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Went to take off
The enterprises of the defense industry remain the basis for the development of the high-tech economy of the Far East
Downtime and lack of orders, lack of qualified personnel, non-payment of salaries and the threat of closure - all these problems have recently been relevant for many defense enterprises in the Far East. Now, perhaps, not all the acute issues have been dropped, but the situation has changed radically. What measures allowed the Far Eastern military industrial complex to get out of the protracted crisis and resume intensive development, EastRussia found out.
"A key role in the development of the high-tech economy of the Far East is assigned to enterprises of the defense industry complex. It should be borne in mind that in addition to the production of core products, the defense industry is a catalyst for the accelerated development of science-intensive products for civil use. " This is a quote from state programs "Social and economic development of the Far East and the Baikal region", developed in 2013 and calculated up to 2025 year.
However, in the document, in addition to the value of the DIC for the Far East, problems were also noted. Of the several enterprises of the DFO military-industrial complex, the capacities of many companies at that time were loaded at best by half (and this despite the growing volumes of state defense orders), a significant proportion of the equipment is outdated morally and technically; The personnel shortage made itself felt.
In some cases, the situation went out of control. As, for example, in the oldest in the Far East, once the leading enterprise of the industry - the Vladivostok Radio Equipment. The company, once awarded the Orders of the Red Banner of Labor and the Badge of Honor for services to the development and production of special equipment, was on the verge of bankruptcy. His work was frozen, huge salary debts accumulated in front of employees.
In recent months, we note that the issue was resolved: the company created 200 new jobs, and the release of defense products was resumed.
- The inventory of the enterprise’s property has now been fully completed. A part of the property sold, the funds received from the sale will go to pay wage arrears to the plant’s employees, ”told the press service of the Primorsky Krai industry department. - Earlier from the regional budget 178 million rubles went for a partial calculation with the staff of "Radiopribor". The upgraded plant, as planned, will launch first products in 2018 year. In addition, there are plans for the development of diversification of production at the "Radio Equipment".
At other plants, the situation was not so critical. However, enterprises often lacked the "front of work", although they had all the opportunities to work quite successfully. So, in 2002 the shipbuilders of the Amur Shipyard composed an appeal addressed to President Vladimir Putin: they asked, as they themselves stressed, not money, but support and the opportunity to work in full force. More than 4 thousand employees of the plant signed a petition, and a rally was held at the plant. Amur Shipbuilding Plant, the city-forming enterprise of Komsomolsk-on-Amur and leading in its industry, remained in 90 without a state defense order. And at the beginning of the 2000, after the plant was identified as the main contractor for the repair of submarines of the Pacific Fleet and export contracts, Rossudostroenie transferred these contracts to another enterprise.
The situation has not changed too much over the years. As of 10, the year from 2012 with more than DIC enterprises operating in the DFO, only 30 had a state defense order, and even their load ranged from 14 to 25%, and this is also the case for defense orders in the Far East in 40-2010 averaged 2012%. However, the share of Far Eastern enterprises in the all-Russian state defense order was then only 30%, while the receivables of the defense factories of the FEFD reached 4,8 billion rubles, the accounts payable - 36 billion rubles.
In a word, it was necessary to solve the problem of congestion in the Far Eastern enterprises of the defense industry in any case not point-by-point, but in a complex manner.
IN ALL DIRECTIONS
Develop state support measures OPK of the Far East (and defense enterprises in the Far Eastern Federal District are represented primarily by shipbuilding and aircraft building), special programs to train engineers for the Far Eastern high-tech industries (primarily defense), to focus on the introduction of innovations - these tasks for the development of the defense industry in the region were not only delivered but also largely met. Used at the defense enterprises of the Far East and completely new economic opportunities for Russia - for example, the shipbuilding complex Zvezda entered as a resident in the territory of advanced development of the Bolshoi Kamen.
At the same time, the President of Russia set the task to diversify the defense industry. Recall: to 2020, the share of civilian products manufactured by defense enterprises should be at least 17%, to 2025 - 30% and more, to 2030 to 50%.
Despite all the difficulties, such a task turned out to be feasible for Far Eastern enterprises. Those of them who specialize in aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding, and previously produced products of both military and civilian purposes. And for most of these companies, diversification was not the beginning of a new job, but a continuation of the one that was conducted before.
So, in the list of products Amur Shipyard appear submarines, guard ships "Steregushchy", "savvy", "resistant", "Boyky". Recently, the plant handed over to the Pacific Fleet the corvette “Perfect” - a special purpose vessel with unique capabilities. But at the same time, the company also produces "peaceful" products: floating docks, environmental monitoring and seismic survey vessels, field bots, equipment for oil production, etc.
At the Komsomol aircraft factory "KnAAZ" (a branch of PJSC "Company" Sukhoi ") in an interview with an EastRussia correspondent mentioned, introducing the products, both of the 5-generation fighter jets and the X-NUMX passenger Superjet.
Arsenyev airline "Progress" (included in the holding company "Helicopters of Russia") on the order of the Ministry of Defense will deliver the latest combat helicopters Ka-52 "Alligator" and "Qatran". But the enterprise faces the task of adjusting the mass production of Ka-62 civilian helicopters.
For the company «Eastern shipyard», celebrating the 65 anniversary this year, diversification has always been a common thing - even when Russian shipbuilders didn't know the word. The company traditionally produced both warships for the Pacific Fleet (in all, during the years of operation of the Oriental Shipyard, they produced 500) and fishing vessels (more than 130 were built at the enterprise).
