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Strict rules for supporting small businesses
The state is not ready to pay for the risks of entrepreneurs - as a result, actively promoted preferential products for many remain inaccessible. How small companies live - in the EastRussia material
Photo: 279photo Studio / Shutterstock.com
About the Far-Eastern projects, designed for large companies, today, perhaps, the whole country knows. The areas of advanced development (TOR), the Free Port of Vladivostok (SPV) should give an impetus to the economic development not only of specific enterprises and industries, but also entire regions, the whole country.
But business is not only advanced production, billions of dollars and export growth. These are people whose work we can not do without in our ordinary, everyday life - owners of small shops, hairdressers, repair shops, car service centers, private gardens, small enterprises for the production of food. How do they live in the regions for the development of which various departments and the whole ministry are formed?
Special conditions created for large players will automatically improve the position of small business, says Nadezhda Petrova, head of the Interregional Association for Economic Cooperation "Far East and Transbaikalia".
“The Far Eastern regions have great advantages in comparison with other regions of Russia in terms of entrepreneurship development,” says Nadezhda Petrova. - For example, there are no other tax preferences that exist in the TOR of the Far East. The economies and businesses of our regions have always been interested in partners from the APEC countries, and the external progressive environment makes local authorities move. Of course, it takes time for all business development programs in the Far East to work in full force. But these programs already cover all components of business activity (production, infrastructure), our organizations work very effectively - the Far East Agency for Attracting Investments, the Far East Development Fund, the Human Capital Development Agency, the Russian Export Center. All this in the complex should give a good result.
As for small business, Petrova continues, all the above applies to him. True, indirectly, indirectly: “A conglomerate of small enterprises is necessarily formed near every major project, and therefore an environment that is favorable for the development of SMEs is automatically formed.”
“However, recently, in the Far Eastern regions, Opora Rossiya conducted a survey, and it turned out that excessive control of supervisory bodies and local authorities greatly hinders small businesses,” adds Nadezhda Sergeevna. - But the Ministry of Economic Development is currently working to reduce the administrative burden on small businesses in the DFO.
DO NOT CHANGE THE RULES
However, the "administrative barriers" are by no means the only and not the most serious problem of Far Eastern business. According to Elena Romashko, the head of the Office of the Ombudsman for Primorsky Territory, local businessmen called excessive control one of the main "brakes" for work in 2015 surveys - along with a decrease in consumer demand and inaccessibility of credit funds (everything is clear - the crisis here). These problems did not disappear, but others came first.
- Most often, entrepreneurs turn to the seaside business ombudsman for issues related to rental and land legal relations, construction permits. And the most recent survey showed that our entrepreneurs consider the increase in prices and tariffs for SMEs, various legislative innovations, and changes in the work of the Unified State Automated Information System, Elena Romashko to be the main problem hindering the work of the business.
The growth of tariffs for business, continues Elena Borisovna, automatically affects everything else: the cost of the final product, competitiveness; as a result, brakes the arrival of investors in the regions. And various kinds of legislative innovations are often unexpected for entrepreneurs.
- And as a result, it turns out that a businessman planned costs alone, but in reality they become higher at times. Yes, and you have to play by the new rules, says Romashko. - Potential residents of TOR, SPV have a choice - they can assess their strength in advance, decide whether to become their participants. Owners of operating small businesses have no choice. They must either comply, as they may, new laws, or closed. And taking into account the fact that in our region 60% of small enterprises work in the sphere of trade, the described situation affects everyone: the entrepreneurs themselves and their clients. You can not change the rules of the game when the game is already underway!
However, sudden legislative changes "hit" not only for small companies, but also for large enterprises, including for residents of the TOR. About this at the recently held Eastern Economic Forum
said business ombudsman for the Primorsky Territory Marina Shemilina.
"Business conditions are constantly changing, to which entrepreneurs do not always have time to adapt. As a result, the file of arbitration courts often includes residents and territories of priority development, and the Free Port of Vladivostok, "Shemilina said. Instability of the legislation, the ombudsman noted, leads to criminal prosecution of entrepreneurs, and to the destruction of their businesses.
But if financial problems arose for large production companies, they are clearly more likely to receive support from the state or from the region than the owner of a small shop.
"We have all business support programs in the Primorsky Krai that co-finance the federal budget, including SME support programs," says Elena Romashko. - Entrepreneurs within their framework can receive financial assistance. True, not all. Production workers have chances, but there is nothing to count on for trading companies. But the regional guarantee fund works very effectively - it gives sureties when obtaining loans from companies of both large and small business, and from any sphere. That is, through him a loan in the bank can get almost all business entities. And we have more than 110 thousand in the region.
The federal, regional and business assistance programs designed specifically for the DFO really work. But entrepreneurs can only use them “on paper”.
