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How to build Vladivostok's cultural policy with an ATR sight
Vladivostok is gradually becoming the cultural capital of the Far East. The efforts of the federal authorities to create several international sites in the city at once: the maritime scene of the Mariinsky Theater, built for the APN Summit 2012, the planned branches of the Hermitage, the Russian Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery, contributed to this honorable status. As you know, the necessary arrangements with the leadership of these museums have already been achieved, and technical and organizational issues are currently being resolved. It is expected that with the formation of this package of cultural products the city will become a place of pilgrimage for tourists from the APR, for which classical examples of European art will be at arm's length - in an hour of flight from Tokyo, Beijing and Seoul.
Lev Kolomitsindependent analyst
But in connection with these high-profile projects, new questions arise, in particular, this: what is the task of Vladivostok as the cultural capital of Russia in the Asia-Pacific region? Depending on the formulation of this task, the city can be viewed in several different roles: as a Far Eastern exhibition site for the exposition of the capital's cultural samples, oriented to the Asian audience; as a "springboard" for the promotion of Russian culture in the Asia-Pacific region, or as a place for intensive intercultural communication, whose tasks, in turn, require clarification. The transition from a cultural province to a cultural bridgehead should be made in the near future, but the goals, ways and resources of such a transition are not yet indicated.
The special section of the Far Eastern Media Summit "Integration or Conjugation: the Paths of Russian Culture in the Asia-Pacific Region", which was held on 7 June on the FEFU campus on the Island of Russia, was devoted to the issues of embedding (naming) Russian culture in the Asia-Pacific region. Russian. The moderator of the section Vladimir Sokolov, the director of the Department of Culture of the Primorsky Territory Administration, posed several fundamental questions to the audience. In particular, he proposed to discuss interaction with the APR not in terms of "integration" (understood as embedding an external entity in an existing configuration on its established rules), but using the concept of "conjugation" introduced into the Russian thesaurus of international relations after the launch of the Chinese infrastructure megaproject " Economic belt of the Silk Road. " In our opinion, such a statement of the question allows us to discuss some important aspects of Vladivostok's "cultural policy".
INTEGRATION OR CONTRACTING
The concept of "integration" as an integration into the existing whole (economic or political structure) in relation to Russia's policy in the APR has been criticized in recent years: the right to establish rules for entering into the "whole" belongs to its architect, the incoming one must obey them, . Whereas "conjugation" implies the equal access of several subjects to the general process. "Culture" in this process is no longer an administrative set of budgetary institutions, but as a full part of the national "Soft Power", and includes, in addition to the art itself, a lot of other things that reflect the spirit of the nation and create its mythological, quickly recognizable image.
China is positioned in a symbolic field through tea-taunas, Jackie Chan movies and Confucius quotes, Japan through sushi bars, Murakami, karate / judo and anime, Korea through the ubiquitous Samsung, Doshirak and Kim Ki-Duk. In Russia, the set of symbols recognized in the world field has changed little over the years. For example, the analog of the Japanese anime in Russia did not appear, since the Russian comics did not take place as an authentic type of mass culture. And if in the United States our country is still associated with matryoshkas and balalaikas, then neighbors in the APR are likely to have wild nature and lack of comfort.
If the process of "cultural conjugation" is understood as intercultural communication, then how does the new format of such communication differ from the already existing numerous cultural exchanges between Russia and China, Japan, and Korea? Is that the fact that now Vladivostok will become a showcase of Russian museums and a branch scene of the Mariinsky in northeast Asia. Overcoming the fate of the city as a "shift camp" for the capital's cultural workers is associated with the development of their own cultural resources. In the last 100 years with such resources, Vladivostok, as a Soviet military base, fenced off from the outside world, had certain difficulties. The lack of strong traditions and schools in the field of art, including those known internationally, was the result not only of the closed regime, but also of the relatively small population of the city - it is difficult to grow an enlightened theater audience with only 600 thousand citizens, a third of whom always "walk" somewhere in the sea.
PERSPECTIVES AND OPPORTUNITIES
At the same time, one can not but pay tribute to the city in its quest to make up for the opportunities for cultural development lost over the past decades. Since 1991 year (time of cancellation of the "closed city" status), Vladivostok has its own international film festival Pacific meridian. In addition, photographic and cinematic landscapes provided the city with a pass to the film industry: now it is not only Russian films that are being removed (for example, the depressive "Tale of Darkness"), but also foreign films. True, while this is mainly Chinese criminal dramas, but they are quite capable of attracting Chinese tourists to Primorye.
In general, cinema, as a mass and democratic art form, has good prospects for development here, especially in the case of the emergence of its own film production - an attractive and long-discussed project by the local creative community. It seems that the critical factor for its success is not so much creative as marketing competence: shooting a movie makes sense not only for the Russian, but also for the Asian market, for access to which one needs to understand its structure and rules well. An interesting case in terms of promotion of regional cinema is an example of Yakut creative groups that, having started (practically in garages) to make films "about Yakutia and for Yakutia", gradually formed a quite stable and authentic creative cluster in the republic.
