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Repressed posthumously

Where to look for traces of the first monument to Admiral Zavoiko - on the dumps of history, in Japan or under the feet of Lazo?

One of the pioneers of the development of the Pacific coast. The first military governor of Kamchatka. Commander of the port of Petropavlovsk. The only commander of the Russian Empire, who managed in the XIX century to win two battles at once on the eastern borders. A man thanks to which the Far East in general remained Russian. All this is Admiral Vasily Zavoiko. Not surprisingly, in 2014 year in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky they opened a majestic monument to the hero. But more than a century ago Zavoiko had already installed a monument in another Far Eastern city - Vladivostok. Why is now on this place is cast-iron Sergey Lazo, and the dismantled statue of the admiral lives in urban legends? The correspondent of EastRussia was sorting out.

Repressed posthumously
Photo: Photo postcard. Monument to Admiral Vasily Zavoyko in Vladivostok /
In Vladivostok Zavoyko never been. However, it was in the capital of Primorye at the beginning of the last century that the memory of the famous admiral was decided to perpetuate. After all, the city owes him the very fact of its existence. According to the oral tradition, the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was looking for a convenient harbor. He intended to establish a seaport, which over time will become the main outpost of the Russian Empire in the Pacific. The count chose Nikolaevsk and shared his plans with Zavoyko. Admiral advised him not to rush and pay attention to the southern harbor. The Golden Horn Bay was not mentioned in the conversation, but Zavoyko played a role in the appearance of the future capital of Primorye. And now the admiral is rightly considered the "godfather" of the city.

Shortly after Zavoyko's death, a committee was organized in Vladivostok to perpetuate his memory. It was decided to install a monument to the admiral in the very center of Vladivostok, on Svetlanskaya Street. 21 May 1901 year, on the day of the 170 anniversary of the Okhotsk flotilla, commanded by Zavoiko, the solemn ceremony of laying the monument took place. And in the evening the Chief of Staff of the Vladivostok Fortress Colonel Gromov spoke at the Naval Assembly: "This monument, for which the best place in the city is chosen, will remind every citizen, every soldier of the Vladivostok garrison, that the Russians never fold their weapons in front of the enemy, however strong the latter and neither surpassed the strength. "

Money for the casting of the monument was collected by subscription, from all over Russia. One of the first donors was Emperor Nicholas II. When enough money was collected, the famous metropolitan sculptor Ilya Gintsburg, the creator of the monuments to Mendeleev and Stasov in St. Petersburg, and the monument to Gogol in the village of Sorochintsy, began to work.

In 1904, Gunzburg cast a statue of Zavoiko from the dark bronze. Another four years went to bring her to Vladivostok. It remains to design the pedestal. For this task, the local engineer Mikulin undertook. He decided that the admiral in full dress uniform would stand on a high pedestal in the form of a captain's bridge.

The opening of the monument was timed to the 10 anniversary of the death of Zavoiko and to the 50 anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Aygun, according to which Primorye and the Amur Region were part of the Russian Empire. The solemn ceremony was held 18 May 1908 year. And soon around the monument was painted a picturesque park, which the townspeople called "the garden Zavoiko." Preserved a lot of pre-revolutionary postcards, where you can consider the monument itself, and beautiful mansions in the background, in place of which the theater is now built. Gorky.

In the autumn of 1922, the troops of the buffer Far Eastern Republic entered Vladivostok. In Primorye, Soviet power was established. The view of the revolutionary soldiers and sailors insulted the figure of the Tsar's admiral in the very center of the city. Who is Zavoyko, what he did for the Far East, the semi-literate Bolsheviks simply did not know. In 1923, the monument was decided to be destroyed, to the base.

Bronze figure Zavoiko tried to throw off the pedestal. But the admiral stood unshakable, as in the times of the Peter and Paul Defense. And then the statue of the admiral was simply torn off. And the decapitated silhouette was hidden under a wooden box. In the spring it was covered with a kumach cloth, and they hung an ideologically correct poster - with the proletariat hitting the hammer on the anvil. And at the foot of the monument now inscribed the inscription: "There will be a monument to the historical struggle of workers for the Soviet Primorye."

In this mutilated form the monument stood up to 1929 year. In May, the Vladivostok City Council at an away meeting (protocol No. 23 from 26.06.1929) decided to dismantle the decapitated bronze statue and send it for melting "as not representing historical and artistic value." Industrialization began in the country of the Soviets, non-ferrous metal became a strategic raw material. On the remelting decided to send and bronze commemorative plaques surrounding the pedestal.

This documentary part of the history of the monument Zavoyko ends. And the second begins - apocryphal. Not a single document confirming that the statue of the admiral was really melted down has survived. So, the wide field for conjectures about its further destiny has opened.

Primorye categorically refuse to believe that the monument to the godfather of Vladivostok suffered such a banal fate. According to one of the myths of the city, part of the statue of Zavoyko could not be destroyed. Former ambulance doctor Ivan Vorobyev left memories in which he insisted that he personally witnessed the demolition of the monument. They say that early in the morning five Chinese on the carriages drove up to the garden of Zavoiko, threw ropes at the admiral's bronze figure and began to rock it. The questions of indignant passers-by who gave them such an order were answered that the instruction was given by a “good boss” and showed their hand on the Executive Committee of the Gub.

