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Primorsky contrast Samargu?
The project to straighten the Transsib through the most difficult parts of the Sikhote-Alin was made at the Eastern Economic Forum. Correspondent of EastRussia understood the question: is it a myth or a reality?
The authorities of the Khabarovsk Territory will support the construction of a transport and logistics center (TLC) at the Rakitnoye site in the Khabarovsk ASEZ - as the first stage in the implementation of the project for the construction of the Samarga international transport corridor (ITC). The agreement to support the project was signed on the eve of the second Eastern Economic Forum by representatives of Samarga-Holding LLC (General Director Alexander Vasiliev) and ANO Agency for Investment and Development of the Khabarovsk Territory.
The Rakitnoye transport and logistics center will be the first object to be created as part of the Samarga international transport corridor project, and the opening of the Khabarovsk railway link, Samarga, will give impetus to the economic development of both the Khabarovsk Territory and Primorye. ” Director of the project initiator of the project "Samarga" Alexander Vasiliev.
The project on the creation of an international transport corridor with the construction of a universal sea port in the village of Samarga (Terneysky district, Primorsky Krai), a dry port in the Khabarovsk TOR and a railway that will be serviced by special cargo tankers on liquefied gas was presented at the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok.
For modern realities, the project looks simply cosmic: in the Adimi Bay, where the Samarga River flows into, an ultra-modern port will be built, focused on the export of goods. Around the port there is a modern social infrastructure. Samarga will be connected to the Trans-Siberian Railway by a railway built through the highest part of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range.
Tentatively, the total cost of the project is estimated at 420 billion rubles, of which 200 billion is expected to be spent on the construction of the port, 210 billion on the construction of the railway, and a little more than 6 billion on the creation of a "dry port" in Rakitnoye. The main volume of investments, Alexander Vasiliev specified, is expected to be attracted from private sources, in particular, from Chinese and Japanese banks. According to the ambitiousness of plans and the volume of investments, this is perhaps one of the most financially intensive and at the same time controversial projects, voiced in vain at the WEF, some experts believe.
As a base for construction on the sea coast it is proposed to use the port-point of the company "Terneyles" for timber transshipment. The infrastructure should be increased by cargo turnover up to 80 million tons: containerized (1 million containers in 20-foot calculation), coal (20 million tons) and universal (10 million tons) terminals, as well as transshipment facilities for oil products (10 million tons) and processing of ferry cargo vessels (10 million tons).
The main task of the new international transport corridor (ITC) is to ensure foreign trade. As stated by Alexander Vasilyev, the ultimate goal of the project is to minimize logistics costs and increase the trade and transport flow between Russia and the countries of the Asia-Pacific region (APR). According to him, MTK "Samarga" is located on one of the most promising directions of the Far East. The corridor will shorten the range of freight traffic on the Trans-Siberian Railway by 550 km. The proximity of the future transshipment complex to the APR countries (the distance to the Japanese port of Wakkanai is 300 km) makes it possible to attract transit cargo flows.
"This transport corridor will be able to serve most of the ports of the Russian Far East, as well as Japan, China, and Korea. We expect that the construction of a logistics terminal, port and railway will provide a powerful synergetic effect for the entire economy of the Far Eastern Federal District, "he said. Alexander Vasiliev.
The project makes it possible to shorten the route along the Trans-Siberian Railway by 550 kilometers and speed up the delivery of goods to the European part by 1,5 days. In monetary terms, this is a saving of 350 rubles per ton, says Alexander Vasiliev. Preliminary agreements have already been reached with potential partners in China. The company is looking for investors in other countries of the Asia-Pacific region. In the PRC, the Commercial and Industrial Bank of China will become the official agent of the investment project, in Japan - the ROTOBO business association. According to the plans of the project initiators, under the optimistic scenario, construction will take 7-8 years, after which cargo transportation will begin, with the pessimistic scenario, the start is scheduled for May 2026.
