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We went up: goods are actively being transported to the Far East
Cargo transshipment growth in Far Eastern Federal District seaports exceeded the national indicator
The growth rate of cargo transshipment in the seaports of the Far Eastern basin has been growing over the past five years, but is slowing down in general in Russia. At the end of 2019, this indicator in the Far Eastern Federal District amounted to 6,4% (by 2018), in Russia - 2,4%. The total cargo turnover of ports in the Far East exceeded 214,6 million tons. Positive dynamics was observed in all entities and in all types of transportation: export, import, cabotage and transit. The share of exports in the cargo turnover of the Far Eastern basin exceeded 85%.
DOMINATES RAW MATERIALS
Traditional growth locomotive cargo base in the region - raw materials, the share of coal is about 47%. According to a joint study by DNIIMF-Vostochny and the REC Maritime Transport and Spatial Logistics of Admiral Nevelsky Maritime State University, despite restrictions on railway infrastructure at ports, the volume of coal transshipment increased by 8,5%.
Most stevedores carried out environmental measures, purchasing dust suppression equipment and introducing environmental monitoring. Four ports significantly increased transshipment: Vaninsky (+1,0 million tons), Nakhodkinsky (+1,3 million tons), Vostochny (+1,4 million tons) and Shakhtersk (+1,7 million tons). All of them continue to increase the throughput of their terminals. In particular, in September 2019, the third phase of the specialized coal complex in Vostochny was commissioned, which will increase the transshipment volume to 50-55 million tons per year. One of the main events in the coal transshipment segment was the launch of Port Vera: over the past year, the terminal handled 1,3 million tons of coal.
In general, over ten years, the ports of the Far East increased the transshipment of coal cargo by 2,8 times. Coal miners are ready to export much more, but this will become possible after the completion of the first stage of the modernization of BAM and the Trans-Siberian Railway, which Russian Railways promised to complete in the next two years.
Experts recorded an increase in transshipment of liquid cargo by more than three million tons (+ 3,4% by 2018). The updated technological schemes for the development of the Odoptu and Arktun-Dagi fields (Sakhalin-1 project) allowed to increase oil production, which is mostly shipped through the port of De Kastri. The company "Transbunker-Vanino" increased the volume of transportation of petroleum products.
For several years in a row, Vladivostok has been the leader in container handling in the Far East. In 2019, its terminals exceeded more than one million TEUs (+ 11,5% by 2018). Experts estimate that in ten years, stevedores of Vladivostok have actually doubled the handling of containers. And this is against the background of the fact that tcontainer transportation growth rates on the Far Eastern Railway, connected with the main ports of the region, for various reasons slow down.
“Another container record in 2019 is an increase in transit in the port of Zarubino (Khasansky district of Primorye). Four thousand TEUs are the best result for the last ten years, which is three times higher than in 2018. This is a clear indicator of the demand for the ports of southern Primorye for transit goods of China, Korea and Japan, ”said a regional expert on transport Mikhail Kholosha.
Forest cargo is the only segment where a significant decrease in cargo turnover (-16,7%) was noted. The reason is generally state of the industry, and so in increase in export duty of raw forests from the region up to 60%. Exports of timber and timber in 2019 fell by almost 28%.
“The outstripping growth rates of cargo handling in the ports of the Far East show that the demand for the development of the economy and transport services in the eastern direction is a stable objective reality," said the head of DNIIMF JSC Yaroslav Semenikhin. - According to our estimates, the potential here is much larger than what is still being mastered. It is not without reason that the government has set the task of almost doubling the cargo turnover of Russian ports (up to 2030 billion tons) by 1,6, including up to 400 million tons in the Far East. With a large number of outdated universal berths, we have a shortage of modern specialized marine transshipment complexes, so we need to rapidly develop all the components of the transport infrastructure - port, railway, automobile, not forgetting about logistics and training. ”
LOOK INTO THE FUTURE
In connection with the intentions of the accelerated development of the Far East, it is planned to modernize existing and build new terminals for transshipment of grain, fish, liquefied natural gas, coal.
Ambitious plans to expand the capacities of operators who own container terminals in the Far East. In particular, the Eastern Stevedoring Company intends to increase capacities from 2030 thousand TEU to 650-2 million by 2,2, the Vladivostok Commercial Sea Port - from 600 thousand to 1-1,5 million TEU by 2022.
In Kamchatka, in Bechevinskaya Bay, a transshipment complex for LNG is being built. The estimated volume of its transshipment is 10,9 million tons in 2024 and 21,7 million in 2026. The development of one of the world's largest copper deposits Peschanka in Chukotka will give an increase in cargo base of 2026 million tons by 1,5.
“With all this, there are a lot of plans, but there is no agreed scheme for the development of ports, transport and the economy, each market participant seeks to implement their plans on their own, which makes it difficult to achieve a multiplier effect due to synchronization of projects,” he said. Deputy General Director of DNIIMF Eugene Novoseltsev.
BET ON THE SEVERSHIP
The Government of the Russian Federation approved a plan for the development of the Northern Sea Route infrastructure for the period until 2035: by 2024, an increase in freight in this direction is projected to 80 million tons, by 2030 - up to 120 million tons, by 2035 - up to 160 million tons, including 10 million tons - transit traffic.
The Arctic development strategy envisages an increase by 2035 of the share of oil produced in the Arctic to 25% of the total volume of oil produced in Russia, the share of natural gas - up to 92% (in 2012 - 82,7%). The volume of production of reduced natural gas (LNG) will grow by almost seven times by 2030 - up to 73,5 million tons, by 2035 - up to 120 million tons.
By the end of this year, it is planned to complete the reconstruction of the facilities of the Pevek port in Chukotka, and by December 2021 - to complete the reconstruction of the sea channel of the port of Sabetta. The plan includes the construction of five ice-class rescue vessels and three Leader-class nuclear icebreakers. By December 2020, proposals will be formed on the formation of a state order for training personnel, taking into account the needs of the development of transportation in the Northern Sea Route.
“To successfully solve the tasks set, you need to respond to modern challenges, including those related to the attractiveness of our routes and manageability in development,” commented the rector of the Maritime State University Denis Burov. “In addition to modern infrastructure, we need a digital service environment and modern personnel. We, with the support of Rosmorrechflot, have already opened new directions - the development of digital technologies and the enhancement of logistics competencies. ”
“The growth rate of port cargo handling is one of the most important indicators of the development of transport and the region’s economy as a whole. Therefore, it is important to know the statistics, be immersed in it and be able to form forecasts. This gives a sense of the market, allows you to choose the road to success, which is at the crossroads of a number of factors: the availability of demand for transportation (it is) and the effectiveness of individual projects (business initiative zone). In addition, the factor of synchronization of actions is important. This is the level of integrated spatial solutions, including the ability to shape sales markets and regulate development at the macroeconomic level (a zone for joint business planning, the entire industry and the region). It is necessary to combine different projects into a common development, ”emphasized transport expert Mikhail Kholosha.