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Let the fishermen ashore
New rules for regulating fisheries in the coastal zone will start rolling on Sakhalin
New rules for regulating fisheries in the coastal zone will begin to run on Sakhalin. It is not necessary to talk about the forthcoming explosive development of this sphere, especially in this season. But the first steps to future successes still needed to be done.
In the coastal fishery of the Sakhalin Oblast, a simplified scheme for the reporting of fishermen has been introduced and the volume of allowable catch has been increased. Corresponding changes were introduced into the fishing rules for the Far Eastern fisheries basin developed by the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia - to carry out an experiment in coastal fisheries on Sakhalin Island.
Innovations in the rulebook only two. According to one, fishermen registered in the Sakhalin region and carrying out coastal fishing only in the six-mile zone of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands on ships up to 24 meters, are now allowed to report catches (fill in the trade log) under a simplified scheme - ashore, in places of unloading, certain regional government. Another new rule, in order to develop a multi-species fishery for a small-sized fleet, increases the by-catch of objects to be dressed (that is, those for which the total allowable catch is established) from 2% to 10% - with the exception of mammals, crabs of all kinds and shrimps. And removes restrictions on bycatch of ineligible species. For Sakhalin, this rule is extremely important: the region is faced with a decline in stocks of salmon, which greatly affects the activities of local mining companies. One of the possible solutions to the problem is to diversify the business by starting work with other types of fish.
The correspondent of EastRussia in Rosrybolovstvo was told that the experimental introduction of new rules of coastal fishing in the Sakhalin region could be an important step in the development of its coastal areas. It is expected that in the course of the experiment, the population will be provided with fresh fish products (and even at affordable prices!), The development of earlier resources involved in turnover will increase, the issues of self-employment of the population of coastal settlements will be solved and new opportunities for the development of small and medium-sized businesses will appear.
"The development of coastal fishing is one of the priorities of Rosrybolovstvo. For this purpose, the department not only supports the experimental proposals of the regions, but also initiated changes to the federal law on fishing. According to the updated law, fishermen engaged in coastal fishing will be able to receive additional amounts of quotas as state support from the year 2019. These amendments were made in connection with the fact that the current regime of coastal fishing does not meet the tasks of saturating the domestic market with fish products, "the East Russia correspondent reported to Rosrybolovstvo.
Caught - sold
Fishing for the population of most coastal regions is really the defining type of self-employment. Although, due to certain circumstances, much less is being done now than in the olden days. So the new rules, subject to their respective implementation, will definitely cause a lively response among the Sakhalin population. And, it is possible that among young people, in which in recent times there has been a perception of fishing as an archaic and rather unattractive trade.
"The main thing that will lead to the introduced rules - the new jobs that will appear as a result of the emerging self-employment of the population. And the emergence of jobs is what the coastal villages of the Sakhalin region today need, since many state farms that previously occupied the local population ceased to exist in them. Self-employment of the population as a result of the new rules will definitely take place due to the fact that they will be interested in a large number of people starting to engage in coastal fishing. For example, because one of them - a simplified reporting scheme - makes it possible for an almost instantaneous sale of caught fish. And it will not fail to take advantage of it, since at present the population of the coastal villages of the Sakhalin Region is actively showing interest in coastal fishing, "notes the Governor of the Sakhalin Oblast Oleg Kozhemyako.
Another important result from the introduction of new rules, he is sure, will be the growth of the population's supply of fresh chilled fish in coastal towns at affordable prices. "This is extremely necessary for him today, as in the coastal villages today there is an extreme shortage of such fish. It is possible that the appearance of fresh chilled fish in the villages will gradually begin to form and its processing, "- says the head of the island region.
However, Kozhemyako, before coming to power himself engaged in fishing business, is far from falling into euphoria. In order for the population of Sakhalin to fully develop coastal fishing, there are only two new rules - it is necessary, for example, to provide a variety of opportunities for leasing and obtaining loans. "But the process of comprehensively contributing to the development of coastal fishing in Russia has already begun - everywhere it is already launched," the Governor is sure.
"The idea of introducing these new rules in coastal fishing is not new. At least the governor of the Sakhalin Oblast Oleg Kozhemyako actively lobbied her for the entire last year - he defended and was engaged in order to put into practice. To be quite appropriate, since the idea is quite sensible. Because the resources of the coastal zone are in fact not fully used today, and new rules will entail their development and even full involvement in fisheries and subsequent implementation. At the same time, small businesses and individual entrepreneurs will receive great development, and jobs will appear among the coastal population. I want to believe that the rules will lead to the fact that those who are currently engaged in poaching will begin to engage in fishing legally and, as a result, will begin to pay taxes. Along with this, thanks to the new rules, which mean, in particular, the disappearance of the technical intermediary in the sale of fish - the formation of its direct, the supply of fresh fish to the local population will increase significantly, "the president of the All-Russian Association of Fisheries Enterprises explained to EastRussia correspondent Alexander Fomin.