BENEFITS FOR EVERYONE, BUT NOT FOR EVERYONE
The Far Eastern Development Fund offers small and medium-sized enterprises registered and working in the Far Eastern Federal District to receive an "Affordable Loan for SMEs". The company's field of activity is any, except oil and gas production, production of alcohol and tobacco and organization of gambling.
Partner banks provide loans to businesses for up to 10 years, and the Fund subsidizes the interest rate at its own expense, and for borrowers it is no higher than 10-12% per annum. Requirements for loan recipients - not to have debts on taxes and other obligatory payments, not to be in the stage of bankruptcy, to fall into the category of small and medium businesses. Everything seems to be accessible and understandable.
Under this program, it is planned to finance about 1000 projects in total for 10 billion rubles. However, the queue for banks for money from the participants of this program has not yet lined up.
- I collected the necessary package of documents, but in banks that cooperate with the fund for this program, I was literally tortured with checks that lasted almost a month, but in the end they refused everywhere, - says entrepreneur Irina Kogalenok (she has her own shopping pavilion). - I needed a relatively small amount, and it turned out that it was easier to get it in a bank under standard conditions than under a preferential program. What was the reason for the refusal - I was not explained. Like all the documents were in order. And I'm not the only one, I have many acquaintances among entrepreneurs who also wanted to "try their luck," but to no avail.
Oleg Gerasimov, Commissioner for the Protection of the Rights of Entrepreneurs in the Khabarovsk Territory, says: Indeed, with the start of this preferential program, there were many appeals from businessmen who wanted but could not receive a preferential loan. Some moments had to be explained to the entrepreneurs themselves, some - to find out in banks, in business support organizations, in credit committees. At the same time, Gerasimov admits that various types of funds and agencies designed to help small businesses often have stricter requirements for borrowers than banks.
- As for the financial support of business, the work of such funds and agencies is limited by the requirements of the Central Bank and the terms of contracts that they have with the government; it's naive to think that they act completely independently, - says Oleg Gerasimov. - Therefore, when they give loans under a reduced interest or non-repayable subsidies, they clearly follow all these points, and borrowers are subject to stricter requirements than commercial banks. After all, the bank, in the end, risks only its own funds. The funds are also state money, and the level of responsibility in this case is different. And our business knows how things stand: some of the income is not displayed, then the real estate that was planned to be transferred as a pledge is under-formalized, then some penny did not make payment on time. Hence the refusals. But only in that it is connected with money. Training and consultations of entrepreneurs in Khabarovsk are free of charge and are available to everyone.
As for the transparency and legality of the work of the entrepreneurs themselves, as Mikhail Piven, the head of the Mazanovsky District of the Amur Region, said, he has repeatedly come across the fact that in order to receive subsidies, business owners are ready to violate the law. Sometimes, documents are forged for the purchase of equipment that really does not exist, a fictitious registration of a company in the "necessary" settlement is drawn up, and having received the money, they move; "Evaporate" when it comes time to make a loan. So, Mikhail Piven believes that thorough checks when receiving state money are fully justified.
But this is still extreme cases, out of the ordinary. Will the situation ever change for entrepreneurs who work honestly, transparently? Will they finally get the support that still exists mainly on paper?
- There are a lot of small business support programs, and all of them, in general, work. The question is in the satisfaction of the business with these programs, - Oleg Gerasimov notes. - In all government funds supporting SMEs there are reports with figures - what amounts entrepreneurs used. But the main thing is different: is this enough? Here we say that 2 thousand enterprises received assistance in the Khabarovsk Territory. Excellent! But there are thousands of them in our region. Is it possible to embrace the financial support of all? Probably, it is impossible. And not the fact that there is a need. Perhaps, the questions of helping small businesses need to be approached somehow differently.
And one more figure was given by Oleg Vladimirovich. She also proves that everything is relative. And at the same time eloquently describes the conditions for business development, existing in the DFO.
- If we talk about the investment climate in the Khabarovsk Territory, in Russia it is on this indicator is on 40 place from 85. At the same time, in the Far East, in the same investing rating, our region is in the first place. Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, one might say, are competing in this respect with each other. But at the same time we must understand that the conditions for doing business are getting tougher, and not only for us - in the whole in the country. It is not easy for entrepreneurs to meet modern requirements. So the situation here is, of course, not easy.
In October, several events will be held at once in the DFO regions at which local entrepreneurship problems will be discussed. This conference in Primorsky Krai on the development of a favorable climate for business, and the Far Eastern Business Forum in Khabarovsk. Perhaps it will go into them not only about large business projects aimed at the distant future, but also about the everyday problems of small enterprises. And many current problems of entrepreneurs will be heard.