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"Order beats the class, it's about us"
“We didn’t take the African path when business conditions were created behind a high fence”
- Nikolai Yuryevich, in the coming year, the Khabarovsk Territory will create two priority development areas, in Khabarovsk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Has the regional budget already provided for the costs of equipping their infrastructure?
- As regards the development of the infrastructure of the territories of advanced social and economic development (TASED), it is necessary to talk about two main directions that we see. Firstly, it is the engineering infrastructure, which should allow residents to start construction work and carry out their production activities. In this part, we, together with network organizations, local authorities, specialists from the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, identified the main measures for providing sites with networks, and also provided preliminary estimates of the costs for this.
The scale of the financial participation of the regional government will be determined after receiving specific price parameters, of course, taking into account the possibilities of the regional budget.
But an equally important aspect is the development of social infrastructure facilities aimed at creating a favorable urban environment. In this direction, we have already begun work. In Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the amount of initial investment in the social sphere is estimated at 13 billion rubles, according to our estimates. On TSEER in Khabarovsk, similar costs will be determined in the near future.
Of course, the development of social facilities is, first of all, the competence of regions and municipalities, but given the difficult financial situation at the level of local budgets, we plan to maximize the potential of federal target and state programs in our plans.
- Who are the “anchor investors” of these sites today?
In Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the task of the PSEDA will be to create cooperative ties with aircraft and shipbuilders. It is planned to manufacture composite materials, tools and equipment for aircraft and shipbuilding, and mechanical processing. Among the investors are ZAO MTE Finance, GK Energia, GK Dalenergomash, LLC RPP Group.
- How will the launch of the PSEDA affect the economic indicators of the region?
- Well, firstly, we are talking about the inflow of direct private investments in the economy of the region in the amount of 50 billion rubles, and this is only the first pool of residents. Secondly, there are more than 6,5 thousand new jobs, mostly highly qualified. In addition, the improvement of the social and engineering infrastructure of urban agglomerations will follow. Within 10 years, tax revenues from the first pool of investors alone will amount to 5 billion rubles in the agglomerations of Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Khabarovsk, respectively. in and 16 billion rubles.
- According to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, all the regulatory acts necessary for the operation of the PSEDA should be adopted by April 1. How do you assess the pace of work on the formation of the "legislative portfolio"?
- The work is proceeding in full accordance with the schedule, and it is very busy. Specialists of the regional ministry of investment, land and property policy "do not leave Moscow." In turn, employees of the Ministry for the Development of the Far East and the embassy are regular guests and active participants in the process here, in Khabarovsk. A draft government decree and draft normative acts are being prepared.
— The territories of advanced development will work in constant contact with the urban environment, the infrastructure of municipal lands. Will local authorities have any leverage over what is happening there?
- The municipal government is one of the parties that will sign an investment agreement on the establishment of TASED, this procedure is determined by law. But the federal law also guarantees a certain isolation of the territories of advanced development. They will not develop in isolation, because we did not follow the African path, when special conditions for business are created behind a high fence with barbed wire, and the way there is forbidden for mere mortals. There will be autonomy, but we communicate a lot with the Ministry for the Development of the Far East, and they support us in the following: the main opportunities for management are given to the region, but under the control of the ministry.
- Will there be a positive effect for the territories adjacent to the TASED?
For TACER, by definition, there are close ties with the regional economy, which is due to the presence of a common infrastructure, market niches, and logistics. This is primarily an instrument for the development of regions, and only then a mechanism for supporting industries.
There are no quantitative estimates yet, but according to our feelings, the adjacent effect for adjacent territories will be comparable to the direct one. Additional incentives for development will receive small businesses. It is about the service sector, for which the emergence of a new segment is only a plus.
"The project is significant for the entire macroregion"
- Khabarovsk Territory is positioned as a region with good logistics, a kind of hub for the Far East. But transport and investment flows go where there is real infrastructure - storage, road, transshipment ...