However, with the estimated reduction in the passage of cargoes at 550 km, the total length of the railway line in 360 km declared in the project (the extended length is 900km) will have to pass through the most difficult places in terms of relief - the spurs of the Sikhote-Alin. This is the construction of fortifications, rock work in punching tunnels and other "delights" of laying ways, the estimated cost of which by the time the project is implemented can double or even triple. Saving 350 rubles per ton of cargo in this scenario does not look convincing, some experts believe.
Many questions arise among ecologists: from 360 km of railways, most of them will pass through the territory of Pozharsky and Terneisky districts of Primorsky Krai. These sparsely populated taiga regions of the region are the traditional traditional places of residence of small peoples of Primorye, where untouched by loggers and taiga builders will inevitably be subjected to partial logging, and the mechanisms for restoration of the ecosystem after construction by the project are either not provided for, or not yet announced.
Another "bottleneck" is the Samarga river basin in Terneisky district. These are places of compact residence of the Udege people. Anyway, with all the economic attractiveness of the project in the hope of a transit flow through the taiga, the priority land use rights are primarily enjoyed by small ethnic groups living there. forest, taiga are bioresources, fish, animals, gathering, - the basis of the life of these peoples, which, given the volume of planned work and the absence of reclamation projects to restore the ecosystem, can seriously suffer, if not irrevocably disappear, ecologists believe.
However, the most important question that arises in the project is the potential cargo base, which will (or will not) go in a new direction. So, stevedores interviewed by the business newspaper "Golden Horn" are unanimous in their skepticism about the new project: "It's all in the cargo base, and its authors do not announce the project today. If we talk about export potential, then, of course, the number one coal today. But transshipping coal through the northern terminal is unprofitable, and the environmental factor becomes an insuperable barrier. So, there is a forest, and the volumes of its transshipment in recent years are not so significant to build a new terminal for them, "says a representative of one of the seaports.
The head of the transport infrastructure sector of the Institute for Economic Research (IEI) FEB RAS Anna Bardal in the commentary, the Kommersant newspaper draws attention to the fact that the project did not pass the usual preliminary stage of discussion among industry specialists and in the scientific community. The expert is also surprised by the “lack of interaction with the Far Eastern Railway”: “The development plans of the Eastern Proving Ground are spelled out It follows from this that there are no plans to attract building capacity, purchase rolling stock, locomotives. If the company intends to build a section of the railway with a length of 360 km on its own, then at "Mechel" we see what it can turn, "- says Ms. Bardal.
At the same time, at least one "window of opportunity" for the new project editors EastRussia was able to detect. It lies in the long-term synchronization of the transport corridors "Primorye-1", "Primorye-2" and "Samargi" among themselves.
On According to Director for Development of PortNews IAA Hope Malysheva, In the medium term, the export potential of the ports of the Far East will be in demand. But if RZD does not accelerate with the expansion of railway approaches, the opportunities for port infrastructure will remain uncovered, the expert notes in the EastRussia commentary.
"The message of the Khabarovsk Territory is understandable," said one source of EastRussia, "today the region passes through itself the entire volume of the Transsiberian Transit, obviously the desire to earn on it, while the" window of opportunities "arises in connection with the implementation of the ITC in the Primorsky Territory. Primorje-1 and Primorye-2 to 45 million tons per year It is clear that a new port infrastructure is planned for Primorye, for example, in Zarubino, but the effect of the development of the MTK on the operating ports may be I'm unpredictable - under certain circumstances, Chinese cargo can so tightly occupy the maritime transshipment capacity that Transsib will simply be blocked by Russian cargo. "
The total investment in the Primorye-1 and Primorye-2 transport corridors projects is about 300 billion rubles. "Thus, in terms of cost, the projects of the ITC in Primorye and Samarga are at least comparable to each other," the source continues. "And if the ports of the Primorsky Territory actually switch to full-fledged servicing of the cargo base of the North-Eastern provinces of China, direct access The Transsib to the sea, bypassing all the old infrastructure (which is proposed by the Samarga project), may be in demand. "