Plant "Star" (Primorsky Territory, the city of Bolshoy Kamen) specializes in the repair of submarines of the Pacific Fleet and is the only company in the Far East to repair, re-equip and modernize ships of nuclear submarine missile carriers. At the same time, according to the press service of the plant, the company is engaged in the construction and maintenance of civilian vessels, works in the field of mechanical engineering, pipeline production and even produces consumer goods: furniture, sails and awnings, safes, etc.
- Prospects for the transfer of part of orders for civilian subjects are important, since after 2020, the amount of state defense order funding will be reduced. Primorsk factories in this direction demonstrate success, for example, the Askold plant today reported on large volumes of reinforcement production within the framework of the import substitution program. The issue of the transfer of defense enterprises is primarily a matter of training and technology development. Interaction with FEFU in this regard is a good example when scientific thought picks up production, - сообщил Deputy Prime Minister Vasily Usoltsev at a meeting on the development of the military-industrial complex in Primorsky Krai.
Now the Far Eastern defense enterprises are ready to not only independently produce civilian products, but also to provide other companies with jobs.
In particular, as EastRussia was told in the press service of the Primorsky Krai Industry Department, now in the region they are working on the formation of a shipbuilding and aviation cluster. The bottom line is that large seaside factories give part of their orders to local enterprises, including small ones. “And enterprises that are ready to take on the implementation of such orders, primarily on civilian products (for example, fishing vessels) in the region at least two dozen,” explained the press service.
A special stage for shipbuilding and ship repair enterprises of the Far East will be the receipt of orders from mining companies. In particular, Rosneft, Gazprom, Lukoil and other giant companies are placing orders or are planning to place orders on the same Zvezda. It's about the production of icebreaking and other supply vessels, drilling platforms, other equipment associated with oil and gas production. And such orders solve several problems at the same time: this includes the diversification of defense enterprises, import substitution, new jobs, and investment in the region.
As for the introduction of high technology, then, as noted in the press service of the Amur Shipyard, "at the defense enterprises all products are high-tech."
In this regard, of course, the question arises of training for such enterprises. The defense factories of the Far East are now actively cooperating with universities: they train specialists “for the needs” of specific enterprises.
Such cooperation is established, for example, between the branch of FEFU in Arsenyev and the Progress and Askold plants.
“Arsenyev is far from large cities, and therefore, attracting qualified specialists to work at local enterprises is not easy,” said Yuri Ognev, director of the branch, doctor of technical sciences, professor. “Therefore, we have long been working closely with local defense companies: we are preparing specialists in helicopter and aircraft construction, bachelors in aircraft manufacturing, in design and technological support for machine-building industries. Factories are interested in cooperation with us, and we are with them: in the educational process we use factory laboratories; enterprise employees work with students; guys practice there. Moreover, after the second year, all full-time students have a part-time job in engineering factories in factories. Recently, I note, engineering specialties have become popular with applicants. The guys learned to focus on the future. They see that our graduates form the basis of engineering personnel in factories, receive a decent salary. Yes, and scholarships for future engineers increased.
FOR BIG AND SMALL MOTHERLAND
It should be said that for the most part the divisions of federal structures are the leading defense enterprises of the Far East; therefore, it would be an exaggeration to talk about a breakthrough in their development as a kind of “Far Eastern miracle”. For example, Arsenyevsky Progress is part of the Russian Helicopters holding, and the KnAAZ aircraft factory, a branch of the Sukhoi company. Yes, and the revival of the already mentioned "Radiopribor" was associated with a change of ownership. Create about 200 jobs, resume production was possible only after the owner of "Radiopribor" became the Dubna machine-building plant named after Fedorov, which is in turn in the group "RTI".
The undoubted and the main plus of this situation is a stable workload. On the other hand, this in a certain sense inhibits the independence of enterprises.
- Today, the entire structure of the production order is formed within the holdings. And if we wanted to play inside the regional cooperation, then we will not succeed, - said Yuri Denisenko, managing director of the Progress plant at a meeting of heads of defense enterprises. - Barriers that are created within the holding, drive us to the free production sites of the holdings themselves. We are told: "Buy the details not where you think is necessary, but in Ulan-Ude, in Kazan." And in all the rest the same trend. But still the main task of Primorsky Territory industry is not to lose human resources. Scientific and technical capabilities in the region are formed as the development of production processes and depends on the creation of human resources.
Nevertheless, the work carried out in recent years has already brought results. Yuri Denisenko mentioned 32 thousand jobs in defense enterprises of Primorsky Krai. But what is marked in the program "Development of industrial production of the Khabarovsk Territory"approved at the turn of 2016-2017 (note: it is in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories almost all defense enterprises of the Far East are concentrated)
“The basis of industrial production in the region is formed by enterprises of the military-industrial complex. The defense industry enterprises are involved in the solution of large state tasks of national security, they form the scientific, technical and personnel potential of the industrial complex of the region and the state, the document says. - The share of the defense industry in the volume of products shipped to the industrial complex is about 60%, in terms of the number of employed workers - more than 50%. According to tax revenues to the regional budget, the leading defense industry enterprises are among the ten largest taxpayers of the region. Along with military products, defense enterprises produce civilian products, whose share is about 11% in the volume of production. ”
At the recent Eastern Economic Forum, Vladimir Putin saidthat economic growth in the DFO for 3 amounted to 8,6%, the growth of GRP 4,2%, which is significantly more than the national average. Over the same time, the volume of state defense orders for Far Eastern enterprises increased 10 times. Probably, these figures are interconnected.