- Indeed, the state policy for the development of the Far East is based on the use of the competitive advantage of the transit potential of its territories. In this macro-region, the Khabarovsk Territory plays an exceptional role and is a transport and transit center that includes all types of modern transport. The main place in building up the transit potential is assigned to the emerging Vanino-Sovetsko-Gavansky transport and industrial hub. It has access to international sea lines connecting the ports of Vanino and Sovetskaya Gavan with the Asia-Pacific countries, and is a key link in the East-West international transport corridor.
The implementation of the project goes beyond the Khabarovsk Territory, the project is significant for the entire macro-region. This is due to the fact that the transport hub complexes the economic interests of the cargo-forming subjects of the Russian Federation, which are related to the BAM and Transsib zones, as well as large industrial and raw material holdings that implement projects in the mining, metallurgical and other industries.
On the basis of the mechanism of public-private partnership, the interconnected development of the supporting infrastructure is carried out: railway, road, energy, port. At present, JSC Russian Railways is implementing a phased development of the BAM railway infrastructure. The construction of the Khabarovsk-Lidoga-Vanino highway with an approach to Komsomolsk-on-Amur is nearing completion. In the town of Sovetskaya Gavan, JSC RusHydro is building a thermal power plant with a capacity of 120 MW. JSC FGC UES is building a 220 kV high-voltage line Komsomolsk-Selikhino-Vanino. With the commissioning of these facilities, the growing energy demand of the transport-industrial hub will be met.
The port infrastructure is also developing. A significant part of the territory of the ports of Vanino and Sovetskaya Gavan is occupied by investors - subsidiaries of the holdings OJSC SUEK, Volga Group, LLC Tuva Energy Industrial Corporation, OJSC Mechel, UC RUSAL, GC Transbunker, RFP Group, OJSC NK Alliance, leading the reconstruction and construction of new port facilities for the transshipment of export-import cargo. The holdings OOO Petropavlovsk - Ferrous Metallurgy and OAO Rosagrosnab are aimed at placing their business here.
- Vladivostok can be declared a free port, receiving a number of unprecedented benefits. Isn't it worth changing the approach to the development of ports in the Khabarovsk Territory?
The development of the ports of Sovetskaya Gavan and Vanino is based on the application of the existing mechanisms of special modes of economic activity: the federal port special economic zone (PSEZ) and the territory of advanced socio-economic development (TASED). The purpose of these regimes, like the free port, is to create favorable conditions for carrying out entrepreneurial activities to attract investment. According to the current legislation, residents of PSEZ and PSEDA are provided with tax and customs benefits, various administrative preferences. For its part, the state will co-finance the creation of the necessary infrastructure. Thanks to preferences and infrastructure created at the expense of the budget, the total cost savings of investors can reach 30%.
The existing PSEZ site was created by decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated December 31.12.2009, 1185 No. XNUMX on the basis of the seaport Sovetskaya Gavan and is located in the city of Sovetskaya Gavan and the working village of Lososina. The priority development of PSEZ is planned for the site closest to the existing infrastructure in Sovetskaya Gavan - the Cape Maria section. Investors have been attracted to this site - subsidiaries OOO Petropavlovsk-Ferrous Metallurgy and OAO Rosagrosnab, which are planning to build terminals for transshipment of various cargoes.
With the second site, Cape Muravyov, the situation is more complicated due to the lack of a railway line from Sovgavan-Gorod station, the terminal station of BAM, to Cape Muravyov. In this regard, in 2013, the government of the Khabarovsk Territory submitted to the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia justifications for the creation of a fish processing complex on the territory of the former Ocean Fishery Base in the village of Lososina using the existing federal berths for processing the fishing fleet. The key investors in the fish processing complex are operating small companies from Sovetskaya Gavan and Moscow investors, OOO Enport and OAO Rosagrosnab.
