is possible to build up an area with a total area of 983 hectares, which is about 3,5 - 4 sq. m of housing.
In Komsomolsk-on-Amur there are free sites in the area of the Komsomolsk-Sortirovochnaya station, on the street. Dzerzhinsky - up to 270 thousand sq. m. of which 106 thousand square meters. m in multi-apartment and 163 thousand sq. m - in individual houses. Khabarovsk district is very promising for development. First of all, these are the suburbs of the regional capital - Nekrasovka, Mirnoe, Topolevo, Matveevka.
Indeed, the development of housing construction in Khabarovsk and its suburbs - and this is traditionally about 80% of all housing commissioned in the region - is constrained by the underdevelopment of engineering networks. In particular, the Orekhovaya Sopka, 6th and 7th microdistricts in the Northern District of Khabarovsk have a promising heat load of 334 Gcal, and despite the availability of free heat capacity at CHPP-3, it cannot be passed through the existing highways. To solve this problem, a project for heating main No. 35 is being prepared. It will also relieve the existing heating networks. “But the construction time of this highway is 1,5 - 2 years according to the roadmap of the Far Eastern Generating Company (DGK). This means that we must look for alternative resources, for example, natural gas boilers, ”the chief architect of the region believes.
According to him, the problem of heat supply in Khabarovsk “is of a systemic nature,” and the absence of the necessary facilities in the DGK's investment program prevents the connection of new consumers, the constructed houses cannot be connected. “But the adjustment of these investment programs is hindered by the absence of an approved heat supply scheme for the city with promising development,” adds Alexander Selemenev. The DGK refused to comment on the development of the network economy on the territory of Khabarovsk.
Cases of space
The main players in the construction market in Khabarovsk are the Investment Programs Department, the Housing Construction Fund controlled by the Khabarovsk Mayor's Office, Dalspetsstroy, Dialogue, Real-Stroy, and Rus. In Komsomolsk-on-Amur - "Dalgiprovodstroy", "Infra", "Tournament", "Zodchiy". In municipal areas - "Garant-Stroy", "Stroymax" and others.
The head of the department of architecture, urban planning and land use of the Khabarovsk mayor's office Sergei Sergeychuk predicts that 295 thousand square meters will be commissioned in the city. m of housing. The main player, Dalspetsstroy, may commission about 35% of housing, municipal developers - 18%, other enterprises - about 35%, the share of individual developers may be 12%. For three months from the beginning of the year, 67,6 thousand were commissioned or 23% of the plan. At the same time, according to the mayor's office, the main player, Dalspetsstroy, has been reducing the volume of construction from year to year. If in 2011 it accounted for 35% of the total housing construction, or 120 thousand square meters. m, then already in 2012 - 22% or 64 thousand square meters. m., and last year they delivered 42,5 thousand, or 15% of the total.
An alternative source is natural gas boiler houses, but the use of gas is not provided for in the heat supply scheme of Khabarovsk. The new gas pipe, where it is theoretically possible to connect, is located in the area of the Baltika plant, but it has not yet been commissioned, therefore, technical conditions for connection are not issued to developers.
However, against the background of rising gas prices, this option also looks not very attractive. The region receives blue fuel via a pipeline from Sakhalin-1; last year alone, 2,5 billion cubic meters of gas were supplied. But as a result of the change in the rate of one thousand cubic meters. m of gas has risen from 5,5 thousand rubles. up to 8 thousand rubles. This year, 207 million rubles will be allocated from the regional budget to compensate housing and communal services enterprises, but next year we will have to look for a less costly way out of the situation.
In the third-fourth quarter "Dalspetsstroy" plans to commission housing on the street. Bondar, with a total heat load of 4,7 Gcal, five more houses will be commissioned in the 6th and 7th microdistricts; the load on the heating network will be up to 70 Gcal. The company is currently considering options for heating these facilities using not only the heating main, but also natural gas.
If the issue of heat supply for new micro-districts is resolved, then in 2016 it will be possible to introduce about 42 thousand square meters here. m, and in 2017 - 90 thousand sq. m in. In the meantime, the developer is concentrating on the Southern District, this year the company intends to commission about 68,8 thousand square meters. m in the microdistrict "Builder". Next year - another 42,8 thousand square meters. m, in 2017 - 44,9 thousand sq. m, and on this the complex development in this part of the city will be closed by Dalspetsstroy. As Nikolai Nuyanzin added, another problem for the industry is the lack of labor resources, which are "redistributed to priority areas, to the cosmodrome (Vostochny - author)."
4 Help. The construction industry of the Khabarovsk Territory in 2014 gave the budget 3,1 billion rubles in taxes. The downward trend in tax revenues continues - last year they fell by 11% compared to 2013. This year it is planned to decrease by 18,4% - to 2,56 billion rubles. The main share of proceeds in 2014 was personal income tax - 62%, and income tax - 19%. During the reporting year, income from personal income tax decreased by 14%, and by profit by 18%. The lion's share of taxes, 73%, is paid by the largest enterprises in the industry, while their financial condition is obviously deteriorating. For 2012-2014, tax losses of the budget for Dalspetsstroy and Dalmostostroy amounted to 244 million rubles. Including in 2014, personal income tax revenues decreased by 106 million rubles, the regional authorities note.
