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Russky Island as another conveyor
The Far East prescribes advanced education - to begin with on the island of Russian
Immediately after the Russian government approved the concept of the development of the Russian Island (Primorsky Krai), the ministry responsible for drafting the document gathered representatives of science, business and government to analyze proposals on how to reform the education system. The ultimate goal is simple: to meet the needs of the Far East in cadres. EastRussia has studied the concept, which is going to develop the island of Russian.
Opening last Tuesday a meeting of the public council at the Minsk region in Khabarovsk, Minister Alexander Galushka explained that the event was being held for a very specific purpose. The participants were invited to discuss measures to reform the education system in Russia, which would contribute to the implementation of at least one, but quite specific, Far Eastern history: the creation of an "ecosystem that would allow the construction of a startup pipeline on Russky Island."
“This is, of course, particular,” the head of the department clarified. “If we talk about more serious things, we state weak links between the education system and the needs of economic development.” The Far East is now a testing ground for working out new methods of government, some adopted laws change the system drastically, and it works. And life pushes us to the education system, we need to deal with this. ”
30 May, the government of the Russian Federation through its decree No. 1134-r approved the concept of the development of the Russky Island, which Minvokokrazvitiya, on behalf of President Vladimir Putin, had been preparing since the autumn of last year. The purpose of the development of a unique territory is clearly defined: the island must become an "international scientific, educational and technological cluster". Vladimir Putin formulated it as follows: "We intend to form here a system for supporting start-ups, including venture financing. Organize a network of laboratories for modern scientific research, create a modern business infrastructure, including business and exhibition centers. "
Several presidential phrases, spoken at the second Eastern Economic Forum, during these months turned into an 23-page document. The authors of the concept believe that the measures for the development of the Russky Island should be implemented in stages: the horizon of planning the first stage extends to 2022, the second - for another five years.
FIRST, AS USUAL, INFRASTRUCTURE
The state is ready to invest in the infrastructure of the Russky Island. In this it does not deviate from the logic applied in recent years for the territories of advanced development: the investor needs at least roads and networks before entering any project.
While you can get to the Russian island from Vladivostok in two ways: on the 4-strip road bridge across the Eastern Bosphorus, connecting the Ulysses region of the mainland and the Saperny peninsula, and by sea. A trip across the bridge from the center of the city in the absence of traffic jams takes several tens of minutes, by regular watercraft in summer in calm water - up to 1,5 hours.
At the same time, good roads end on the island outside the University Prospect, along the campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) - currently the largest facility in the Russian. There are also two heliports here that have air communication with the Knevichi airport and the city of Vladivostok, but for mere mortals this mode of transport is, alas, not available yet.
With the involvement of budgetary funds, it follows from the concept of the development of the Russian island, it is necessary to build the infrastructure of the Vladivostok ring road: the bridge Vladivostok-Elena Island, the bridge of the island of Elena-Saperny peninsula, and the main road for regulated traffic. In addition, the authorities are ready to build an automobile bridge across the Novik Bay and the highway "providing access to infrastructure facilities located on the main part of the Russian Island, without having to make a detour through the territory of the Saperny Peninsula."
On the new Vladivostok Ring Road (VKAD), we note, say at least five years. The project is designed not only to relieve the capital of Primorye from congestion during rush hour, but also to ensure the work of the projected international transport corridor Primorje-3 - to Hunchun. VKAD was presented to potential investors at the first WEF in 2015 year, since that time, there have been several reports of interest in the project from Asian companies. However, before the stage of signing the investment agreement has not yet reached.
Therefore, it seems that there is as yet no one to build the VKAD, except for the state. In a similar project near Khabarovsk, the now projected "Eastern Bypass 13-42 km", at one time they also tried to attract foreign partners. But the concession was eventually won by the Russian consortium: it was obvious that Russia could not offer an acceptable returnable investment mechanism for a private foreign investor. VKAD on the preliminary project - almost 23-kilometer road. In the case of the bypass of Khabarovsk, one kilometer of the route is about 1 billion rubles. Means.
With the network infrastructure on the island is easier than with the roads. "The volume of infrastructural capacities at the current stage of development of the territory is not fully used, there are reserves that can be used to further develop the island," the concept says. Electricity and heat are supplied by the mini-cogeneration plant Severnaya (3,6 MW), Centralnaya (33 MW) and the Oceanarium (13,2 MW) to the campus facilities of the FEFU and the Primorsky Oceanarium. There are local autonomous water supply systems using desalination plants, six sewage pumping stations, purification capacity up to 10 thousand cubic meters. Meters per day. Gas to the island is fed through a gas pipeline passing through the Bosporus East Pass. When construction begins in the second stage of the development of the island of Russian, new infrastructure facilities, of course, will be needed. But for this you need to live up to 2022 year.
