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Rybakovsky: the whole south of the Far East should be made a common territory of accelerated development
Leonid RybakovskyChief Researcher, Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences
- The Far East in historical terms, in fact, no man's land, which in the middle of the XIX century became part of Russia. The Chinese in the XIX century creatureshaft insulation policyism - will not startthere is no one to get into one’s own districts and especially nowhere. They crossed the border of the Ussuri River except that the ginseng was collected and returned back. Actively populate the Far East region after the first rafting on the Amur River in the 1850-s led by Lieutenant-captain Gennady Ivanovich Nevelsky. Then, at the site of the present city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, the Russian flag was raised and the annexation of the territory of the Amur region to Russia was announced.
Tsarism felt well enough its interests on DAlnem East. In the 1900-s the Sino-Eastern Railway (CER) was built), passing through the territory of Manchuria and connecting Chita with Vladivostok and Port Arthur. Of course, the road contributed to the strengthening of the influence of the Russian Empire in the Far East.
By 1900, the population of the Far East reached 1 million people. Moreover, the population density in the region was the lowest in the country - less than 1 people per 1 square. km Soviet power continued to develop the Far East. In the 1920-1930-ies, people were sent there by whole collective farms.
The settlement of the Far Eastern region is similar to the development of America, the main population of which is migrants and their descendants. Only in Russia, in addition to voluntary resettlementth, compulsory ones played a big role. People were sent to Sakhalin to hard labor - you can't escape from there, Kolyma was turned into mCamp place. Of great importance for the development of the Far East was the army: from the tsarist times the Cossack settlements were located along the Amur and Ussuri. Historically, that where our territory is, there must be both a warrior and aachar. This image was perfectly personified by the Cossacks. In a word, from the 1850s to the 1990s, literally from such a "porridge" - peasants-migrants, exiles, military personnel - and the Far Eastern population was formed. Seasonal migrants who worked mainly on the fishing line do not count - they are a temporary population.
- What was the dictation of the process of developing the Far Eastern territories?
- The settlement of the Far East was influenced by both geopolitical and economic factors. South hPart of the Far East Is an outlet to the ocean and strategically very important area, military garrisons prevailed here. The northern part is rich in polymetallicOre and other minerals, its development began only after 1950-ies. Before the war it was not up to them.
People who worked in the Far East, especially in the northern regions, Arrived once from Ukraine, Belarus and other union republics, began to return home. The local population also ran, because there was nothing to do. What is the North? it extreme conditions where a person will live only if he has a decently paid job. No work - he homeless with housing, and this is absolutely incomprehensible thing.
Since 1990-ies the population of the Far East was reduced, at least, A million and a half. Take, for example, Chukotka. Until 1990 year in Chukotka there were 200 thousand inhabitants, today in the region there is only 50 Thousand people. It seems to me that this amount is superfluous at the moment. On the NorthIt is better to keep less population, because so dechevle. In the Khanty-Mansi or Yamalo-Nenets districts, the population is growing due to the increase in oil and gas production. In Chukotka, everything collapsed - why should he grow ?! This is a justifiable measure. Northern regions should be developed only if there is economic feasibility, which does not preclude the development of traditional industries in which indigenous people are employed. Also on Sakhaline. The population at the island in 1950-ies reached 600-640 thousand. Man, now somewhere 500 thousand people. For 60 years the population has decreased, but it is not terrible, because on Sakhalin the economy is weakNatural and natural increase Is compensated by migration outflow. Another thing is the population decline in the southern regions of the Far Eastern Federal District. This is not justified either economically or - especially - geopolitically.
- Is the demographic situation in the Far East improving in recent years?
- If in recent years we have achieved greattheir success in the field of demographic development in the country - the birth rate has increased, the death rate has decreased, dethe population has disappeared - then on the Dalny East as negative trends were traced, so they remained. Migration continues, the natural decline in the population, especiallyIn southern regions, is preserved.
- Territories are going to develop in the Far EastOrientations of the advanced socio-economic developmentdevelopment (TASED), to support investment projects. Will these points of growth, for example, the construction of the city of Tsiolkovsky near the Vostochny cosmodrome, help to improve the demographic situation in the region?
- Of course, they will. But the people who settle in Tsiolkovsky will be mainly connected with the launches of space ships. In the Far East, it is necessary to develop an economy using its own resources. For example, woodworking production: to lethey did not take out "round timber", but made furniture out of it, used it for construction, developed pulp and paper productionOne.
The fish industry in Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Primorye, the devilcontroversial, should be reoriented to fish and caviarZili not to Japan, but to the central regions of Russia. Rice and soybeans were once grown in the southern regions of the Far East. By the way, during the occupation of South Sakhalin by the Japanese, sugar beet was produced there and there were not two, or three sugar factories. These are all economic problems, having solved which, the demographic situation in the region can be improved.
That is, it is practically necessary to develop a new scheme for the development of the productive forces of the Far East, in which it would be prescribed what to build, where to build, what resources to extract, what population for these purposes is necessary. Decisions made by the authorities today are only fragmentary.
- Some measures are still being developed. The idea of allocating one hectare of land to the Far-Easterners and those who wish to move to the Far East was supported even by Russian President Vladimir Putin. What do you think about this?
- You cannot raise agriculture on one hectare. In pre-revolutionary times, 15 dessiatines (or 15 hectares) were considered the level of poverty. This means that it is necessary to allocate land not for one hectare, but on the basis of whether a person will be engaged in agriculture or not. The program to provide land to large families in a number of regions has failed, because there is land, and there are no kindergartens, no schools, no hospitals - there is no infrastructure nearby. This is the Far East, where there are huge distances, here you need to think over everything. And on one hectare along the river, where there will be forest and mountains, what will we build?
- In Russia, two concepts of demographic development have been developed. Are there any programs within their framework that are put into practice?
- The concept of demographic development of Russia until 2015, in the development of which I participated, was approved in 2001 year. It was preceded by scientific study, the concept was approved, but it did not reach concrete programs.
- In general, how does the Far East look at the Russian background?
- The Far East lags behind a bit: continuing, although small, but the outflow of residents. Yes, and life expectancy there remains on 2-3 year lower than the national average. If in Russia it is slightly higher than 70 years, then in the Far East - 68.
- What is needed today to breathe new life into the Far Eastern territories?
- It is necessary as soon as possible to conduct comprehensive studies with the participation of both economists, and demographers, and geologists. These teams will study specific areas, then all the data will be systematized. On this basis, it will be possible, by creating appropriate programs, both economic and demographic, to breathe new life into the Russian Far East.
Leonid Rybakovsky - economist, sociologist, demographer; Chief Researcher at the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPI RAS); Doctor of Economics, Professor; born on 1931; author of more than 300 scientific papers, including 10 author and more 20 collective monographs on the problems of demography and population migration.