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Switch from West to East

The Far East: Prospects and Impulses of Development

Switch from West to East

First Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee for Industry and First Vice-President of the Union of Machine Builders of Russia Vladimir Gutenyov in an interview with - about how long and inexpensive money, a favorable business climate and state support will help the development of the Far East.

- Vladimir Vladimirovich, against the background of deteriorating relations with the West, it is obvious that it is necessary to develop more intensively in the direction of the APR. How fast do you think you can switch from the West to the East?

- To test illusions about the painless change of trading partners, in my opinion, should not be. The fact is that the Chinese, and indeed representatives of Southeast Asia, are very, very pragmatic. They will first of all seek to take advantage of the preferences that will arise when we are forced to shift our capabilities and energy resources towards them. In this I do not see the negative, but this must be borne in mind. And then we must not forget that for China priority is the grandiose sales market of the United States. Therefore, he, building trade and economic relations with us, of course, will require very serious discounts.

At the same time, these markets are very promising. They allow us to use all our capabilities, reserves and competencies. Take, for example, the Russian defense industry complex, which, fortunately, is now being successfully modernized. So, the vectors of its current development open up significant niche opportunities for us, primarily in the southeastern markets. Over the past seven to eight years, we have seen a significant annual increase in the export potential of the Russian defense industry. Exports grew from $ 3-4 billion to $ 13-14 billion a year. Rosoboronexport's portfolio of contracts is about $ 40 billion. In this we see potential development opportunities for the high-tech industry.

- What perspectives on this background open before our Far East?

"Now it is important for us to re-industrialize, that is, to re-industrialize the country, to restore domestic machine-tool construction, power machine building, aircraft construction, to import-substitute production, to restore its component base. And the prospects for the Far East, in my opinion, are also closely related to the development of a high-tech industry. And such development, when transport logistics becomes insignificant in pricing.

- In the Far East, the population density is about 1 person per square kilometer, while the distances are huge, frightening. Who will work at the enterprises you are talking about?

- The high-tech industry generates a demand for personnel. And we need qualified personnel. The federal target program for staff retention is becoming relevant. We need to develop social infrastructure ...

Here I can not but express doubts about the idea of ​​building a "Greater Moscow". What is "Greater Moscow"? A construction megaproject, initiated by capital developers? We, what, want to skimp Russia to the Moscow principality? By staying away from the Far East, Siberia, the Urals? Young people go from small towns to regional centers, because there is more choice of work, higher wages, leisure is more interesting, from regional centers go to the capital, they often leave Moscow ...

Exit here is one. It is necessary to reverse the demographic situation in the Far East. As, however, and in general in Russia, because there is a clear disproportion between the scale of the country and human potential. Living in the Far East should be economically profitable and attractive in life. Due to the development of industry, targeted training of personnel, subsidies to the local population, social, economic and tax preferences, much can be achieved. Especially if you stop seducing the people with Moscow.

- Recently you have become an active opponent of the draft law on permission to accept foreign citizens as commanders of civil aviation vessels. Does this fit into your concept of protecting domestic skilled personnel?

- The matter is that the Ministry of Transport has not ordered budget places in universities. Our airlines register in offshore areas in Bermuda, they do not pay taxes, and now they also intend to save on pilots. They do not want to invest in training, when the commander of a ship is raised from second pilots. And now they tell the state - we have a deficit, give us the opportunity to take foreign pilots. A pilot will come not from Britain, not from Japan or from Germany, a pilot from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Belarus will come. Thus, we bring down the labor market of our pilots.

I say: well, but let's do it for a fee. We took a foreign pilot, pay two thousand dollars a month to the budget, 25 thousand a year for a pilot, and for you it will be an incentive to prepare your own ... But as a result, the question was hacked by a airborne (The draft law on the admission of foreign pilots to Russian civil aviation was adopted on 4 on April 2014 - ed.). And exactly so we lose those high-tech jobs, the creation of which the president said.

- Continuing the aviation theme, which is closely related to the topic of simplifying internal migration, one can not fail to mention the necessary reduction in the price of air transportations inside the country necessary for its implementation ...

- You know, this is more - Yaroslavna's cry of our airlines about the fact that they have meager profits, and therefore the ticket prices are so high. However, their aircraft are not registered in the Russian jurisdiction, they do not pay taxes, including local ones.

- Where are they registered?

"Basically it's Bermuda, we have an interstate agreement, under which we recognize their airworthiness certificates." Bermuda is responsible for our safety during the flights ...

- Is it possible that Aeroflot, Transaero, and other major airlines are registered not in Russia?

- 96% of Russian air travel is performed by airplanes that are outside of Russian jurisdiction. These planes are bought through leasing companies, they are registered, they do not pay taxes, moreover, they take from the budget VAT refunds on foreign flights. And therefore, having offshore zones where they can regulate profits, they here show the minimum profit. No matter how much you pay for the tickets, they will show the profitability of 2-3, maximum 4%, not more. Therefore, if we compare, and I checked these statistics, the cost of air travel back and forth at the same distance by the corresponding class in different countries, we will see that we fly approximately 43% more expensive than in the States, and about 20% more expensive than in Europe.

In my opinion, air carriers, like rail transport, should not be subsidized, but removed from the shadows. Form preferences for loukosterov (low cost airlines or airlines that sell cheap flights by saving on costs. -ed.).

- But back to the Far East. What do you think should be export-oriented products of the Far East? Do you think it should be high-tech products?

- First of all, but not only. In the world, there is a discriminatory to a certain extent division of North-South. It is unprofitable for us. In order to change it, it is important to develop transit logistics, which will bring not only great financial results, but also form the country's regional braces.