According to him, the position of the Far Eastern Generating Company, which is not ready to build costly network facilities without guarantees that heat consumers will actually connect to them, is also understandable. Such guarantees could be given by the regional government, as well as develop appropriate mechanisms for investment in the construction of networks. “We all understand that the construction industry and investments fall in the first place during the crisis. We are trying to attract cheap money through various banks. But what we can do now is simplify the procedures. Do not forget that our rash actions or inaction contribute to the rise in the cost of work for the developer, thereby plans for the construction of affordable housing are postponed to the distant future ", - said the general director of the IC" Moonlight ".
Sergei Stepanov also notes that one should not seek to increase construction volumes at any cost. “We are now discussing whether we will manage to keep within 400 thousand squares or not, and at what expense? Lucky - unlucky? If we do not engage in practical work with developers, network holders, then we will “fail” all the time. And in the fifteenth year, the risks are very high. Developers are waiting - will they have money for lending, and whether a preferential mortgage will be launched - the construction season is ahead, and they must understand whether to build or not build, ”he concluded.
Mikhail Sorokin, Chairman of the SRO Far Eastern Association of Builders, spoke eloquently about the price paid by the builders following the results of last year's “big construction” at its end: “The practice of building housing for flood victims has shown that only where the construction industry is developed - Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk -on-Amur, builders barely invested in 30 thousand rubles per square meter, without profit, and in the districts they worked at a loss. But the builders made such sacrifices, for which they are praised, since builders are for the victims. "
According to the monitoring data of the regional Ministry of Construction, from 2010 to 2014, the average actual cost of one square meter. m of housing has grown in the region by 9,4%. At the same time, from 2010 to 2013, there has been an increase in cost by 29,2%, and in January-November 2014 - a decrease by 15,3%. The average cost of erecting a "house box" in January-November 2014 for brick houses was 44,2 thousand rubles, for monolithic brick - 59,3 thousand rubles, for panel houses 43,1 thousand rubles. At the same time, the average prices for apartments in the region, according to realtors in March 2015, fluctuate around 80 thousand per square meter. The builders themselves claim that up to 40% of the market value of housing is accounted for by infrastructure costs.
By the way, Deputy Minister for Construction Valentin Omelchenko spoke about the same at the round table. “There is an opinion that the construction of individual housing is a cheap construction. The experience gained has shown the opposite - only a house kit and its assembly are cheap. The costs of engineering preparation of the territory, road construction, delivery of materials and energy, which are often absent in the construction area, lead to a sharp rise in the cost of construction. As a result, the cost of individual housing often exceeds the cost of one square meter in an apartment building, ”he commented on the results of the construction of houses for flooded residents.
Note that some developers since last year have not been able to achieve compensation for losses that they incurred to bring engineering networks to new sites. The State Labor Inspectorate in the Khabarovsk Territory notes another problem - many construction firms have not paid off their employees for the work performed back in 2014.
“We are inundated with complaints about non-payment of wages. Companies that took an active part in the construction of housing for flooded floods often hired people without employment contracts, and still have not settled with them. Some heads of enterprises, whom we call for a conversation, explain that customers do not pay with them, and therefore the enterprises do not have money to pay off wage arrears, ”says Mikhail Shandronov, acting deputy head of the state labor inspection in the Khabarovsk Territory. According to him, no bright prospects and plans cancel the need for employers to fulfill their obligations to workers, and customers of work to builders.
Reducing the inflow of labor by 20% can halt half of the entire construction industry in the province, Margarita Bastrikina, head of the economy department of local government and labor resources of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Khabarovsk Territory, noted at a recent press conference.
Irina Cheboksarova-Ustinova, director of LLC Migration and Immigration Working Agency of the Far East (MIRA DV) and head of the committee on migration policy of the Khabarovsk regional department of Opora Rossii, believes that after the entry into force of the new migration rules, the construction industry in the Far East “will in an awful situation. " "Only large construction corporations will be able to attract labor, participate in tenders for general contracting and in public procurement," she believes.
However, the head of the IC "Moonlight" and the deputy head of the regional council on entrepreneurship, Sergei Stepanov, claims that the days of cheap foreign workers are over, and not only due to legislative changes, but also due to the fall in the ruble exchange rate. “I participate in the interdepartmental commission on quotas for foreign labor and I want to once again convey the information to my colleagues. Well, they will not just get their cheap workers when they have three people on the staff of the company, and they ask for several dozen workers! This time is over. I have already submitted a proposal to our Ministry of Economy to sign an intergovernmental agreement with the DPRK in order to involve them in the construction complex. Their labor costs are not tied to the dollar, and there are training centers on the territory of the DPRK. Because China, Vietnam - they are all foreign currency, and it is difficult to attract from other territories according to the new rules, ”he said.
As for attracting North Koreans, the director of MIRA DV has already expressed skepticism about this: “The DPRK authorities, as far as I know, have twice applied to the Russian government so that they were given the opportunity to supply workers on preferential terms, not to pass these exams. They were refused in a strict manner. "
We should add that the issue of an intergovernmental agreement with the DPRK must be resolved at the level of the MFAs of the two states, and they agree with this in the regional government.
Io, deputy head of the state labor inspectorate in the Khabarovsk Territory, Mikhail Shandronov, notes that the greatest industrial injuries occurring at construction sites occur precisely in those firms that use migrants. The official generally supports the tightening of requirements for attracting foreign labor.