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Consequences of expansion: Buryatia as part of the Far Eastern Federal District
What has changed in the republic after a year of life as part of the Far East
For a year now, Buryatia has not been part of the Siberian Federal District. By decision of President Vladimir Putin, adopted on November 3 2018, the republic became part of the Far East. EastRussia understood what it had gained and what it had lost the region in a year of living in the Far Eastern Federal District.
After joining the Far Eastern Federal District, Buryatia became another recipient of financing from the “Single Subsidy”. At 73 events, the republic approved the allocation of six billion rubles. This year, the region began to build 12 new kindergartens and six schools, carry out major repairs of 38 district preschool and educational institutions, purchase equipment for all central district hospitals and city polyclinics, equip colleges and technical schools with equipment. Also in the republic, the issue of the construction of a nuclear medicine center was resolved.
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- Isn't it cold? And because we are not Siberia now! - It was with this phrase that I was met in Buryatia on a very snowy November morning of 2018. This was my first trip to the "new" regions of the Far East. Buryatia and Transbaikalia became part of the Far Eastern Federal District last November. ????????????? So, the first year of “warming” :) ✔ Social objects. For their construction, repair and modernization, we allocated 16 billion rubles under the #UnifiedSubsidy program, for example, in Buryatia and Transbaikalia, 64 schools and kindergartens will be built and repaired, hospitals and clinics will receive more 1000 units of equipment, in Transbaikalia, 200 km of roads will be repaired, and in the capital of Buryatia will overhaul tram tracks and purchase new trams. In total, 177 similar events will be held in two regions in three years; ✔ New ventures. The regions now have a system of tax incentives and preferences - territories of priority development and infrastructure support. TOR “Buryatia” and TOR “Transbaikalia” were created. 10 investors are already working in them, who will create more 4500 jobs; ✔ Support for existing enterprises. For example, in the single-industry town of Krasnokamensk they were going to close the city-forming enterprise. Could cut 5000 workers. Thanks to the infrastructure subsidy, the construction of Mine No. 6 has been started there. People will not lose their jobs; ✔ Aviation. The entry of Buryatia and Transbaikalia into the Far Eastern Federal District made it possible to open subsidized flights to the European part of the country. More than 475 million rubles were allocated to two territories this year. By the end of the year, almost 80 of thousands of pensioners, young people and other privileged categories will be able to buy a subsidized ticket; ✔ Simplified land acquisition process. For three months, 944 people have already received hectares, another two thousand have approved the allocation of the site; ✔ The dates for the reconstruction of Chara Airport have been postponed. It will begin to be built two years earlier; ✔ Border crossings are listed for reconstruction; ✔ The mechanism of electronic visa has earned; ✔ Both in Buryatia and in Transbaikalia there will be an opportunity for young families to take advantage of a mortgage at 2%; ✔ And also the introduction of the Far Eastern “demographic package”, the opening of new specialties in universities and colleges ... ... But this is not the end. We work further! # Far East # Buryatia # Transbaikalia
“We have made significant progress, and this allows us to improve the quality of life. And next year there is a reserve for even larger projects. For example, this year we conclude a contract - we begin to build a third bridge in the city of Ulan-Ude over the Uda River, ”said the head of Buryatia, Alexei Tsydenov.
As in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, a territory of advanced development appeared in the republic. It was created on the territories of the Kabansky and Kyakhtinsky regions. The first residents of the Buryatia ASEZ were the Noyabrskprodservice companies and the Naushki customs and logistics terminal. The total volume of their investments will exceed 5,5 billion rubles, the implementation of projects will create 870 jobs.
"Noyabrskprodservice" will build a poultry complex with a capacity of 30 thousand tons of meat per year in the Kabansky district with an incubator, a slaughterhouse and a feed mill. Another TOP resident, the Naushki Customs and Logistics Terminal, plans to create a base in the village of Khoronhoy, Kyakhtinsky District, to provide comprehensive services for freight transportation by rail and road, as well as warehousing and storage. There are already new potential residents, for whose projects in Buryatia they intend to expand the boundaries of the established TOP.
