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With overpay for the staff
Why do specialists from Ukraine and Korea work at the shipyards of the Far East?
The main task for the coming years is to bring the productivity of the shipbuilding industry of the Far East closer to Soviet indicators. The government of Russia in the medium term hopes to fully meet the state needs at the expense of domestic shipbuilding products. For this purpose, the state program "Development of shipbuilding and technology for the development of offshore fields at 2013-2030 years" was developed. And only in the long term the industry expects to sell its goods abroad, although something is exported now: for example, the plant "Eastern shipyard" in Vladivostok, not without the support of the authorities, delivers its military products to Vietnam.
Obstacles to the development of the industry are many, experts say. This is a weak demand from the business for the products of domestic shipbuilding (and, as a consequence, the orientation of enterprises to state defense orders). In addition, the weak competitiveness of the domestic shipbuilding in the international market, as well as the excessive categoricity of tasks that the state is facing shipbuilders of Russia: it was completely impossible to do without the import component in shipbuilding even in the USSR, but this is what enterprises are now facing.
But the most urgent problem of today is still the shortage of qualified personnel in the shipbuilding industry of the Far East. The average age of a shipyard employee is about 45 years. This means that there are very few young specialists: the industry "emerges" in the minds of specialists of the Soviet hardening.
"Without an active external personnel policy to attract personnel to the industry, and especially to develop the interest of young people in shipbuilding is impossible," says Oleg Sidenko, general director of JSC "Vostochnaya Verf". - This is a work that will bear fruit only in the long term, because it is necessary to involve young specialists at the school and early student stages. I can say that at our enterprise, not without significant efforts, the staff for the last years still rejuvenated. How did we achieve this? It was not without material motivation: for example, graduates of DWPI, whom we invite to practice at JSC "Vostochnaya Verf", receive not only experience, but also a good scholarship, as well as prospects. Therefore, after practice, a significant proportion of graduates prefer to stay working with us for one or two years. However, it would be impossible to solve the problem only in this way: nevertheless, the universities of the Far East do not train the necessary specialists in the volumes that are necessary for us, so that we can not do without "import": we bring highly qualified specialists from the West of Russia-Crimea, the Baltic States. This is a very costly method, because you need not only to pay these people the road to the Far East and guarantee a decent income, but decide where they will live. We also took over this problem and solve it. For example, not without the help of the state, we organize housing cooperatives and build housing. Many of our employees have already received the keys to their apartments. Unfortunately, not all Russian shipbuilding enterprises can afford to deal with the personnel deficit in this way. I think that the need for state support in this case is an axiom.
Thus, according to experts, the cost of one imported specialist can be equated to millions of rubles, if we take into account the provision of housing.
COMPETITION FOR HANDS
The Far East today is in the top three, providing the production capacity of the Russian shipbuilding industry. Thus, the region's share is 15% of the total number of enterprises in Russia, 12% - of the total number of employees involved and 9% - of total production.
The existing shipbuilding enterprises of the region are the Far Eastern Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Center, the Amur Shipyard in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, and the Eastern Shipyard JSC in Vladivostok. According to the latest information from Minvostokrazvitiya, in the Okhotsk district of the Khabarovsk Territory it is planned to restore another ship repair and shipbuilding plant. OOO Okhotsk Ship Repair Plant filed an application for entry into the Nikolayevsk TOR for the purpose of restoring the lost shipyard. The volume of investments and terms of the project are not specified yet.
Another shipyard in the medium term may appear in the seaport of the Sakhalin city of Korsakov, which is also covered by the Free Port Vladivostok regime. The South Korean company ENK Co., LTD and the Sakhalin company "Southern terminal" intend to start construction. At the first stage, shipyards will repair small- and medium-tonnage fishing vessels, however, as with the Okhotsk Shipyard, the timing and amount of investments are not specified here.
Thus, if in the medium term in the Far East two more shipyards will grow, competition for personnel will increase. At the same time, unlike the usual construction industry, which requires mainly low-skilled workers, shipbuilding needs professionals. There are not enough representatives of workers and engineering specialties, in particular, shipbuilders, designers, welding technologists, who are practically not trained in the region. It is possible that the new enterprises, in particular - on Sakhalin, will use foreign labor from South Korea, experts say.
"Every year our factory attracts more than 250 workers from the Crimea and the cities of Ukraine to build ships," says Elena Vokhmina, deputy general director for personnel policy at Eastern Shipyard. - These people are often left without work in their home regions, so they willingly go to us. In turn, we willingly provide them with stability at our enterprise, because the personnel market in Vladivostok still can not provide us with the necessary number of professionals. However, of course, this costs us a lot of money, so in recent years (from 2015) we have been preparing ourselves working and engineering personnel, working closely with local universities and colleges (FEFU, VGUES, DVPI and others).
LEARN, DISTRIBUTE, ENTERTAINMENT
On the one hand, attracting and securing specialists is the task of the employer. On the other hand, the personnel policy of the entire DFO requires systemic measures of support from the state, says Vokhmina.
- First of all, it is necessary to retain and develop the local personnel potential, which means that it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for the local population: first, people need the opportunity to learn for a profession in demand in the region, and secondly, to find a job in their specialty. Thirdly, it is simply necessary to develop the infrastructure not only for work, but also for recreation. And most importantly - housing. In the housing construction program, on which houses are built for our employees, not all enterprises can enter. And this, of course, is a minus. After all, enterprises have long been unable to build and distribute apartments to people, as it was in the USSR. Almost there are no companies that have retained dormitories for employees on their balance sheets. So the solution to the housing problem, in my opinion, is the main problem that needs to be addressed in a comprehensive manner, "says a representative of the shipyard.
At another shipbuilding plant in the Far East, in the seaside complex "Zvezda", the problem of personnel shortage is solved both by "educating" local personnel and by "importing" labor. So, the other day it became known that employees for the "Star" will be recruited at the Chechen State College. As noted in the press service of the Primorsky Territory administration, the first group of several dozens of specialists from Chechnya will work at the shipyard in the near future.
To this personnel maneuver, the Zvezda plant began to be prepared long ago: in 2016, the delegation of the Far Eastern Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Center (DSDCS) and OOO SSK Zvezda visited the Chechen college. Then the parties agreed that the production capacities of the college will be modernized to prepare welders for the technologies that are in demand at the shipbuilding complex Zvezda. The next visit was made 18 April this year: the delegation arranged everything.
- At the highest level is the technological equipment of the college, - said the head of personnel management of the center of shipbuilding and ship repair Irina Kondratenko. - Students are very literate, friendly, attentive, disciplined and fit to work at our shipyard.
Recall that the number of employees of the complex "Star" today - 1200 people. Already this year, according to the state development plan of the enterprise, the number of employees here should increase to three thousand people, and to 2023 - up to 7400 employees. Initially, the government set up a task for the shipyard to hire local employees, and in connection with this, at the end of 2017 the head of the enterprise said that it was impossible to reach such indicators in such a short time and under such conditions.
"Local specialists remain a priority for us, but it's impossible to satisfy personnel hunger only in the local market," says Yury Filchenok, General Director of the Zvezda plant. - We need highly qualified specialists - it's not just welders, but also engineers and technologists, as well as designers. We still rely on expensive specialists from the west of the country, but we do not forget about the development of our own training center.