The statue did not succumb for a long time, but then it "crashed to the ground like an empty barrel," Vorobyov recalled. "We approached closer and saw that the statue was hollow, legs broke off and remained on the pedestal. Of these, bent pins with a thickness of no more than 40-45 mm were sticking out. " The Chinese immersed the monument on a cart, and when asked where they would take him, they answered: "There, at Dyalzavod, for rest. The drive rolled along the street, the crowd followed, the boys were running ahead. Something this procession was like a funeral procession. "

After such a barbaric dismantling, the monument began to look frightening: on the high pedestal stood stumps of legs with pins sticking out of them. Then the Gubernia Executive Committee gave Dalzavod an order to bring the monument into a decent form. The former engineer of the plant, Victor Rybkin, described the events as follows: "The workers' pins were cut down, but they did not clean up their feet, there was too much work. They had to be knocked out, but then they would spoil the pedestal. We decided to make a wooden cube in the form of a coffin, and a star was cut out of the tin. Secure the cabinet, painted. We stood and bowed with the words: "Peace be with your dust, Zavoiko! We will never forget you! ". And at night someone put a half-liter in front of a star. "

Rybkin recalled: a few days later in the newspaper "Red Flag" there appeared a caricature of this bottle of vodka with sarcastic poems, making fun of this gesture. But the effect was reversed: Primorye reached for a pedestal with alcohol and snack. Those who wish to remember the hero of Kamchatka himself, and his monument turned out to be so numerous that the police had to catch them in batches.

Further, the urban myth again intersects with history. 12 August 1945, the old pedestal erected a new monument - the commander of the red partisans Sergey Lazo. The fact that the hero of the revolution fought solely on land, and now found himself on the captain's bridge, did not bother anyone. On an expensive granite pedestal, they simply minted new words spoken by Lazo at the school of ensigns on Russky Island. There was no money for a bronze statue, so the figure of the hero of the revolution was cast from cast iron.

City legends say that the legs of the statue of Lazo simply welded to the stumps of Zavoiko's legs. Dozens of Primorye people assured that they had personally seen how the red partisan was "shod" in the boots of the admiral.

Another city legend describes the "posthumous" fate of the statue of Zavoiko. Viktor Kartavyy, who worked for an electrician for many years at Dalzavod, said: he personally saw how the Chinese, on two carts, brought a huge monument to the admiral. Indeed, without legs. They threw it on a pile of scrap metal and left. The heroes of Port Arthur, who worked at the plant, were indignant: how can you do this with the famous admiral. One of them, the electrician Popov, suggested removing the statue to the side and covering it with a tarpaulin so that no one sawed it. So the workers acted. And at the end of summer a Japanese steamship "Hozan-maru" arrived in Vladivostok with a cargo of salt, which was exchanged for scrap metal. He also took the statue of Zavoiko.

According to legend, the Japanese also did not allow the statue to be melted down. And attached to her feet and head, and installed on a pedestal in the city of Kobe. This was told by many captains who saw the restored monument. One of the witnesses was Anna Schetinkina, the first female captain of deep sea voyage.

This myth turned out to be so tenacious that in the summer of 1978 the members of the regional branch of the Russian Geographical Society (RGO) wrote a letter to the Japanese consul. They asked to return the statue of Zavoiko to his homeland for transfer to the museum of local lore. VC. Arsenyev. Viktor Polukhin, one of the members of the RGO, recalled how the then chairman of the regional branch of the RGO, Boris Sushkov, in autumn 1978 invited all to listen to the response from Japan: "We heard that the Japanese do not agree to return the monument to the admiral. The idea of ​​the letter was such that in Russia everything is destroyed: monuments, graves, and this is not entirely correct. The Japanese also preserved the graves of Russian sailors and soldiers who died in the battles of 1904-1905, they kept the memory of those GULAGs that died in the sea and were thrown onto the Japanese shore. "

After 30 years, another attempt was made to return the statue. In 2009, Boris Khavanov, the academic secretary of the regional branch of the Russian Geographical Society, again addressed the Japanese consulate in Vladivostok with an official request to confirm or deny information that the Zavoyko statue is in Kobe. The Japanese responded that there is no monument to Admiral in Kobe. After that, many Primorye came to the conclusion: the statue is still in Japan, but you need to look for it in some other coastal Japanese city.

Already two decades in Vladivostok heated debate continues, who is more valuable for history - Zavoyko or Lazo? Is it necessary to restore the monument to the admiral in the same place, or to leave the commander of the red partisans there? Proponents of the demolition of the statue Lazo piously believe in another urban legend - that in St. Petersburg miraculously found a plaster model, which was cast a monument to Zavoiko. So, historical justice will someday triumph, and the hero of the Far East will return to his pedestal exactly as a century ago.
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