During 2015 - 2025, the total cost of a comprehensive project for the development of a transport and industrial hub will be more than RUB 100 billion. This will give over 30 billion rubles to the budgets of all levels. tax revenues, and about 4 thousand jobs. Prospective total cargo turnover by 2025 will amount to about 125 million tons per year. At the same time, a clear specialization of ports was formed: the port of Vanino is specialized terminals, and the port of Sovetskaya Gavan is a universal port with production and fish processing facilities.
If we talk about the expansion of PSEZ, the Ministry of Economic Development is the main player, and in some cases, a deterrent on the part of the federation. In order to implement these plans, serious changes are required in federal legislation, in particular, on special economic zones. We can not say that we have made great progress in this respect, but finally after seven years of work we got a decision on the establishment of the management company PSEZ. We are counting on a long and hard work.
- What other large projects are currently being implemented on the territory of the region, which are planned in the near future?
In industry, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant carries out large-scale technical re-equipment and modernization of production for 1,78 billion rubles. In wood processing, Asia Les LLC intends to organize the production of planed and profiled lumber in the village. Beryozovy Solnechny district, project cost 3 billion rubles. OJSC Dallesprom came up with the idea of creating a Far Eastern center for deep wood processing in the city of Amursk with 1 billion rubles. investment. LLC RIMBUNAN HIJAW MDF with a project for the production of new types of products and integrated wood processing - 0,18 billion rubles.
As part of the development of cruise and yacht tourism, it is planned to create a cruise cluster "Island Bolshoy Ussuriyskiy-Shantary", providing for the restoration of cruise shipping on the Amur River.
"Against the background of the financial deficit, these mechanisms will serve to revive the economy"
- It is clear that the region has its own vision of investment needs. But what projects do investors themselves want to invest in, including Western ones? Which investor is already ready to work in the TOP?
- Are there any problems with lending projects in the current financial conditions?
— It is impossible to answer this question unambiguously. Now I will explain why. Investors are addressing me on various issues. And one of them — This increase in lending rates in general, as well as unilaterally on previously issued loans.
At the same time, the government of the Russian Federation is developing various programs and funds that serve as tools for financial support of investors. Today the mechanism of crediting organizations of the real sector of the economy on long-term and preferential terms has been launched in accordance with the program for supporting investment projects on the basis of project financing. It was approved by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 11 October 2014 No. 1044. The document defines the criteria and procedure for selecting investment projects, financial advisers, authorized banks, the order of consideration of projects by the interdepartmental commission.
In a narrow definition, project financing acts as a method of financing investment projects, characterized by a special way to ensure the return on investment. It is based solely on, or mainly on, the cash income generated by the investment project, as well as the optimal distribution of all risks associated with the project between the participating parties.
The Government of Khabarovsk Krai also makes considerable efforts in this direction, proposing and applying various support mechanisms, both at the regional and federal levels. Six applications were sent from the Khabarovsk Territory this year to participate in the competitive selection of investment projects planned for implementation in the Far East, initiated by the Ministry of Regional Development. After the competition in February 2015, two projects were selected for financing: construction of a coal terminal in the Vanino seaport, Muchke Bay, an investor — LLC Sakhatrans, a subsidiary of Volga Group, and an increase in coal production at the Urgalskoye deposit, initiated by OJSC Urgalugol, a subsidiary of SUEK. Another project entered the register of those selected and, after finalizing the documentation, will participate in the competition for funding. This is the creation of a mining and processing plant for the development of the Pravourmiyskoye tin deposit, the investor is JSC Rusolovo.
- By the way, according to the results of the selection of investment projects and TOPs, the region is in the lead ...
- Yes, we are the champions. We took two "gold medals" out of six according to the results of the selection of investment programs, and two TOPs out of the three selected will be created in the Khabarovsk Territory.
- Is this the result of effective lobbying efforts?