The alignment and maintenance of the East-West transport logistics corridor for the relationship of the same Western Europe with the countries of South-East Asia is a huge reserve. Suffice it to recall Singapore and Hong Kong to appreciate this component of the development of the Far East.

Only limited people can talk about the raw curse of Russia, that the oil needle is bad. On the contrary, the development of our complex of energy resources is a great benefit, since serious technologies are involved there, this is the formation of a financial base for the implementation of both social and investment projects. And most importantly, the fuel and energy complex can, at the expense of domestic demand, attract the most modern equipment of service companies, such as, for example, "Schlumberger" (the largest oilfield services company - ed.), Thereby contributing to the development of high technology.

Of course, partial diversification of energy flows is needed now. There is a need in the construction of new terminals, plants for the liquefaction of natural gas, including in the Far East.

The Far Eastern shipbuilding should develop. But not ordinary ships - it is impossible to compete with the same South Korea in efficiency by the criterion of "money-quality". We need to focus on special shipbuilding - it's gas carriers, icebreaking fleet, mining platforms, which is very important for the development of the Arctic and the continental shelf. In general, shipbuilding and ship repair clusters are a big reserve for the creation of Far Eastern high-tech products.

There is a wonderful project of the group "Sollers" (OJSC Sollers - Russian Automobile Company - Ed.) with the "Mazda" for the production of cars. It is only necessary to carefully look at the dynamics of localization. At this stage, it is still insufficient, but as soon as the component base is increasingly being created on our territory, this will also be a very big contribution to the development of automotive technology. If we add to this a sufficiently developed Far Eastern aviation complex, then we can say that export-oriented high-tech engineering has good development prospects in the region.

In addition, I believe that large producers of agricultural, road-building and municipal equipment must necessarily have their branches with a fairly large localization of production in the Far East. This will provide domestic equipment - tractors, bulldozers, scrapers, graders, etc. - the needs of the Far Eastern regions.

- Is the required percentage of localization of companies known now?

- It is not the percentage that is important here, but what technologies are localized. It is one thing, if it is plastic molding, it is environmentally harmful and not very profitable. And if it is powder metallurgy, the production of engines, complex electronics, electronic component base, then there is much more interest here. Therefore, you need to look not at absolute percentages, but at technologies that can be attracted.

This problem is relevant for the Far Eastern aircraft industry. Take KnAAPO ("Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association named after Yu. A. Gagarin" - Ed.), an aviation enterprise that produces a Sukhoi Superjet 100 airplane in the civil aircraft industry. This aircraft has an excess of foreign components, about 80%, which is very much. And the original logic that such a great unification with Western producers will make it easier to certify, enter the Western markets, did not work. Moreover, the hot contour (internal contour of aviation engine - ed.) in the engine SaM 146 (PowerJet SaM146 - Mixed Flow Turbofan Engine - Ed.) the French are still doing it, so any sanctions can simply paralyze production.

In the combat aviation unit, the situation is much better, and those potential orders for PAKFA ("Perspective aviation complex front-line aviation" - military fighter "Dry T-50" - Ed.) will form forward-looking requirements for staff and production development.

- Yes, but in an interview with Vedomosti, the head of the Council for the Development of Japanese-Russian Relations of the Komatsu Plant (Manufacturer of large construction equipment - Ed.) Masahiro Sakane reported: “If we talk about our business in Russia, then the biggest problem we encountered during the construction of the plant was the enormous amount of time and effort that we spent on all paperwork. Later we calculated: the documents for the construction of the plant, which we submitted to various Russian departments, were 4 meters high. ” With this how to be?

- I had to deal with the bureaucracy of both European and Chinese. I assure you, there the level of bureaucracy is much higher. Therefore, I think that the words of the Japanese colleague are more “from the evil one” than the truth. They are designed rather for certain preferences.

I believe that first of all preferences should be presented to the domestic manufacturer. Western producers should only be given them if they do not create a screwdriver assembly on the territory of Russia, but a full transfer of technologies with close to 100% localization.

- What exactly is planned to develop in the Far East in the field of mechanical engineering and machine-tool construction?

- Now the holding company, RT-Stankoinstrument, which is headed by Sergei Makarov, has been formed within the framework of the Rostekh GC. The holding is created on the basis of Rostekh enterprises with the participation of foreign partners and forms a large program of construction of factories for the production of modern machine tools.

“Rostec” is generally the leader in forming effective growth points throughout the country, it includes about 700 enterprises. For example, the same KnAAPO is largely provided by Rostekh components - avionics, instruments, engines.

It seems to me that those enterprises that could be built, including in the aviation cluster of the Far East, should not be spread over a thin layer throughout the country. So, we assume that on MC-21 (short-mid-range passenger aircraft - Ed.), Which is expected to be produced in Irkutsk, a black wing will be serially installed (Wing of the aircraft, entirely made of composite materials - Ed.). Therefore, along with the Ulyanovsk cluster, where the plant for the production of the black wing has already been built, it is worthwhile to form part of the component base in the Far East, taking into account the large needs of both Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Irkutsk.

We pin very high hopes on development with Arsenyev “Progress” (Arsenyev Aviation Company Progress named after N. I. Sazykin - ed.) - the plant that produces Ka-52 (Ka-52 "Alligator" attack reconnaissance helicopter - Ed.). We very much hope that the helicopter plant will have more manufacturers of its components from the Far Eastern region.

The main emphasis, I think, will be directed to the formation of the shipbuilding cluster, because the volumes of demand in courts of various purposes, both military and civil, are very large. 

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