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Porto-Franco: the territory of prospects
EastRussia monitors the implementation of the Freeport of Vladivostok
The package of bills on the Free Port Vladivostok passed its first reading in the State Duma. In total, three normative acts were passed for voting. For the main draft of the federal law "On the Free Port of Vladivostok", 435 of 438 deputies voted. Experts compare the Free Port project with the TORs and expect to get an effect comparable with at least the effect of the APEC summit. However, they believe, it is necessary to think more, but to act more consistently.
Project of the future
The draft law was developed by the Ministry of Eastern Development in pursuance of the instructions of the President of the Russian Federation. Vladimir Putin voiced the proposal to grant Vladivostok a free port status with an attractive, lightened customs regime in a letter to the Federal Assembly in December 2014, and in April this year suggested that deputies consider the relevant changes in legislation as soon as possible - in the spring session of parliament.
Last week, a package of bills was adopted in first reading. The 435 of 438 parliamentarians voted in favor of the main draft federal law "On the Free Port of Vladivostok". The introduction of the necessary changes to the Tax Code of the Russian Federation was supported by the 428 deputies, the third draft law from the general package was supported by the 430 parliamentarians.
The bill provides for residents of the free port of Vladivostok a number of tax preferences, simplification of customs and visa procedures. In particular, the reduction of income tax rates, exemption from payment of property tax and land tax for 5 years. It is also planned to reduce the amount of allocations to state and non-budgetary funds for residents.
On the territory of the Free Port it is planned to introduce a simplified visa regime, as well as a free customs zone regime, which will allow the export of imported equipment from payment of import duties and VAT. It is assumed that the government will have the right to introduce special conditions for the work of educational and medical institutions, as well as for a number of enterprises, including fishing.
"The creation of the Free Port in Primorsky Krai logically develops key ideas embedded in the new model of social and economic development of the Far East - such as ensuring the best competitive business conditions and on this basis increasing the production and export of goods to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Kirill Stepanov, deputy minister for the development of the Far East, said, presenting the draft to the deputies. He noted that in case of adoption and implementation of draft laws, the gross regional product of the Primorsky Territory is expected to increase by 3,4 times to 2034, which will amount to 1,5 trillion rubles; In addition, 2034 thousand new jobs will be created in the territory of the free port to 470. According to legislators, the establishment of the Free Port of Vladivostok will have a positive impact on the economy of the entire region of the Far East in general. So, according to the deputy minister, the GRP increase of the DFO subjects will be 34%.
Financing of the infrastructure of the Free Port of Vladivostok is proposed to be implemented mainly on the terms of public-private partnership. The bill also provides for the possibility of budget financing of infrastructure facilities.
As noted in Minskostokrazvitiya, the implementation of the bill to give a significant impetus to the economy of Primorsky Krai, align the conditions for investing and doing business in the region with the best practices in the APR countries, to join the technological and production chains and cargo flows of this region of the world.
"The scope of the law fully covers the transport routes along which the international transport corridors Primorje-1 and Primorje-2, which connect Russian ports and the northeastern provinces of the PRC, pass," the representative of the Ministry of Regional Development said.
An important achievement in the ministry also considers the provision on simplified visa entry for foreign citizens to the territory of the Free Port. Foreigners will be able to receive an eight-day Russian entry visa directly at the border points included in the Freeport zone. At the same time, it will be possible to leave the country through any border point.
"In addition, preferences and benefits for residents of the Free Port, measures of state support in the sphere of town-planning activity, licensing, state supervision in the field of food quality and safety, regulation of relations in the field of fisheries and the preservation of water Bioresources, veterinary supervision, "the representative of the department told the correspondent of EastRussia.
The Vladivostok authorities expect the project to literally break through, hoping to build their own Shenzhen in the Far East.
"There are about 5 thousand different zones around the world, whose goal is to create the most favorable conditions for attracting investments and increasing production, while 4 thousand such territories are located in the ATR zone, one of the famous and close to us is Shenzhen.
