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Why does gold become "gold"?
A series of essays on how, why and for whom to develop the Far East. Essay 3
Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Culturology of the Pacific State University, Doctor of Philosophy
The fact that the Far East is incredibly rich in all sorts of natural goods, we learn almost from the junior classes of the school. And it is true. Here there are 98% of diamond deposits, 80% of tin deposits, half of all gold mining in Russia. And the rest is enough. Up to 40% of fish, up to 15% of the forest. There are many things here. From this simple circumstance, the second image of the future Far Eastern region-a resource region or a natural pantry-is emerging.
The idea is simple - if the integration of the country's nuclear territory into the APR is problematic for purely geographical and logistical reasons, then it is necessary to find the product that will be in demand in the markets of the macroregion, while it is produced locally. Actually, in the 90-s this very way was the salvation for the region temporarily forgotten by its country.
In the near abroad, forest, seafood, raw materials flowed. In the opposite direction were cars, which became an important element of self-identification of the Far East, computers, consumer goods, money. Not legally, but in fact, the existing port-franco regime made Far Eastern goods popular in the markets of the Asia-Pacific Region, and the regional trade balance, restored indirectly, is active.
Owners of all the truths and crooks reduced costs, primarily due to the costs of control and the costs of legality. Dense social networks in the region made it possible to avoid petty tutelage. A clear criterion for the result (profit) made it possible to easily distinguish a capable worker from an "effective manager".
The fact that regional business owners were forced to live in the region forced them to invest in related industries. Of course, entrepreneurs 90-x is difficult to suspect of altruism. They made life comfortable for themselves. But roads, cafes, private hospitals, schools, etc. not only they used it. Yes, and "beautiful gestures" enough. You can recall the ice stadium "Platinum-arena" in Khabarovsk, built on the means of the gold mining cooperative.
But times change. An increasing number of enterprises in the region go under vertically integrated holdings, become elements of state corporations. The reason is simple - the services that could be provided by the "regional barons", the governors of 90, could now be obtained only in the capital. But not only the formal structure is changing. The very essence of business is changing. He bureaucrats. The task now is not so much to ensure its profitability, but rather to correspond to the formal parameters set from outside the region. On this depends the availability of state order or other forms of infusion into the enterprise. His "new profitability." At this point, entrepreneurs who knew the region, the market, and their people from top to toe, are replaced by "effective managers". In the new conditions they were more successful. They were better at making papers, more accountable, more brightly drawn perspectives. In conditions of total administration, which becomes the main mode of behavior in both the economy and public administration, they were, indeed, more effective. Their ignorance of the conditions for entering the markets of the APR, the principles of working for them, was more than compensated by petrodollar flows and pictures of future profits.
But today, infusions are becoming less obvious, and management increasingly starts hinting that investments should somehow pay off. These strange hints are increasingly heard in words and top political leadership. Here also there are problems. Effective managers do not know how to make a profit. This, strictly speaking, is not their job. She is cost managers, apostles of control. The enterprises they manage are increasingly unprofitable, even in the case of gold mining. All conceivable costs of legality fall upon unfortunate production. Together with the ignorance of the market and the ever-increasing "social responsibility" (in neeliness - "encumbrance"), they quickly turn into unprofitable. It is not by chance that gold-bearing plots in the same Magadan region are poorly developed, and it is more profitable to administer them than to develop them.
But the simple change of effective managers again to entrepreneurs - today is also not quite an obvious step. In fact, apart from total administration within the corporation, there is no less total control by external agents. Only listing them could make a separate essay. And everyone is busy with business, he follows the exact fulfillment of the spirit and letter of the law, norms, instructions, etc. In these circumstances, an entrepreneur at the head of an enterprise may well become a red rag for any inspector. After all, the goal of a businessman is profit, not maintenance in the order of securities.
That's why the leadership of different levels rushes between entrepreneurs who know how to make a profit, and effective managers who know how to draw up papers and report to the next inspectors. It would seem that the creation of TOP (TOSER) is aimed at solving this problem. But here, not everything is simple.
Firstly, in order to get into the number of participants in the project you need to be not an entrepreneur, but a manager, a master of writing papers. Accordingly, even getting into the number of beneficiaries of entrepreneurs is not easy. Secondly, after all, we are not talking about the fact that in this magical territory there will simply be no checking and monitoring services. It is a question of that they will work faster, and check less often. That is, the principle of work is the same. The changes are only quantitative. And to achieve the declared rights, it is better to stay closer to the capital, the plenipotentiary, the minister. Accordingly, the enterprises of the region will continue to be managed from the beautiful far.
Will this give impetus to some development in the TOP? Very likely. Some companies may prolong their lives or even improve performance. Will it affect life in the region? It is doubtful. After all, the number of enterprises, and their ties with the rest of the region, and the ability of administrators to work for profit remain in question. As a result and "World Trade Transit Territory" And "resource region" remain in the plans.
What to do? The question is not simple. Let's try to think about this in the next essay.