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The role of the Far East in Russian-Chinese economic cooperation. Continuation
In the field of metallurgy, the new direction is the export of iron ore to China, which until now has been small and unstable (at the beginning of this year there was even a decline). It is expected that China will continue to increase the import of iron ore (this year it beats historical records), despite the slowdown in the growth rate of steel production in the country. In Russia, however, there is not much iron ore in the country that is unnecessary in order to meet China's enormous needs.
In this case, the Kimkano-Sutarsky GOK project in the Jewish Autonomous Region has a breakthrough character. The construction of a border railway bridge across the Amur River, which is supposed to be completed in 2016 (the Russian-Chinese investment fund created by the Russian Direct Investment Fund and the Chinese Investment Corporation, is investing in the bridge) is also connected with it. The project is to be launched this year, it is controlled by the Russian-British group Petropavlovsk, and the actual construction is being carried out by the Chinese company CNEEC with the involvement of funds from the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. At the same time, General Nice and Minmetals Cheerglory based in Hong Kong will become shareholders along with the Petropavlovsk group. The production and export of iron ore may reach 10 million tons per year (at the first stage - 3,2 million tons of iron ore concentrate per year, after 2015 - 6,3 million). If the export of iron ore to China develops successfully, the next in line will be another project of the Petropavlovsk group - the Garinskoye deposit in the Amur Region. In Transbaikalia, meanwhile, the Chinese company Luneng is developing the Berezovskoye iron ore deposit, but so far production there is extremely far from the design capacity of 5 million tons per year, and the Russian side also insists on the construction of a manufacturing facility (there is a threat of license revocation due slow work on the project).
Finally, attention should be paid to the relatively small project of the South Khingan manganese ore deposit in the Jewish Autonomous Region. The Hemen - Far East LLC, owned by Chinese capital, operates here at the Transverse Mine. Given the extremely weak development of manganese mining in Russia, this project is important.
Far East has great significance for the cooperation of Russia and China in the forest industry, for which the factor of geographical proximity is important. Now Russia provides about 15% of Chinese imports of forest products, incl. Not less than 20% of roundwood imports (main suppliers are Malaysia and Papua New Guinea). Volumes of commodity turnover are growing. At the same time, positive is the fact that with the participation of Chinese investors in the Far East and Transbaikalia, timber processing is beginning to develop. A special role is played by the Chinese capital in the timber industry of a small Jewish Autonomous District, where 80% of timber is harvested by the companies Xin-Chun Forest and Ecolez, owned by the Chinese (EKOLES owns a woodworking plant). In Transbaikalia with the participation of Chinese capital, the Amazar timber industry complex is being built in the Mogochinsky district, where a sawmill is already operating, and a pulp mill is planned to be launched. With the help of these projects, it will be possible at least to increase the share of processed forest products in Russian exports to China.
Chinese investments are also possible in infrastructure projects, primarily related to the growth of Russian exports, as exemplified by the above-mentioned bridge across the Amur. Also, the Chinese side shows interest in port projects. In particular, China Harbor Engineering Co. May become a co-owner of a new coal terminal in Sukhodol (Primorsky Krai), which is now owned by the structures of G.Timchenko and the SDS group. The Suma Group expects to provide for 60% the loading of the new port of Zarubino (where the TOP is being created) through an agreement with the province of Jilin, which has no access to the sea: goods from this province can be delivered by sea to the southern regions of China via transit through Zarubino.
Таким образом, углубление российско-китайского экономического сотрудничества может произвести очень позитивный эффект на развитие Дальнего Востока. Следует заметить, что Россия приходит на китайский рынок очень поздно, когда период бурного роста китайской экономики позади. В то же время зависимость Китая от импортного сырья пока растет, и Россия имеет возможность «вклиниться», а в некоторых случаях буквально «втиснуться» в ряды стран, поставляющих в Китай разнообразное сырье. Для Китая это важно и по политическим причинам, поскольку позволяет плотнее привязать к себе Россию, а одновременно продолжить традиционную политику диверсификации поставок, используя Россию в качестве еще одного из множества поставщиков. В итоге Россия может сохранить либо занять в перспективе нескольких лет заметное место в качестве экспортера в Китай нефти, газа, угля, железной руды, меди, электроэнергии, лесной продукции. Эти перспективы далеко не безграничны, и в общем и целом уже ясны, но их реализация несомненно важна для российской экономики. Важен и тот факт, что Китай начинает в самом деле серьезно «осваивать» Россию: создаются совместные предприятия, работающие на российской территории, отдельные проекты реализуются компаниями с преобладанием китайского капитала, в Россию идут китайские прямые инвестиции, а китайские банки открывают кредиты под российское проекты.
Perhaps, Khabarovsk Territory turns out to be a little apart from these processes, but it is capable of playing a key role in the export of engineering products, using the capabilities of an aircraft factory in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, from where military aircraft and amphibians are exported to China (given that develop a joint passenger plane). There are still obvious unused reserves in the Far East regions remote from China - on Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Chukotka, in the Magadan region. At the same time, it is important for Russia to pursue a policy of diversifying foreign relations, and therefore it is impossible to develop the economy of the Far East with the expectation of China alone.