EIGHT PROJECTS FOR FIFTY BILLIONS
In parallel with the construction of new roads, the developers of the concept of development of the Russian island believe, the objects of the first stage themselves will be built. This, firstly, the Center for International Cooperation, which will include congress and exhibition space, hotel infrastructure, office space and, if there are investors, the infrastructure of sea passenger traffic.
Secondly, the diamond center, which should jointly create FEFU and ALROSA, and the nuclear medicine center with an area of at least 6,5 thousand square meters. The infrastructure of the diamond center at the first stage should be located at 16 thousand square meters. M: it will be production and laboratory facilities for cutting, testing and manufacturing of jewelry, offices, storage area, customs area and exhibition and trading platform.
Thirdly, the "territorial cluster of an intelligent network" and "a single center for the responsibility for the quality of the services provided for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy on the Russky Island" should appear on the island, as well as the "project office for the organization of electricity supplies to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region" . The concept explains that the first involves the construction of a solar generation system with the placement of photovoltaic modules, an intelligent street lighting system powered by photovoltaic modules and a battery to illuminate the access road and entrances to the building. This will also include power storage systems based on high-capacity batteries, charging stations for electric cars and smart homes. The project office for the organization of electricity supplies to the APR will study the possibilities of creating new energy bridges and look for investors in this area.
Fourthly, new recreational facilities will appear on Russky, including the Patriot Park, a multifunctional family center with an aquapark and the tourist complex Vladivostok Fortress, shopping and entertainment areas, an innovative cultural center.
Perhaps, as part of the implementation of the first stage of the concept, they will begin to build housing - both for FEFU and ordinary citizens - and the second stage of the campus. The second phase of FEFU will consist of many educational buildings, residential premises, sports facilities, a multi-level parking lot for 5 thousand cars and a hotel for students. The total area of the infrastructure is about 483 thousand square meters. meters. A technical and innovation park with an area of more than 80 thousand square meters should become part of it. meters, including a business incubator, a technopark and a data center. A children's technopark should appear, as well as special campuses for students from China, Japan, the Republic of Korea and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region.
Plans for using Russian for housing are also broad. Not only that AHML promised to build high-rise buildings on the island at least 700 thousand square meters. M (now, for comparison, the educational and administrative buildings of the FEFU occupy an area of 316 thousand square meters, its hotels and hostels - in 325 thousand sq. M.), Next should appear yet and not less than 40 thousand square meters. M low-rise buildings for the scientific and pedagogical staff of the Far Eastern Federal University and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as citizens with 3 and more children, and cottage settlements with an area of 44 thousand square meters. M with high-end housing. The concept also provides for the construction of "high-quality shopping and entertainment areas of at least 55 thousand square meters. Meters, focused on serving both the resident population and the tourist flow to the Russian Island. "
All other projects are referred to the second stage of the island's development concept. Among them are the FEFU sports complex and technical development park, the marine robotics center, the international medical center and the marine biotechnopark, the engineering center of the Far Eastern Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Center JSC (DTSSS).
The international medical center, the concept notes, may include diagnostic and rehabilitation centers with a total area of 8 sq. meters and a throughput of approximately 1500 patients per year. The Marine Biotechnopark provides for the breeding and processing of trepangs, scallops, sea urchins, mussels, oysters and other seafood. Absolutely stunning prospects are being drawn in connection with the construction of the DTSSS engineering center. According to the concept, it will not be just 80 thousand square meters. m of research complexes, but also, possibly, the management center of PJSC Oil Company Rosneft - with the associated infrastructure. And the latter, in addition to administrative, office, educational and hotel buildings, may include “residential complexes of various classes and categories (low and medium-rise)”, “class A and B yacht clubs for 500 seats” and “recreational areas, including beach zones ".
All this, of course, should result in some tangible results that can be expressed in numbers. Officials believe that the prospects for Russian development can well characterize the tourist flow of at least 1,2 million visits per year, holding at least 20 congresses and exhibitions of international significance every year and creating at least 7000 jobs without taking into account employees of the Far Eastern Federal University. Of course, the island will also become a TOP, a center of cooperation with the APR, a place with a favorable living environment and modern infrastructure.
