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Sow according to the state
Provision of agro-industry with state finances lags behind the needs of small producers
In the midst of sowing, far from all the Far Eastern farmers were able to receive the promised state support in the form of concessional loans and subsidies. The reason is bureaucratic red tape when processing applications. Nevertheless, the regional authorities are optimistic. EastRussia understood the nuances of state support for agriculture in the Far East.
Sergei Titov, head of a peasant farm of the same name in the Birobidzhan District of the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAO), specializes in the cultivation of soybeans, potatoes and cereals. Sowing in the region began in March. “I was planning to buy a tractor by this time, in January I applied to Rosselkhozbank for a state-subsidized loan at 5% per annum. But the application was firmly lost somewhere in the process of coordinating bank clerks with officials of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture. In the district administration, in the regional government, in the bank itself, all my questions were just shrugged with sympathy. And the sowing campaign is already in full swing. I spat on the whole thing. Withdrew the application. I borrowed money from friends and relatives and bought a tractor, ”he says.
According to the farmer, in the Birobidzhan region of the Jewish Autonomous Region many of his colleagues have not even started sowing, since they do not have the available funds for the purchase of fuel and lubricants and the necessary equipment.
In a similar situation was Sergei Titov's colleague from Khabarovsk Territory - an individual entrepreneur Dmitry Goryunov, owner of a planted area of a thousand hectares: "I applied for a subsidized loan back in February: you need two million rubles to purchase fuel and herbicides. Already - April and no money. Although by the rules, they must give their consent or refusal within six days! .. Apparently, it will have to be wrenched out at the expense of some other sources. "
Dmitry is not going to withdraw the application. He hopes that, nevertheless, the Russian Agricultural Bank will approve the loan to him as a bona fide client. Here are just “a spoon for dinner is good, and sovereigns money is already viscously painful ...”.
Both farmers, Sergey and Dmitry, complain about the inaccessibility of other forms of state support, which regional authorities cheerfully report to both the EAO and the Khabarovsk Territory.
So, according to Sergei Titov, subsidies from the state budget for partial costs for leasing agricultural equipment for farmers officially exist in the EAO, but in fact - no. Dmitry Goryunov notes that in Khabarovsk Krai this kind of support is already not officially envisaged.
In the EAO and Khabarovsk Krai this year, to the great disappointment of farmers, this type of subsidy, such as "payments per hectare" (state support, not related to production indicators of crop production, designed to compensate agricultural producers for part of the cost of various works - the abbreviated name "unrelated support") was canceled. . The cancellation concerns soybean - the most popular and profitable agricultural crop in the Far East. For comparison, in the Khabarovsk Territory unrelated support for soybean was 2000 rubles per hectare last year, and in the neighboring EAO only 300 is a consequence of the difference in the budget revenues of the two Far Eastern subjects.
EastRussia Help. All subjects of the Russian Federation in the Far East, except for the Amur Region, entered the list of 29 regions whose lands are classified as unfavorable for agriculture. According to the Expert-Analytical Center of Agribusiness, the size of the sown areas of the Far Eastern Federal District as of 2016 year amounted to 1,88 million hectares, or 2,4% of all the sown areas of Russia. Crop production in the Russian Far East has traditionally been characterized by high soybean harvesting: about 52% of all soybean harvest in the country. The level of self-sufficiency of the Far East for vegetables - 58%, grain - 79%, meat - 25%, milk - 44%.
Instead of a bank - gangs
A farmer from the Amur Region, Oksana Chatskaya, says that she was forced to close her sole proprietor and switch to a personal subsidiary farm because of the debts that fell on her like a cornucopia after the memorable flood of 2013. “I never received any compensation, which was so much talked about in the media at that time, from the regional authorities. Tired of pounding bureaucratic thresholds uselessly, I just decided to quit entrepreneurship, ”she notes with bitterness.
