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Switch from West to East
The Far East: Prospects and Impulses of Development
- Vladimir Vladimirovich, against the background of deteriorating relations with the West, it is obvious that it is necessary to develop more intensively in the direction of the APR. How fast do you think you can switch from the West to the East?
At the same time, these markets are very promising. They allow us to use all our capabilities, reserves and competencies. Take, for example, the Russian defense industry complex, which, fortunately, is now being successfully modernized. So, the vectors of its current development open up significant niche opportunities for us, primarily in the southeastern markets. Over the past seven to eight years, we have seen a significant annual increase in the export potential of the Russian defense industry. Exports grew from $ 3-4 billion to $ 13-14 billion a year. Rosoboronexport's portfolio of contracts is about $ 40 billion. In this we see potential development opportunities for the high-tech industry.
- What perspectives on this background open before our Far East?
"Now it is important for us to re-industrialize, that is, to re-industrialize the country, to restore domestic machine-tool construction, power machine building, aircraft construction, to import-substitute production, to restore its component base. And the prospects for the Far East, in my opinion, are also closely related to the development of a high-tech industry. And such development, when transport logistics becomes insignificant in pricing.
- In the Far East, the population density is about 1 person per square kilometer, while the distances are huge, frightening. Who will work at the enterprises you are talking about?
- The high-tech industry generates a demand for personnel. And we need qualified personnel. The federal target program for staff retention is becoming relevant. We need to develop social infrastructure ...
Exit here is one. It is necessary to reverse the demographic situation in the Far East. As, however, and in general in Russia, because there is a clear disproportion between the scale of the country and human potential. Living in the Far East should be economically profitable and attractive in life. Due to the development of industry, targeted training of personnel, subsidies to the local population, social, economic and tax preferences, much can be achieved. Especially if you stop seducing the people with Moscow.
- Recently you have become an active opponent of the draft law on permission to accept foreign citizens as commanders of civil aviation vessels. Does this fit into your concept of protecting domestic skilled personnel?
- The matter is that the Ministry of Transport has not ordered budget places in universities. Our airlines register in offshore areas in Bermuda, they do not pay taxes, and now they also intend to save on pilots. They do not want to invest in training, when the commander of a ship is raised from second pilots. And now they tell the state - we have a deficit, give us the opportunity to take foreign pilots. A pilot will come not from Britain, not from Japan or from Germany, a pilot from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Belarus will come. Thus, we bring down the labor market of our pilots.
I say: well, but let's do it for a fee. We took a foreign pilot, pay two thousand dollars a month to the budget, 25 thousand a year for a pilot, and for you it will be an incentive to prepare your own ... But as a result, the question was hacked by a airborne (The draft law on the admission of foreign pilots to Russian civil aviation was adopted on 4 on April 2014 - ed.). And exactly so we lose those high-tech jobs, the creation of which the president said.
- Continuing the aviation theme, which is closely related to the topic of simplifying internal migration, one can not fail to mention the necessary reduction in the price of air transportations inside the country necessary for its implementation ...
- You know, this is more - Yaroslavna's cry of our airlines about the fact that they have meager profits, and therefore the ticket prices are so high. However, their aircraft are not registered in the Russian jurisdiction, they do not pay taxes, including local ones.
- Where are they registered?
"Basically it's Bermuda, we have an interstate agreement, under which we recognize their airworthiness certificates." Bermuda is responsible for our safety during the flights ...
- Is it possible that Aeroflot, Transaero, and other major airlines are registered not in Russia?
In my opinion, air carriers, like rail transport, should not be subsidized, but removed from the shadows. Form preferences for loukosterov (low cost airlines or airlines that sell cheap flights by saving on costs. -ed.).
- But back to the Far East. What do you think should be export-oriented products of the Far East? Do you think it should be high-tech products?
- First of all, but not only. In the world, there is a discriminatory to a certain extent division of North-South. It is unprofitable for us. In order to change it, it is important to develop transit logistics, which will bring not only great financial results, but also form the country's regional braces.
Only limited people can talk about the raw curse of Russia, that the oil needle is bad. On the contrary, the development of our complex of energy resources is a great benefit, since serious technologies are involved there, this is the formation of a financial base for the implementation of both social and investment projects. And most importantly, the fuel and energy complex can, at the expense of domestic demand, attract the most modern equipment of service companies, such as, for example, "Schlumberger" (the largest oilfield services company - ed.), Thereby contributing to the development of high technology.
Of course, partial diversification of energy flows is needed now. There is a need in the construction of new terminals, plants for the liquefaction of natural gas, including in the Far East.
The Far Eastern shipbuilding should develop. But not ordinary ships - it is impossible to compete with the same South Korea in efficiency by the criterion of "money-quality". We need to focus on special shipbuilding - it's gas carriers, icebreaking fleet, mining platforms, which is very important for the development of the Arctic and the continental shelf. In general, shipbuilding and ship repair clusters are a big reserve for the creation of Far Eastern high-tech products.
In addition, I believe that large producers of agricultural, road-building and municipal equipment must necessarily have their branches with a fairly large localization of production in the Far East. This will provide domestic equipment - tractors, bulldozers, scrapers, graders, etc. - the needs of the Far Eastern regions.
- Is the required percentage of localization of companies known now?
- It is not the percentage that is important here, but what technologies are localized. It is one thing, if it is plastic molding, it is environmentally harmful and not very profitable. And if it is powder metallurgy, the production of engines, complex electronics, electronic component base, then there is much more interest here. Therefore, you need to look not at absolute percentages, but at technologies that can be attracted.
In the combat aviation unit, the situation is much better, and those potential orders for PAKFA ("Perspective aviation complex front-line aviation" - military fighter "Dry T-50" - Ed.) will form forward-looking requirements for staff and production development.
- Yes, but in an interview with Vedomosti, the head of the Council for the Development of Japanese-Russian Relations of the Komatsu Plant (Manufacturer of large construction equipment - Ed.) Masahiro Sakane reported: “If we talk about our business in Russia, then the biggest problem we encountered during the construction of the plant was the enormous amount of time and effort that we spent on all paperwork. Later we calculated: the documents for the construction of the plant, which we submitted to various Russian departments, were 4 meters high. ” With this how to be?
- I had to deal with the bureaucracy of both European and Chinese. I assure you, there the level of bureaucracy is much higher. Therefore, I think that the words of the Japanese colleague are more “from the evil one” than the truth. They are designed rather for certain preferences.
- What exactly is planned to develop in the Far East in the field of mechanical engineering and machine-tool construction?
- Now the holding company, RT-Stankoinstrument, which is headed by Sergei Makarov, has been formed within the framework of the Rostekh GC. The holding is created on the basis of Rostekh enterprises with the participation of foreign partners and forms a large program of construction of factories for the production of modern machine tools.
“Rostec” is generally the leader in forming effective growth points throughout the country, it includes about 700 enterprises. For example, the same KnAAPO is largely provided by Rostekh components - avionics, instruments, engines.
We pin very high hopes on development with Arsenyev “Progress” (Arsenyev Aviation Company Progress named after N. I. Sazykin - ed.) - the plant that produces Ka-52 (Ka-52 "Alligator" attack reconnaissance helicopter - Ed.). We very much hope that the helicopter plant will have more manufacturers of its components from the Far Eastern region.
The main emphasis, I think, will be directed to the formation of the shipbuilding cluster, because the volumes of demand in courts of various purposes, both military and civil, are very large.