- These are not lobbying efforts, we just create a systematic relationship with investors, a systematic land policy, in the work of regional departments and services. Order beats the class, it's about us. The investment process management system was reformatted. In March, a new Ministry of Investment and Land and Property Policy was registered, which will combine the powers of the Ministry of Property, the Committee on Investments and Innovation Policy.
Significant projects for the region are already being implemented in these areas. But we are interested in a greater volume of investments, in connection with which we are pursuing an active investment policy in this direction.
We have identified and structured large-scale complex projects, to which, taking this opportunity, we invite investors to participate. Among these projects are the development of the Vanino-Sovetsko-Gavan transport-industrial hub; development of an aircraft building cluster (KnAAZ - Sukhoi Civil Aircraft); the formation of an aviation hub in Khabarovsk; modernization of the single-industry village of Chegdomyn; development of Bolshoi Ussuriysky Island as a promising TASED.
"The project has not been measured in years, you have to get used to it"
- And what about the investment plan for the development of Bolshoy Ussuriysk?
Today, a regional management company for the development of the island of Bolshoy Ussuriysky was established. It will be engaged in the formation of land for the location of major zones, attracting investors and working out the issues of location of the necessary infrastructure, engineering protection of the territory.
To attract investors to the island Khabarovsk Krai conducts presentations at the international and regional levels, participates in various exhibitions. Now we have a good opportunity to present a presentation on the project for the development of the Great Ussuri island at the St. Petersburg Partnership, which is being held in St. Petersburg at the end of March. This is Russia's largest event in the field of development of economic cooperation and interregional relations.
- We talk a lot about plans for interstate cooperation on Bolshoy Ussuriysk, but, for example, an international checkpoint to the island has not yet been opened. Rosgranitsa has not yet determined even a place for its placement.
— Rosgranitsa is a state body, and it acts in accordance with internal rules, Russian legislation, and interstate agreements. And, it would seem, a trifling matter - it has long been clear where this checkpoint should be on both the Chinese and Russian sides ... But there are certain technological and political procedures. Political: everything related to the border and checkpoints is determined by interstate agreements. And this is a rather complicated diplomatic procedure, when countries prepare their proposals, address them to each other, and exchange notes. Documents are being prepared, which are then signed by authorized representatives of the two countries. The Chinese, on the other hand, are in no hurry at all, they move forward in a measured way. We, too, can tighten up somewhere, and then collapse and be in front.
From a technological point of view, not everything is simple either, because Russia has one mapping system, while China has another. And it is impossible to rely on GPS coordinates here, we need to harmonize the two state georeferencing systems within the framework of relevant agreements.
I can tell you that the decision to build the bridge belonged to Vyacheslav Ivanovich Shport; it was adopted the following year after he became governor. And he could safely not do this, not knock out funding for the construction of the facility. But he considered that this movement to the eastern neighbor should be, there would be no bridge - there would be nothing on the island. Although in order to create something on the Bolshoi Ussuriysk, ten times more funds are needed than for the bridge.
Now there is an accumulation of certain ideas and concepts. A bridge, a checkpoint, a program of cultural, recreational and sports events are the first stages. Last year, the first international regatta around Bolshoy Usuriysk took place. By the way, these are events that do not require a lot of money. Because in order to start building capital objects on the island, bank protection is required, and this is not one billion rubles. So it is necessary to conduct research, design ... All these years. We must be ready for this. This is a project, the fruits of which will be used by our children, and possibly our grandchildren, to understand the vastness of our plans.
- For the region, can it become something like the APEC-2012 summit for Primorye?
- Not a good example, the summit did not become, by and large, a driver for the development of the region. Yes, it served as the beginning of a new round of urban planning, but something is missing, some kind of liveliness. It is important that we do not put a lot of money into the Big Ussuriysk, but make point investments - rationally, synchronously. And in the end, I want it to be a demonstration of our culture, our history, our traditions, our current development and potential.
"The main obstacles for business have long been known"
- What, from your point of view, is the main obstacle for investors in the Khabarovsk Territory?