“At present, we are working to expand the borders of the territory of priority development for the implementation of 14 of new investment projects in the fields of industry, agriculture, mineral resources, tourism, medicine, transport logistics. The total investment portfolio will be about 18 billion rubles, potential residents plan to create jobs and employ two thousand residents of the republic, ”said Timur Budaev, director of Tory Buryatia Management Company LLC.
Since August this year, the Far Eastern Hectare program has been launched in Buryatia as a region in the Far Eastern Federal District. Any resident of the republic can now receive a free land plot. During the three months of the program’s work, the residents of the region submitted 1,5 thousand applications for an allotment - 2,6 thousand less than in Transbaikalia, which also joined the Far Eastern Federal District a year ago.
323 people have already received free plots, a positive decision was made according to applications from another 454 residents. Basically, “Far Eastern hectares” are taken for housing construction and agriculture. At the same time, the inhabitants of Buryatia choose twice as much agriculture per hectare as participants in the program on average in the Far East.
The entry of Buryatia into the Far Eastern Federal District made it possible to open subsidized flights to the European part of the country, but there were no major air carriers in the republic in a year - Aeroflot and its subsidiary Rossiya do not fly to Ulan-Ude, flights are operated by Pobeda and Nordavia. Despite the fact that this year the republic received more than eight billion rubles to subsidize transportation, and despite the projected increase in passenger traffic by half to 1,2 million passengers, only Moscow, Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk can fly westward from the region’s capital. In other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, the list of subsidized flights is much wider.
Like other regions of the Far East, Buryatia lacks manpower. By 2025, the republic will need almost six thousand qualified specialists. The region needs engineers, geologists, forest masters, agronomists. After Buryatia became part of the Far Eastern Federal District, eight educational programs were opened in the republic, under which 190 budget places were allocated this year. So, for the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, the Aviation College began to train specialists in new programs: Production and Maintenance of Aviation Equipment, Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, and Technology of Metalworking Production. Next year, a division of the Moscow Aviation Institute will start operating on the basis of the East Siberian State University of Technology and Management. In total, in Buryatia, 27 will open new educational programs for higher and secondary vocational education.
With the annexation of Buryatia and Transbaikalia to the Far Eastern Federal District, the federal authorities stated that this would reduce the outflow of population from the Far East, however, the migration situation within the region remained difficult. According to Buryatstat, in January - July 2019, 25 people arrived in Buryatia, 013 residents left the region. The migration growth of the population was only 23 people. 421 people came to the republic from other regions, mainly from the subjects of the Siberian Federal District. But they leave Buryatia most often for Yakutia and the Khabarovsk Territory. Also, residents of the republic continue to actively move to Moscow and the Moscow region, Krasnodar Territory, to St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region.
As in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, migrants from neighboring countries actively come to Buryatia. The population growth of the republic due to international migration amounted to 1 people. Most often, migrants come from China (404 people), Uzbekistan (466) and Kyrgyzstan (350 people).
Demographic indicators have not improved over the year. In January - August 2019, the birth rate in the republic fell, while the death rate increased. The number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 893 people. Natural growth per thousand population decreased by 58,8%.
The average monthly nominal wage in August 2019 in organizations not related to small businesses, including medium-sized enterprises, micro and small enterprises amounted to 35 112 rubles. Compared to August last year, it grew by 7,7%. Specialists in the field of mining, financial and insurance activities, transportation and storage, and government receive a large salary. Fewer than others in Buryatia receive workers in areas related to real estate, hotels and catering.
According to Buryatstat, industrial production in the republic has grown in the extraction of coal and other minerals, as well as in the production of drinks, textiles, clothing, wood processing and the manufacture of wood and cork products, except furniture, finished metal products, except machinery and equipment. Indicators decreased in the extraction of metal ores, the production of food products, rubber and plastic products.