This text is translated into Russian by google automatic human level neural machine.
EastRussia is not responsible for any mistakes in the translated text. Sorry for the inconvinience.
Please refer to the text in Russian as a source.
Resistance to space
Leonid Blyakher on why it does not go to develop the Far East from the beautiful far away
Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Culturology of the Pacific State University, Doctor of Philosophy
At one time I was haunted for many years by one, quite private question from the history of the Far East: why the Japanese interventionists, controlling the region, having here quite distinct legitimacy (both the zemstvo council in Vladivostok and the Ataman Semenov's government were supporters of their presence), absolutely calmly left this territory? After all, there were a lot of them, from 70 to 100 thousand soldiers. This is much more than the entire population of the region could have exposed. But the enemies were not all. Yes, and the advancing red armies near Baikal felt aspired to leave these places forgotten by God, because they were planning a war with Poland, and even Vrangel was quite comfortable sitting in the Crimea. Consequently, the Red forces did not represent a special threat. So why?
Even earlier the Far East was abandoned by the US military, whose task was not so much to control the territory as to restrain the appetites of the Japanese allies. And again - why? The answer was simple enough, albeit unexpected: the Americans stopped fearing that the Land of the Rising Sun would gain control over this territory, and the Japanese themselves became convinced of the senselessness of seizing the Far East. And the reason for this was not only military confrontation. Attempts by partisans or the people's revolutionary army of the DDA to conduct regular military operations against the Japanese troops ended pitifully. The problem is in space.
In order to retain and control this huge territory, receiving from this at least some dividends, you need to spend so much that the profitability of this enterprise is questionable. It is necessary to maintain a mass of officials, power resources (troops), to maintain communications, to supply resources to the region from outside, so that all these people can simply feed, clothe, provide the most necessary. And here there is enough of the slightest force countermeasures or even ordinary sabotage, so that an attempt to take control of the rich Far East would result in an economic catastrophe.
Something similar is repeated in the history of the Eastern suburbs of Russia with an enviable regularity. And not only in the form of external intervention. We have a region rich in minerals and other resources, people here do not suffer. Only now it is not controlled very well. Almost in no way controlled. It would be good to somehow lead to a norm. And the next program for the development of the Far East begins. Plans and strategies are built from the beautiful far away. Why? Yes, because they do not trust this "local". Who trusts such? Especially if they are going to control them.
It looks approximately like if to your home comes an employee of the city government with a demand to immediately change furniture and make repairs in the apartment according to the approved in the City Hall project. On the pitiful attempts of the tenant to remind that he lives here and he is not so comfortable, explain that one should not think about himself, but about the city as a whole. Yes, and the money for repairs will be allocated by the City Hall, however, all this time the controller will live in your apartment, which will ensure that everything is according to plan and approved estimate. And then - we know you!
So or so approximately in the region come controllers. New, very detailed rules for reporting to supervisors are being developed. Without this, nothing at all. Otherwise, everything is stolen. Gradually, step by step, those industries that seemed profitable, the local are seized. They can not be trusted.
Overlap "loopholes" in the laws to live like everyone else. Large-scale projects are being created, as a rule, without regard for profitability. For example, a pulp and paper mill is built, designed for wood, which exists only on paper. It's still in 90-e cut. Just because they did not need it then. And the experts who are building the project from afar did not notice this. Under construction, loans are taken, and construction capacities are used. As a result, the plant is built, the funds are developed, there is no recoil, since there is no forest, there are no roads to new plots, there are no storage facilities and access roads. A non-operating enterprise passes to a creditor, a bank controlled by the state. The result - the state's expenses for billions, profits - alas. Today, new investors are being sought, from the Middle Kingdom.
At some point, another clever man discovers that even yesterday the profitable spheres, which fed tens of thousands of people, still losing something to the budget, become unprofitable. And the region is getting deeper and deeper in debt and subsidies. The people from the prosperous region are fleeing, as from a plagued city. What's the matter? Who cheated? Where was it stolen? Investigation structures are digging deeper, the planting company is growing more active. Only ... the region does not become profitable. And it's not about that, or not so much that someone stole something. Simply monitoring and reports ate all the profits, made the production itself or management something extra in relation to the main job - writing reports. Of course, the Far East can be controlled from afar. Only it is expensive. The costs of control are greater than the profits that the territory can provide.
Actually, inconvenient laws, excessive regulation - the trouble is not only the Far East. Today, this is a common problem for the whole country. But here, in the Far East, in conditions of high migration readiness of the population, huge spatial costs and serious state investments, it can turn into a severe economic failure.
Is there an exit? Certainly. The main thing is to understand that you can not control everything and you do not need to.
A space that does not lend itself to bureaucratic control, which in these conditions reduces the profitability of investments tenfold, making any transaction more expensive, is quite effectively mastered on the basis of trust. Do not steal yourself. Or, at least, “respect propriety.” So, it is necessary that what is and will be in the region should be “their own”. Then there will be no need for bulky reports and constant checks. This means that transaction costs will be much lower.
But how to make it "his"?
For this, as it seems, you do not need much. It is desirable to develop projects for the development of something in the region in the region itself, or at least taking into account the opinions of those who live here. At the same time, "those" are not so much governors, employees of the plenipotentiary apparatus or employees of the ministry for the development of the Far East, as there are native experts whose opinion is usually asked, but ... in the tenth turn. It is desirable that the "ordinary people of the Far East" turn out to be "those who are asked". Is it feasible to include the Far East in the development of the Far East not as objects of control or guardianship, but as partners? I think yes. True, so far this task has not been put. The fear that "they are stealing everything" blocked all such attempts. The idea is simply to calculate the costs of "stolen", comparing them with the costs of excess control and failures due to ignorance of local characteristics is not very popular.
But this is not enough. The Far East must understand that every project is a contribution to its future. The ministry for the development of the region, determining the addressee of its powerful, albeit somewhat strange PR campaign, seems to be a bit confused. Instead of explaining to the inhabitants of the region why they need it to develop, they bet on an "external" audience. Ideally, there is nothing about the region that does not know. At the same time, against the background of the all-Russian demographic decline, it is not entirely clear where these external developers will come from. Is it only from Central Asia. But here with highly qualified specialists, which are expected to attract, is not particularly dense. And available are quite in demand at home.
That's "for internal use", for PR residents or at least Soviet "explanatory work" was not provided. Yes, and this is understandable. After all, inside the "PR" is much more difficult, and the development projects themselves still exist almost separately from the Far East: they were not created here, they were not calculated for them. Yes, and "PR" here is limited to difficult. Today, the level of people's confidence in any state innovation tends to zero in the region. After all not the first year in their apartments do repair under the instruction from above with residing of the controller on the same living space. This is manifested in migration readiness more than in any other indicators. So, to make projects work, and trust becomes the basis of economic efficiency, each of the projects realized here should be reflected in the purse of the Far East, its comfort, prospects.
Will this become a panacea? I do not know. But only in such conditions the task of developing the Far East can be set.