Head of the peasant farm "Bondar A.A." Although Alexander Bondar lives in the very south of the Far East, in Primorye, he also thought more than once about closing his vegetable growing business. “I am mortally tired of the chronic shortage of cash assets. It is expensive to take a regular loan at a bank at 15-17% per annum, and a subsidized one is so much bureaucratic red tape, reports and headaches that it comes out more expensive. They promised to give out unrelated support even before the sowing season. She's still gone. There is one answer to all appeals to the regional agricultural department: "Wait!" There is practically no reason to count on compensation for floods, which occur almost every year in our climate, ”- complains Alexander.
Many agricultural producers, he said, solve the problem of lack of liquidity by loans from each other or from acquaintances from other spheres of business: "Some do not even mind borrowing from local bandits, unlike banks, they often lend without interest and always - without delay ".
In many respects, the farmers of Kamchatka and Sakhalin also agree with the opinion of their colleagues from the Amur and Primorye.
“Subsidized loans and other forms of state support for a small agricultural producer are in fact very difficult to access,” said Yury Grachev, general director of Ovoschevod, LLC (Kamchatka Krai).
And Alexander Dukhanin, the head of the Rus farm (Sakhalin region), compared the farming business — in terms of financial cost and unpredictability — to a suitcase without a handle: “It’s miserable to leave, it’s hard to carry.”
From the governor's bell tower
It is not excluded that it is the inefficient organization of financial support at the expense of the state budget of the bulk of agricultural producers (small farms in general, as banks and government bodies tend to treat more favorably to large agroholdings) led the Far Eastern agro industry in the fall of the industry (-2016% ) against the background of its growth in the all-Russian scale (+ 1,6%) compared to the previous year.
EastRussia Help. In general, support for agricultural producers on the territory of the Russian Federation is determined by the federal state program for the development of agriculture and regulation for 2013-2020. In addition, according to the federal model, each constituent entity of the Russian Federation also has its own similar program, which takes into account the regional specifics of farming. In 2017, the Russian government will allocate more than 216 billion rubles for the development of the agro-industrial sector. The money will be distributed according to a different scheme than in previous years. If earlier the tranches were sent for specific programs, then in 2017 the full amount is transferred to the subject for the development of agriculture, including insurance preferences, subsidizing loans, assistance to farming and peasant farms, the sectors of gardening and livestock breeding. The scheme is called the “unified regional subsidy”.
Regional authorities do not find the process of getting state support by farmers fatal bureaucratic, note its gradual improvement and look optimistically at the prospects of the Far Eastern agrarian sector. For example, in the Department of Agriculture and Food of the Primorsky Territory high hopes are placed on a new scheme for concessional lending to the industry, introduced by the Russian government from 1 January 2017. We are speaking about the loan already subsidized at the expense of the state budget with an interest rate up to 5%.
“The novelty lies in the fact, - explains the head of the department Alexey Taran, - that the subsidies are directly received by banks, which will issue cheap loans to farmers. Prior to this, the procedure for concessional lending was more cumbersome and less rational: at first, agrarians took a regular loan from a bank with an interest rate traditionally high for Russia, and then they waited for subsidies from the state, partially offsetting this rate. The wait dragged on for months. The new scheme is designed to increase the availability of credit and reduce the financial burden on the farmer. "
But not every farmer can get a subsidized loan. A potential borrower (as under the old scheme) must meet a number of requirements: not to be in the process of reorganization or liquidation, not to have restrictions on the implementation of economic activities, to have the status of a tax resident and be registered in the Russian Federation, not to have overdue (unresolved) tax debts , fees and other obligatory payments to the budget and extra-budgetary funds. In addition, meet the requirements of the authorized creditor bank.
According to the Primorye Governor Vladimir Miklushevsky, in 2017, the main state support measures (3,2 billion rubles from the federal and regional budgets) will be aimed at improving the financial sustainability of agricultural enterprises, subsidizing dairy farming, technical and technological modernization of production. family livestock farms and crop production.