We see the second problem in the insufficient provision of investment projects with energy and transport infrastructure, which is associated with high investment costs for its creation. And they sometimes reach 40% of the cost of the actual investment project. The government of the Khabarovsk Territory is making a lot of efforts to address these issues. So, together with the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, we are carrying out work to attract financing for infrastructure facilities at the expense of the federal target program "Economic and Social Development of the Far East and the Baikal Region for the Period until 2018". Currently, such support in the region has been provided by the already mentioned LLC Sakhatrans and OJSC Urgalugol. Next in line is JSC Rusolovo.
In the province, other support mechanisms proposed by the Russian Federation are applied.
At the same time, the region develops its own tools for supporting investors. In particular, a regional investment fund is being set up to finance infrastructure facilities in the framework of PPP projects.
- Significant efforts are being made to attract investment from large corporations, but small business serves as a "breeding ground" for private initiative. What are his problems, what barriers does he face, and how can they be removed?
- The main obstacles for small business have long been known - the high cost of credit resources, the complexity and duration of procedures for obtaining land plots, building permits; instability of tax legislation, high tariffs for transportation and energy resources, illegal business creating unequal competition for legal entrepreneurship.
To remove the severity of the problem with the high cost of credit resources, the development of such mechanisms of financial support for small and medium-sized businesses, such as microfinance, leasing, will continue in the province. This helps to reduce the costs of SMEs and allows for a multiplicative effect.
To optimize the procedures for obtaining land and building permits, the governor of the region 20 February 2015 approved a roadmap for improving the investment and business climate of the Khabarovsk Territory. In addition, I consider it extremely important to resolve, at the federal level, the alignment of energy tariffs to the level of average Russian tariffs, the reduction of transport tariffs and the introduction of exceptional tariff rates for transportation to regions of the Far North and areas equal to them. It is necessary to start at the federal level the development and implementation of a set of measures to combat the shadow business, including the elimination of gaps in legislation that allow illegal immigrants to act with impunity.
- Do you think the project for the provision of a hectare of land in the Far East will be able to stimulate private entrepreneurship? It is clear that most of the Far East simply do not know what to do with this land, but progress is driven by a few?
— I came across several initiative groups of people who are either engaged in intellectual work or small business, work for hire - in a word, representatives of different social strata. But they understand that they have to put down roots. Somewhere this is happening on a religious basis, somewhere on the basis of the revival of Russian spirituality ... We are now identifying such target groups and starting to work with them. Nowadays young people and middle-aged people hardly think about a land plot, even the concept of a dacha is already something unusual for them. But those who are older understand that land is a valuable resource.
This initiative should not be considered a lever that can turn the world around. But the fact is that for some part - 2-3% of the active population of the country - this is an opportunity, without bureaucratic obstacles, to get a piece of land on which to gradually build their own business ... Here, too, one should not rush, rush people with land development. There must be motivating measures, there must be control, but one must proceed from long-term planning. Try to master a hectare in one season! Six acres is a lot. It requires both effort and material investment before it starts to pay off.
- In the region, the reformatting of the governing bodies continues, in particular, not so long ago the regional Ministry of Agriculture was divided into the Ministry of Agricultural Production and Rural Development and the Committee of the Consumer Market, Food and Processing Industry. How will the tasks and paradigm of the new ministry change?
It's a paradox, but I was faced with the fact that in the Khabarovsk Territory, even near large agglomerations - Khabarovsk, Komsomolskaya - there are no busy peasant markets, which is quite enough in the central part of Russia and even beyond the Urals. They arise somewhat spontaneously, in something purposefully, but they always become centers of attraction for those who are engaged in agricultural production. And in our country, even along major federal highways, fish are still sold "on the line". There are no elementary conditions for the consumer to be able to get acquainted with and purchase the gifts of the forest characteristic of the region, the gifts of our rivers, products from a private backyard. Therefore, I consider it an important task to line up with