As for the prospects of exporting theatrical activity, while they are determined by the experience of the Gorky Primorye Drama Theater, which regularly visits neighboring countries with tours. Perhaps, the Mariinsky Theater will act as the locomotive of the Russian theater's progress in the Asia-Pacific region, in the structure of the local troupe of which the high-class artists will be able to grow - including by transforming the local choreographic school into a branch of Vaganovsky. There is still quite an exclusive story of ex-director of the Chamber Theater of Drama Leonid Anisimov, who has worked in Tokyo for many years and teaches the Japanese to use the Stanislavsky system.
It seems that the Russian theater has not yet exhausted its integration possibilities in the APR. For example, the theater festival named after Chekhov, the only one of the great Russian writers who personally visited Vladivostok, would have looked good on the local stage (although this fact has not been noted in urban topography and place names). Considering the interest that the figure of Chekhov and the Russian classical theater in general arouse among the Japanese, such a festival could become an excellent clearing for intercultural dialogue, where we could offer our neighbors in the Sea of Japan not fish and wood, but something else - no less valuable, but much more respectable.
In addition to the theaters, there are quite a few other creative sites in Vladivostok: the Arsenyev Museum, the Philharmonic Hall, the Youth Theater, the Concert Hall of the Academy of Arts, the Primorsky Art Gallery, the Union of Artists, the Zarya and Khlebzavod Art Centers, the Arka Gallery and others. . Periodical concerts of organ music are held in the Lutheran church and the Catholic church. But all these arts centers work for the "home market", spiritually nourishing the city's residents, whereas the attention of tourists (mainly Chinese) is attracted, to a greater extent, by jewelry stores. One of the reasons for the absence of "cultural tourists" is that foreigners do not yet perceive Vladivostok as a cultural center.
The formation of a new idea of the city is associated with an active entry into the international art market, in which it is important - as with the cinema - not only to produce a quality "product", but also to be able to sell it. If the preparation of dramatic actors, musicians and artists in the province has existed for a long time, then specialists in the sale of art objects in Asia among graduates of local universities have not yet been noticed. Although it can be imagined that the cross-professional specialization "manager in the field of culture in the APR", combining marketing, art and oriental studies, would be in demand by the Asian art market. In the zone of professional interests of such managers there should be such promising types of activity as the organization of exhibitions of seaside museums and art galleries, theater tours, concerts, participation in festivals in the cities of Northeast Asia, and the creation of a cross-border digital platform for trade in works of art in Vladivostok . Ambitions of this kind in demand, in addition to the above, and extraordinary competence in the field of IT.
THE WAY TO CAPITALITY
In addition to what has been said above, it is worth mentioning a number of steps that should be taken to successfully turn Vladivostok into the cultural capital of the APR.
It is necessary to change the face of the city center, make it comfortable and convenient for both residents and visitors. Today's Vladivostok in the central part is a vinaigrette made from fragments of various landscapes that are poorly combined with each other - industrial, administrative-office, historical, business-service, residential and transport, with rare interspersed monuments and recreation. Obviously, these fragments, claiming the same physical space, resources and infrastructure, mutually paralyze each other's functioning. The canonical example is trucks and container ships, forced to wade through traffic jams to a commercial port, breaking down the narrow roads of the center. The principal solution to the problem, apparently, is the dilution of these landscapes in space.
To some extent, the city's modernization projects proposed recently by Japanese architects are aimed at this: in particular, the Japanese master plan assumes the transformation of the city center from a mixed administrative-industrial zone into a cultural-historical zone, as well as the removal of industrial zones - oil depots on the First river. Unfortunately, the realism (especially financial) and the feasibility of even these partial plans in the current political and economic situation of Vladivostok is not obvious.
The function of culture shifts from ensuring the leisure of citizens to the formation of a cultural environment. Such an environment is formed not only from works of art: besides masters, spectators and critics are also needed. Education of both is a long and time consuming process. The environment is also formed by clubs, parties, cultural events and - an obligatory condition - by competent media coverage of these events. Quality journalism, which places the event series of culture in the public communicative space, translates the text of the play or picture into everyday language and interprets these phenomena in different contexts - an element that is absolutely necessary for a cultural capital.
It is necessary to form a new myth about Vladivostok, as the city ceases to be a fortress and turns into an international trading platform, sciences and arts. While this process is slow, even at a symbolic level - warships still form part of the landscape in the center of the city, although there is no practical need for this. However, the fortress can also become part of the cultural landscape: Vladivostok with its forts, batteries and a memorial submarine is a kind of "military park", and this feature can well be used as a cultural and historical resource.
While this task, which can be interpreted as putting the city's history and architecture into a new cultural context, is not being solved. Conversations about turning the forts of the Vladivostok Sea fortress into tourist objects of international level have been going on for many years, but so far have not had any noticeable results. The existing tourist products also do not impress the outside observer, and there are simply not many things that seemingly must be present in the local cultural space. For example, in the local museum there is no detailed exposition dedicated to the Russo-Japanese War - although Vladivostok remained the only city in Russia that took (although not in the main role) participation in these events. An example of such a "policy of memory" of neighboring countries is the restoration of the flagship of the Japanese imperial fleet in the war 1903-1905, the battleship "Mikasa" as a monument in Yokosuka.
Summing up, we can state that Vladivostok needs a new cultural policy, which in terms of scope and scope goes beyond the administrative notion of culture as part of a "social bloc", which includes, in addition to culture itself, education, media, tourism, international relations and urban planning .