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Will it be possible to provide labor resources for investment projects in the Far East?
The problem of labor resources is quite acute in the Far East, which was reflected in a recent study prepared by specialists from the Faculty of Public Administration of Moscow State University (published in the journal "Economics and Economic Sciences"). Population growth, barely allowing to compensate for the natural decline (seven people per 100 thousand people in the Magadan region, 524 people in Kamchatka); outflow due to migration (negative balance - 23,7 thousand people in the federal district) - all this has led to the fact that it is often impossible to back up new investment projects with local human resources. The problem should be solved by a program for increasing the mobility of labor resources, which is being developed by the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East together with the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation.
But the program is not yet smooth, its current version requires substantial refinement, Russian Deputy Minister for Development of the Far East Sergey Kachaev acknowledged. Kachaev does not name the timeframe for the completion of the program. Now the cost of moving to the Far East lies either on the shoulders of a citizen or an employer, says an explanatory note posted on the website of the Minsk region. This leads to the fact that a "real person" does not go to the Far East for such a program, Kachaev admits.
Without waiting for federal regulation, from 2015, the regions of the Far East are making their own programs. They have already been adopted in Kamchatka, Chukotka, Primorye, the Khabarovsk Territory, the Amur and Magadan regions, and since 2017 in the Sakhalin region. The leaders in attracting outsourced labor resources are the Khabarovsk Territory and the Amur Region, although the absolute figures are not large: in 2015, 68 people throughout the federal district, 2016 in 265, 2017 in 544 according to plans - data from the Ministry of Regional Development.
A number of regions supplement the program aimed at attracting migrants, with measures aimed at promoting employment "in general". In particular, such a program exists in the Kamchatka Territory ("Promoting employment of the population of the Kamchatka Territory"). According to the statistics posted on the website of the regional administration, in 2016-2017 this year, one hundred experts in the mining industry (and only one company), five specialists in construction and maritime transport, and three specialists in the field of animal husbandry were thus attracted.
It is clear that the needs are much greater: according to the plans of the government, in the federal district it is necessary to create 426,81 thousands of jobs (this figure is contained in the state program for the development of the Far East). In this situation, large companies are forced to deal with the preparation and recruitment of labor resources.
Interesting in this regard is the experience of the company "Kamchatka Gold", which in 2015 launched Ametistovoye GOK, and production is concentrated in hard-to-reach areas, even by the peninsula standards. "Kamchatka's gold" provides the region with more than 2 thousand jobs at two mills, plans to develop new rich deposits where active geological exploration is under way, the company's data suggests. The company has the largest resource base in the region in excess of 12 mln. Troy ounces (more than 375 tonnes) of gold, according to the company's website. Personnel issues "Gold of Kamchatka" had to be solved independently, despite the significant support of the employment agency of the region, regional state bodies.
Actually, the "Gold of Kamchatka" became the organization that brought a hundred people to the peninsula under the mobility program, RBC was told in the press service of the company. Cooperation with the state made it possible to partially compensate for the costs of moving workers, medical examination, provision of special clothing and protective equipment. Under the conditions put forward by the state, the employee must work in the company for at least three years, otherwise the benefits will have to be returned. In this regard, the company participating in the program, it is necessary to create such working conditions, so that employees remained to work in it for a long time, specify in the "Gold of Kamchatka". And lament - a hundred people do not close the need for personnel, the problem requires cardinal solutions.
Historically, fisheries have been developed in Kamchatka, and training of personnel is carried out in this and related areas, therefore, less than half of the vacancies of Kamchatka Gold are closed by local residents, the company says. At the same time, gold mining is becoming one more pillar of the region's economy, Kamchatka following the results of 2016 took 9 place in the rating of gold mining regions, the materials of the Union of Gold Miners of Russia follows.
"We have to bring in our own expense both qualified specialists and representatives of working specialties from all regions of the country, which significantly affects the cost of our products," said Alexei Golubenko, General Director of GK "Zoloto Kamchatka" at the Eastern Economic Forum.
In the traditional gold-mining regions, entire miners' dynasties were formed, the training of both working professions and qualified personnel is highly developed, they recall in the company. Taking as an example their example, it would be advisable to set up a training center on the basis of one of the educational institutions for training specialists in working specialties in Kamchatka, which will make it possible to train employees in accordance with industry standards and requirements, representatives of Kamchatka Gold believe.
At the same time, staff with high qualifications are more appropriately invited from regions where specialized higher education institutions are already functioning. In this regard, to attract specialists to the region "for good" it is necessary to create for them the value of such a solution, for example, by increasing the program of subsidizing the acquisition of housing on a parity basis of the state and business, the company representatives sum up. According to the survey of the company SuperJob, the motivation for moving to the Far East would be a partial or full subsidy for rent payment (62% of respondents), and the provision of interest-free mortgages (53%).
The work on attracting specialists for permanent residence in Kamchatka is also beneficial to the region, regional officials have repeatedly stressed, as they spend their earnings where they live, and not like shift workers who take their salaries to their "home" regions.
In the draft concept of demographic policy in the Far East (prepared by the Ministry of Regional Development and the Agency for Human Capital Development), it is said that by 2020 it is necessary to stop the outflow of population and stabilize its population at the level of 6,2 million people, and to 2030-m to increase to 7 million people . So far, according to Rosstat, it was possible to stop the outflow and ensure population growth (although at the level of statistical error) only on Sakhalin (growth from 487 293 to 487 344 in 2016, according to Rosstat), and in Yakutia. So the state and business have yet to jointly find a working model for the provision of investment projects with human resources.