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Consequences of expansion: Buryatia as part of the Far Eastern Federal District
What has changed in the republic after a year of life as part of the Far East
For a year now, Buryatia has not been part of the Siberian Federal District. By decision of President Vladimir Putin, adopted on November 3 2018, the republic became part of the Far East. EastRussia understood what it had gained and what it had lost the region in a year of living in the Far Eastern Federal District.
After joining the Far Eastern Federal District, Buryatia became another recipient of financing from the “Single Subsidy”. At 73 events, the republic approved the allocation of six billion rubles. This year, the region began to build 12 new kindergartens and six schools, carry out major repairs of 38 district preschool and educational institutions, purchase equipment for all central district hospitals and city polyclinics, equip colleges and technical schools with equipment. Also in the republic, the issue of the construction of a nuclear medicine center was resolved.
“We have made significant progress, and this allows us to improve the quality of life. And next year there is a reserve for even larger projects. For example, this year we conclude a contract - we begin to build a third bridge in the city of Ulan-Ude over the Uda River, ”said the head of Buryatia, Alexei Tsydenov.
As in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, the territory of rapid development has appeared in the republic. They created it in the territories of the Kabansky and Kyakhtinsky districts. The first residents of the Buryatia TOP were Noyabrskprodservis and the Customs and Logistics Terminal of Naushki. The total volume of their investments will exceed 5,5 billion rubles, the implementation of projects will create 870 jobs.
Noyabrskprodservice will build a poultry complex in the Kabansky district with a capacity of 30 thousand tons of meat per year with an hatchery, slaughterhouse and a feed mill. Another TOR resident - “Customs and Logistics Terminal of Naushki” - plans to create a base in the village of Khoronkhoi, Kyakhtinsky District, for the provision of comprehensive services for freight transportation by rail and road, as well as for storage and storage. There are already new potential residents whose projects in Buryatia intend to expand the boundaries of the created ASEZ.
“At present, we are working to expand the borders of the territory of priority development for the implementation of 14 of new investment projects in the fields of industry, agriculture, mineral resources, tourism, medicine, transport logistics. The total investment portfolio will be about 18 billion rubles, potential residents plan to create jobs and employ two thousand residents of the republic, ”said Timur Budaev, director of Tory Buryatia Management Company LLC.
Since August this year, the Far Eastern Hectare program has been launched in Buryatia as a region in the Far Eastern Federal District. Any resident of the republic can now receive a free land plot. During the three months of the program’s work, the residents of the region submitted 1,5 thousand applications for an allotment - 2,6 thousand less than in Transbaikalia, which also joined the Far Eastern Federal District a year ago.
323 people have already received free plots, a positive decision was made according to applications from another 454 residents. Basically, “Far Eastern hectares” are taken for housing construction and agriculture. At the same time, the inhabitants of Buryatia choose twice as much agriculture per hectare as participants in the program on average in the Far East.
The entry of Buryatia into the Far Eastern Federal District made it possible to open subsidized flights to the European part of the country, but there were no major air carriers in the republic in a year - Aeroflot and its subsidiary Rossiya do not fly to Ulan-Ude, flights are operated by Pobeda and Nordavia. Despite the fact that this year the republic received more than eight billion rubles to subsidize transportation, and despite the projected increase in passenger traffic by half to 1,2 million passengers, only Moscow, Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk can fly westward from the region’s capital. In other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, the list of subsidized flights is much wider.
Like other regions of the Far East, Buryatia lacks manpower. By 2025, the republic will need almost six thousand qualified specialists. The region needs engineers, geologists, forest masters, agronomists. After Buryatia became part of the Far Eastern Federal District, eight educational programs were opened in the republic, under which 190 budget places were allocated this year. So, for the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, the Aviation College began to train specialists in new programs: Production and Maintenance of Aviation Equipment, Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, and Technology of Metalworking Production. Next year, a division of the Moscow Aviation Institute will start operating on the basis of the East Siberian State University of Technology and Management. In total, in Buryatia, 27 will open new educational programs for higher and secondary vocational education.
When Buryatia and Transbaikalia joined the Far Eastern Federal District, the federal authorities said that this would reduce the outflow of the population from the Far East, however, the migration situation within the region remained difficult. According to Buryatstat, in January - July 2019, 25 013 people came to Buryatia, and 23 421 residents left the region. Migration growth amounted to only 1 592 people. 188 people came from other regions to the republic, mainly from subjects of the Siberian Federal District. But they leave Buryatia most often in Yakutia and the Khabarovsk Territory. Also, residents of the republic continue to actively move to Moscow and the Moscow region, the Krasnodar Territory, to St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region
As in other regions of the Far Eastern Federal District, migrants from neighboring countries are actively coming to Buryatia. The population growth of the republic due to international migration amounted to 1 404 people. Most often, migrants come from China (466 people), Uzbekistan (350) and Kyrgyzstan (223 people).
The demographic indicators have not improved over the year. In January - August 2019 of the year, the birth rate fell in the republic, and the mortality rate increased. The number of births exceeded the number of deaths per 893 person. Natural growth per one thousand population in decreased by 58,8%.
The average monthly nominal wage in August 2019 in organizations not related to small businesses, including medium-sized enterprises, micro and small enterprises amounted to 35 112 rubles. Compared to August last year, it grew by 7,7%. Specialists in the field of mining, financial and insurance activities, transportation and storage, and government receive a large salary. Fewer than others in Buryatia receive workers in areas related to real estate, hotels and catering.
According to Buryatstat, industrial production in the republic has grown in the extraction of coal and other minerals, as well as in the production of drinks, textiles, clothing, wood processing and the manufacture of wood and cork products, except furniture, finished metal products, except machinery and equipment. Indicators decreased in the extraction of metal ores, the production of food products, rubber and plastic products.