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EastRussia - about a unique situation with the Bureysky park
To save some kinds of plants and animals from the most real flood - it turns out, it is quite real after the Noah times: for more than half a year the unique ecological project of UNDP for protecting flora and fauna from the negative influence of man has been conducted in the Amur Region. To be precise - from the brainchild of this man himself in the form of the future of the Lower Bureya Reservoir. And, as the scientists say, this has never happened in the entire post-Soviet space.
The fact that the Amur Region is such a river Klondike, and for hydropower is a promising region, the engineers knew since the middle of the 20 century: several large mountain rivers (Zeya, Bureya and Selemje with tributaries) and a small population made the Amur region a tasty morsel Subordinate water elements (by the way, according to RusHydro, it is in the Far East that up to 35% of the country's hydropotential is concentrated). First they began to build Zeyskaya, then Bureyskaya HPP, but it did not go further.
"Few people know, but in the 80-ies of the last century the Selemzhin HPP project was postponed due to a single factor - environmental risks," explains Arthur Alibekov, the head of the working group on the introduction of innovative projects in the field of hydropower. "For example, in Selemginsky district Priamurye concentrated to 70% of the entire Siberian population of roe deer - this would mean a true catastrophe. "
And so the projects for almost 30 years remained on paper until it was time to build a completely new HPP - Nizhne-Bureiskaya, which, according to the project, will be the second stage of the Bureysky cascade and, apart from electricity production, will perform the function of a counter-regulator - accumulate drains coming from top "station. With one significant drawback - to launch it in 2016, downstream the Bureya, about 140 square will be flooded. km of territory with a unique biosphere.
"A large number of plants here are endemic, that is, they live only in this microclimate," explains Valentina Starchenko, head of the botanic laboratory of the Amur branch of the Botanical Garden Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, "For example, this fern: a plant, once Ancient, had a large area, but as a result of various processes, the area was broken up into several plots, and this is just the westernmost outpost of the species that we found, and at all costs it is important to preserve it. The regional Red Book, because they found them here only a couple of years ago. "
In total, about a dozen specialists counted such plants, and also included wild boar, roe deer, red deer, a rare mandarin duck and storks in the list of those who needed rescue: all this had to be kept at all costs. Otherwise, the situation could have repeated ten years ago, when the world has already lost part of the unique biosphere while filling the Bureisk reservoir.
And here organizations of a larger scale came to the aid of local ecologists: in addition to the UN, the Global Environmental Fund, the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and even RusHydro joined the protective project.
"In 2000, we started monitoring to monitor any human activity, as well as its consequences on nature, by building hydropower stations," says Vladimir Gorshenin, deputy general director of OAO Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP. the structure and the reservoir do not adversely affect nature as a man after their appearance: hunting, fishing, and active recreation - if this is not controlled, the ecosystem will be very bad. construction sites, that is, the part that cannot be avoided is brought to the flood zone today and then simply goes under water. As a result, we managed to preserve many unique relief areas. Secondly, many new construction methods are being applied today. for example, fences have already been built, which in advance seem to be “teaching” living creatures that it is impossible to settle here. ”
In parallel, the Amur directorate for the protection of the natural world began to think about what else to do with the animals in order to slightly change their natural instincts, and invented - in winter, hunting specialists already within the framework of the new project began to install feeding grounds for the beast to the places of the future reservoir spill. As experts say, the effect is visible after half a year of feeding the ungulates.
"Just recently, we removed the indicators from the photo traps and looked at the effectiveness of the events." Honestly, I was astonishingly diverse in the variety of wild animals that were concentrated near our complexes, "Igor Kovalchuk, Deputy Head of the Directorate for the Protection of Specially Protected Natural Territories of the Amur Region, rejoices at the first successes. "Now we can say with probability in 80% that they will not go any further - we did not even think about that."
Along with this botanists began to migrate and plants - from a small decay they took 5 species and moved them to 15 km downstream at the mouth of Bureya, which will not be flooded - how rare species they have taken root they will begin to check in the near future.
"If anything, we know where these plants are - GPS points have hammered in, and if some plants do not fit well or need to be added, we can always come here and take new ones. There is, - explains Valentina Starchenko - Then the depth of water in these places will be from 5 to 20 meters. "
In addition, in order to protect the most beautiful and rare places, in April, the Amur government signed a decree on the creation of the Bureysky Park - henceforth the entire territory will be guarded by game managers. By the way, in the spring they began to install artificial supports for stork nests (which can be up to 500 kg!) And tree houses (hemp with hollows) for mandarin ducks in the framework of the UNDP project.
"We considered a similar project back in 2012, but then we planned a comprehensive reserve. Then the legislation changed, and taking into account the realities, we decided to create a unique form of specially protected natural areas,” explains Igor Kovalchuk. “Now the right bank part of the park will be for the development of the recreational component, including ecotourism, the left-bank one is a special protection zone where surveys and our biotechnical “things” will be carried out - there will be no prohibition for ordinary citizens to either there or there em significantly limited human activity. "
"Such preventive preparation of nature for anthropogenic impact and influence of hydropower plants in the world was not yet," adds Arthur Alibekov. "Experience at the NBGES on the use of mechanisms of biotechnical measures allows us to concentrate animals at the sites.We predict that during 3-5 years migratory behavior of roe deer Should be changed - it should concentrate on the left bank and do not go to the right bank, because there were cases when up to 1,5 thousands of animals simply died, falling under the ice of the reservoir, especially after the waterworks, when There were emptiness, now this should not happen again. "
According to experts, taking into account the prospects for the development of the Russian hydropower industry and the construction of new hydropower stations in the Amur region, the environmental safety of future projects should be prepared right now. For this, environmentalists need additional feeding complexes, autonomous wind and solar power sources for photo traps, as well as collars for roe deer, in order to track their migration paths. Now experts continue to work within the framework of the UNDP project to monitor the bed of the future Nizhne-Bureysky reservoir and already with the same interest are studying the bed of the future Nizhne-Zeya.