Quickly there will not be
The business community positively regards the rules introduced. But at the same time it is obvious to everyone - there should not be any quick results from their appearance. "Mainly because the period of navigating the low-tonnage fleet - less than 24-meters in size - will be completed by October. The first tangible results will take place only next year. But they will also be insignificant, "said, for example, the head of the laboratory of the composite forecast of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Sergey Trasyuk.
In his opinion, in addition to the technical difficulties that will slow down fishing under the new rules, there is also the psychology of the local population, whose coastal fisheries are no longer as popular as they used to be. “People have already become accustomed to the fact that the various rules that appear in the economic complex can change several times during one year only. And there is a possibility that these rules can be changed in some way, in case there are some negative results. They are practically excluded, but the local population can still expect that the rules that have appeared today or tomorrow will change again. In order for people to reach out to coastal fisheries, it is necessary that the process of the work of the new rules be somewhat reversed, ”the expert states.
In addition, he recalled that in the Sakhalin region as a border region for a long time, the ban on being on the shore with any watercraft was in force. And the local population has become unaccustomed to going to sea, in particular, to fish. Therefore, he will have to change his mind greatly in order to again engage in coastal fishing. But all these changes will occur, since in the coastal regions, including the Sakhalin region, there is not much more to be done today. And the new rules one way or another will act as another incentive for catching fish in the coastal zone.
According to Alexander Fomin, in this context, Sakhalin is an ideal place to conduct an experiment and try out the rules. Due to the potential for the spread of coastal fisheries and a longer period of navigation. “But it should be understood that the population was initially somewhat skeptical about the rules that have appeared, because the possibilities that their appearance gives are not completely clear. For example, in what volumes and where are those reserves that can be started to be developed. As in theory, so on specifically on the ground. If science does not connect to the identification of these stocks, then it is likely that those who try to fish in the coastal zone will face a lack of fish and stop their attempts. At the same time, science also does not instantly solve all the problems. Conducting research is not a quick process, ”explained Alexander Fomin.
Nevertheless, this year the new rules will somehow be tested in practice, after which, obviously, they will somehow be corrected. The authorities will be able to finalize the regional regulatory framework by the next season, think over additional measures to support the implementation of innovations, and also dock all new fishermen among themselves and with those who have long been engaged in coastal fishing. And, of course, start to build a system of direct selling fish.
To other regions
"Given all the prospects that the new rules introduce, it seems that they are needed not only by the Sakhalin region, but also by other coastal Far Eastern regions," Oleg Kozhemyako said. Among them - the Kamchatka and Khabarovsk Territories. However, until the experiment will be held only on Sakhalin. And experts are sure that this is correct.
"Basically, the introduction of new rules is the right decision. But, given the current real practice of coastal fishing in Sakhalin, this normative legal act is nothing more than simply its legislative design. As for its distribution to other fish regions of the Far East, it should not be done immediately, instead of implementing it first in the territory of Sakhalin. You should carefully observe the operation of the rules by the example of one region. Since many times there have been unsuccessful cases of introducing laws without experimental verification. Within the framework of the experiment, it is necessary to assess how tangible the result comes from the volume of taxes and whether the biological base in coastal zones is not undermined, "says the head of the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia, Geographical Faculty of the Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Vyacheslav Baburin.
In his opinion, the experiment is necessary precisely for Sakhalin, and therefore it is not surprising that, for example, the head of the Khabarovsk Territory, Vyacheslav Shport, did not stand up for new rules as ardently as the governor of the Sakhalin region. “In this region, there are practically no coasts that have opportunities for coastal fishing, and those that have such, for example, the Sea of Okhotsk coast, do not have it. But why the governor of the Kamchatka Territory also did not actively lobby for this idea - it is difficult to say, since they have opportunities and problems similar to Sakhalin, ”Vyacheslav Baburin believes.
"The new rules of fishing are just a set of permits and prohibitions. And the addition of new, even completely feasible rules, is only the first step out of all those that need to be done to develop coastal fishing in Russia. The main one is the provision of economic support from the regions. At the same time, before providing it, it is necessary to assess how profitable and cost-effective today is the business in coastal fishing in a particular region. And to provide subsequently - scientific research, necessary for the activity of fishermen, logistics, transportation and sale of products in order to increase their level. It is clear that not all regions have the capacity to provide such support. But they definitely have the Sakhalin Oblast, "stresses Alexander Fomin.
Thus, the new fishing rules will face many realities of life, which are hardly fully taken into account when developing them. It is unlikely that additional support measures will be developed very quickly. Therefore, it is not necessary to speak about the forthcoming explosive development of coastal fishing. But the consensus between the federal and regional authorities on this issue, and the greeting of his business community, allows us to conclude that actions will be carried out on his work capacity. Hence, and a positive result - not far off. "Now, there can not be any unambiguous preliminary forecasts. But the potential of this normative act is not bad. At the same time, many such acts have already been developed in Russia. But there are no big results so far, "Vyacheslav Baburin complained to EastRussia correspondent.