Vyacheslav Shport, Governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, expresses his satisfaction with the way in which specialized programs to support business in the countryside are working in the region: “We are actively giving grants to farmers, there is a program for the construction of houses in rural areas, support measures in the form of payment for construction materials. According to the voiced plans of the governor, in 2017 a complete inventory of all agricultural land will be held in the region, after which agricultural producers will be offered ready-made land plots registered according to the law. In addition, the region will be included in the federal program for the development of land reclamation. And then "farmers who are engaged in the restoration of previously drained land will be able to count on compensation for up to 95% of their costs from the federal budget."
The plans of the Governor of the Amur Region Alexander Kozlov for this year "to send about 1,43 billion rubles to agricultural production in the region, including 986,8 million rubles from the federal budget and 443,6 from the regional." The priority areas of the industry remain, according to the head of the region, the construction of high-tech livestock complexes and a plant for deep processing of soybeans. The sowing area of this crop is planned to be increased by 25 thousand hectares, bringing it to 920 thousand hectares.
Alexander Levintal, the governor of the Jewish Autonomous Region, expresses his readiness to support the producers of agricultural products under conditions that are favorable for them, while emphasizing the family contract: "The region will develop family farms, since they allow solving one of the main rural problems - employment of the population, but in addition Provide residents with environmentally friendly dairy products, such as milk for children's institutions. " For example, for the Kaplun family farm, not only grants from the federal budget were provided, but also the money of the regional program. The acquisition of livestock and equipment was financed in each direction by 95% from the regional budget. And only by 5% added farming. "
The Governor of the Sakhalin Region, Oleg Kozhemyako, notes that dairy and beef cattle breeding, poultry farming, and other areas of the agricultural industry are actively developing in the region under his jurisdiction, and the volume of support for agriculture in the coming years will not only be preserved, but also increased. “Thanks to the implementation of the regional program for the development of agriculture, as well as by increasing the yield in general, we plan to harvest potatoes for agricultural enterprises by 937 tons more. In addition, this season we will plant more fodder crops: annual and perennial grasses, winter crops, corn - in order to increase the volume of fodder procurement by one and a half times - up to 150 thousand tons, ”the head of the island region promises.
The agro-industrial sector of Yakutia, Kamchatka, the Magadan region and the Chukotka Autonomous Region (PJSC) due to the severity of the local climate is less developed than in the south of the Far East, and is focused more on animal husbandry (reindeer herding first) than on crop production. But the local authorities declare significant state support to peasant, including livestock farms.
According to the First Deputy Prime Minister - Minister of Agriculture and Food Policy of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Petr Alekseev, as of March, 22 out of 94 agricultural producers who submitted applications were recipients of subsidies for unrelated support. The amount of subsidies issued is 9,96 million rubles, or 22,9% of all budgetary funds provided in 2017 for the provision of this type of state support.
State support for reindeer husbandry, according to the information of the republican government, is increasing from year to year, which made it possible to stop the decline in the number and stabilize the number of reindeer (156 814 heads in farms of all categories as of the beginning of the year). The size of subventions to municipal districts to support northern domestic reindeer husbandry this year has increased by almost a third compared to the previous year and amounted to 694 million rubles. The lion's share fell on the republican budget - 651 million rubles, the rest - on the federal budget.
The amount of budget funds allocated in 2016 to the development of the agro-industry of Kamchatka exceeded 1,4 billion rubles. According to the Governor of the Kamchatka Territory Vladimir Ilyukhin, this made it possible to implement very important for the region sectoral projects: "Creation of the first broiler meat production in Kamchatka and the construction of a pig farm" Kamchatsky ". In addition, 4 District in 2016 year received funds for the reconstruction of livestock buildings. We also update the machinery necessary for the operation of agricultural enterprises, support peasant farms and family livestock farms: last year they were allocated 50 and 30 million rubles, respectively. " The size of the branch state support this year, the governor counts, will not be lower than last year.