At the same time, the city authorities are counting on the support of the vice-premier: the presidential envoy to the Far Eastern Federal DistrictThe introduction of preferential tax conditions.
Experts call the project workers, but note that so far it lacks scope.
“If we want fundamental and real changes, then we need to give similar preferences to the entire Far East. If our task is pinpoint development, then the document fully meets this requirement. Vladivostok in particular, and Primorsky Krai as a whole, of course, will give a good impetus. and the APEC summit that took place in the region, "said Ivan Abramov, State Duma deputy and member of the committee on regional policy and problems of the North and the Far East, EastRussia.
The expert added that the proposal to give all the ports in the region, not only sea, but also river, the preferences of the port-free, he voiced during the consideration of the project. However, it was not supported - the developers referred to the instructions of the president.
"I think that we need to insist on comprehensive development, the ministry needs to think more globally." Small points of growth will not give a big result, "the deputy concluded.
Points of growth for the whole region, according to the expert, can be the water bioresources, the processing of which must be developed, and the extraction of minerals for which there is now no infrastructure.
"The conclusion about whether the worker is a project or not, and how effective it will be, we will be able to do not earlier than in 2-3." After we estimate the figures for the turnover of goods, foreign trade, "said the deputy director in his turn Institute of Far Eastern Studies Andrew Ostrovsky, commenting on the situation correspondent EastRussia.
In his opinion, it is still difficult to speak and possible points of growth. "The free port is cargoes and customs, as for the industries, they are very strongly influenced by other factors, namely, the domestic legislation of the Russian Federation." The port of Vladivostok is one thing, and the system of taxation, financing in banks (interest rates on loans ) Is something that can seriously impede the implementation of the concept, because Russia has one of the highest rates on loans, it is very difficult to develop a business on such terms. "Such initial data for the investor, of course, are unattractive," the analyst believes.
The expert urged to turn to the experience of the Asian neighbor - China, in whose territory several free ports and zones work successfully.
"In 1979, 4 free economic zones were created in the south of China in 80, the result appeared only in the middle of the XNUMX-X, initially the experts believed that the law would not go on and would have no effect. Decision, and the leadership was carried out from the center.Then this was a point successful experiment, it was extended to other territories, "- said Ostrovsky.
He recalled that Russia has only negative experience in introducing free zones so far - in Nakhodka in 1992, an attempt was made to introduce the SEZ, but the experiment failed. And no conclusions were made.
“The presented law will still require revision and adjustment, and there is no need to strive for scale. It is better to work consistently and systematically, taking into account the experience of neighbors. Perhaps then, a good concept will get a decent implementation in practice,” the expert concluded.
The economy of "individual territories"
The drafters themselves, on the contrary, urge not to wave, but to concentrate on solving specific problems.
"Our current economy in the region is" separate territories. "It should be noted that point-wise application of efforts precisely where a quick and high-quality result can be obtained is not our know-how, it is an experience that was carried out by many countries. To be different - industrial parks, territories with special conditions, special economic zones, strategic economic zones .And the content is the same: if there is a specially prepared territory where it is profitable and safe to develop a business, t so investors have to "- note in the ministry.
The goal of both the territories of advanced development and the Free Port is to attract investments to the Russian Far East. Investors are attracted through simple algorithms: reducing risks through state support and reducing the cost of implementing projects - enterprises, factories, educational and medical institutions, etc. Now the first territories are being launched, but tens of thousands of such sites are needed to effectively develop the macroregion. We can say that now the Ministry has launched the first trial step.
It is assumed that the TOP will contribute not only to the creation of large-scale productions, and thus to work for large business players, but also to stimulate the development of adjacent territories, to give prospects to various service organizations - medium and small businesses. According to the authors of the project, the territories are not created at all, as some sort of embodiment of an abstract idea. The initial request of the investor and his need to create a specific project. All projects are evaluated first by regions and then by the Ministry in terms of their contribution to the further development of Far Eastern lands and possible profits for the medium and long term.