According to the Governor of the Magadan Region, Vladimir Pechenogo, the region continues to grow the volume of state support for agriculture (300 million rubles in 2006), in parallel, there is an increase in the volume of industrial products. "Several years ago we set the task of increasing the production of fresh poultry meat - broilers. This production has been restored. With our support this year the incubator was put into operation, the construction of the fourth workshop of the poultry breeding complex was completed. And if a few years ago the indicator for this type of product was zero, now we produce about 600 tons of poultry meat. "
The head of Kolyma also notes the positive dynamics in the reindeer husbandry sector: “After the crisis of 2014, the number of reindeer in the industry has increased over the past two years. In 2015 - by 1383 heads, (10,9%), and in 2016 - by 1172 (8,3%). At the beginning of 2017, the herd of domesticated reindeer in the Magadan Region amounted to 15,2 thousand heads. By this time it was
13,8 tons of venison were sold. The annual support for reindeer husbandry amounted to more than 40 million rubles. "
The basis of agriculture in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is domestic reindeer herding. There are 14 municipal reindeer herding farms and two farms in the region. According to the information of the government of the PrJSC, the volume of state allocations to the industry has steadily grown over the past 15 years (in 2016, the district allocated 886,6 million rubles to finance the industry, in 2017 state support increased by 5,3%, already amounting to 934,2 million rubles), which could not be said about reindeer herds - each year reindeer herdings, up to 2014, lost more than 10 thousand heads. In 2015, this trend was halted, according to the Okrug government, through the implementation of a program to support reindeer herding farms for 2014-2020. The total herd of reindeer was kept at 2015 thousand heads in 185. But then it began to decrease again. As of January 1, 2017, the livestock decreased to 155 160 heads.
Forecasts and truths
The above judgments and assessments indicate a striking difference between the perception of the state of affairs in the regional agro-industry on the part of ordinary farmers and top management officials. Each, as they say, has its own truth. But, if you believe the statistics, which, however, is also not a perfect measure of truth - over the past few years, the overall industry picture has nevertheless shifted for the better: the share of the Far Eastern Federal District in the total volume of agricultural production in the country, according to Rosstat, has grown since 2011. to 2015 four times - from 1 to 4%. And today it remains at about the same level. And the recognized leader of the regional agro-industrial complex - Primorsky Territory - demonstrated during this period the rates of industry growth twice as high as the national average.
In other words, the Far East has much to do with the development of agriculture, I am sure Galina Perminova, an associate professor of the School of Economics and Management of the Far Eastern Federal University.
“Considering that the total arable land of the Far Eastern Federal District is 2,3 million hectares, pastures and hayfields - about 1,8 million hectares, and climatic conditions allow growing here almost all grain crops, in particular - rice, soybeans and corn, the most popular and are in demand in the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region (APR), then the Russian government has every chance to realize, at the expense of the Far Eastern Federal District, its plans for import substitution in agriculture on a national scale. In particular, to reduce the share of imported meat from 21,6% to 7,7%, milk and dairy products - from 23,6 to 16,6%, vegetables - from 14,6 to 10,1% ", - the economist predicts ...
In her forecasts, Galina Perminova relies on both small family farms and large foreign and Russian agricultural holdings that have established their residents in the priority development areas (TOR) of Primorye, Amur Region and Sakhalin: Hokkaido Corporation, Rusagro, Mercy Invest Group "," Chernihiv agroholding "," Yug Rusi "," GreenAgro "," Amurprom "and others.
But will small farms feel comfortable in the market against the background of the giants and their subsidiaries? This question remains open. Participants of the International Investment Forum "Agro Far East and Siberia", which will open on April 28 in Vladivostok, will try to answer it, among many others that excite the industry. As part of the event, the prospects for the development of medium and small agricultural enterprises will be actively discussed, as well as over 50 investment projects in the field of crop and livestock production, which are planned to be implemented within the next three years, will be presented.