HOW ABOUT RISKS
The first and main question that arises after reading the concept: "And where is the money". There is no financial and economic justification for the implementation of the concept in the document itself; it only says that various sources will finance the events, and the budget will be able to spend on infrastructure no more than 30% of investments in objects announced by private investors. Given that investors are facing the goal of investing at least 55 billion rubles, the infrastructure can be spent no more than 16,5 billion rubles. In the next two years, from the Russian budget will be allocated 3,8 billion rubles for the infrastructure development of the island, has already been reported to the Ministry of Regional Development.
The development of the Russian Island also has significant limitations, the authors of the concept admit. First of all, they are associated with the fact that the island is located in the restricted area of a military facility - the Vladivostok forestry of the Ministry of Defense. The Russian has a long military history, and operating facilities of the military department are scattered throughout it to this day. A part of the island with an area of 1206 hectares belongs to the protected zones of natural monuments of regional importance, on the territory of which it is prohibited to conduct economic activities. About 30% of the area of Russky Island, mainly the Saperny peninsula, is actively used.
The authorities of Primorye hope that the adoption of the concept will help resolve issues with the Defense Ministry. Vice-governor Eduard Portnov has already stated that "the solution of the land issue will make it possible to implement the most daring ideas" for the development of the island. Meanwhile, the decree of the government, signed by Dmitry Medvedev on approving the concept by the leadership to the action for the Defense Ministry, is not, in fact, just an additional argument for starting work with the military on re-registration of land.
The concept developers and other risks are realized. With the risks of underfunding and the possible onset of a crisis in the economy, officials propose to struggle with the wide use of public-private partnership tools, working with state banks and development institutions to provide preferential lending rates and the use of fixed-price contracts in national currency or hedging currency risks. As far as these are reliable and concrete measures, the near future will show.
In addition, to invade the unique nature of the island is planned extremely carefully. On the other hand, there is a "lack and cost of existing labor resources necessary for the implementation of infrastructure and investment projects and further development of investors' projects". "The current situation not only worsens the attractiveness of the Russian Island for potential investors, but also jeopardizes plans for the creation and operation of basic facilities," the authors of the concept acknowledge, suggesting that the experts of the Agency for Human Capital Development in the Far East and the FEFU itself should be engaged.
CHANGES EDUCATION OR CHANGE EDUCATION
While the adopted concept of the development of the Russian island gave at least one positive effect - provoked a discussion about what should be the formation of the 21 century in the Far East. It was this topic that was hotly discussed at the meeting of the public council of Minskostokrazvitiya in Khabarovsk.
Vice-rector of the Far Eastern Federal University for Development Dmitry Zemtsov said that education in the macroregion should be "advanced". "I personally like the term" advanced education "very much. He is deeply correct. When the university recruits bachelors for four years or even masters for two years, the planning horizon is always longer than the staffing of any company. Because HR works for one to three years at best, we take responsibility for where the student will be after he leaves us in four to five years. This means that the university should work ahead of schedule. How to do it? It seems that the answer lies in the word "competence". With a potential employer, it is necessary to agree which competencies of the future will be in demand at the enterprises that are now established in the Far East, "a representative of the FEFU said.
According to Dmitry Zemtsov, any university "must change the world." "In this sense, for us, the concept of the development of the Russian Island and the role of the university in it is in fact an opportunity to find a site where FEFU realizes the potential for changing the world. We believe that a certain part of our graduates, perhaps even a third, should go not to the employer, but to the format of self-employment, the project team that creates its business, preferably - technological. It is the technological business that is lacking here in the Far East, "he explained.
"If you look at the world practice, the university should become the center of the technopark, the center of space for creating innovations. For us, the goal of our activity is the creation on the island of the Russian legendary world-known technopark. The university would send students there, and all institutes for the development of entrepreneurship and innovations in Russia, including the Far Eastern Fund for the Development and Implementation of High Technologies, should have its representative offices in it, and any project can at some stage receive their support. Let's set the institutions of support for entrepreneurship and development of the Far East the task of synchronizing with the universities, "Dmitry Zemtsov suggested.
But the youth in the region can not keep on transformations in the system of higher education, says Eduard Dmitriev, rector of the Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University (KnAGTU). KnAGTU for the last three years has been trying to implement a cluster model of education: "We involve schoolchildren in the work of the university, developing different levels of education - there is a lyceum and a secondary specialized education. Involving schoolchildren at an early stage in the centers and circles at the university, we are trying to draw them a possible trajectory of learning without leaving for other regions, to show the opportunity to become successful here. For the first three years we have our entrants "grounded" just for our university, "said Mr. Dmitriev.
A similar model is implemented by KnAGTU on the basis of a branch in Vanino: profile classes are created there with the help of one of the investors in schools, various mugs are being held and robotics centers are working. "But here we are faced with the fact that such cluster models can not be solved without the support of a basic industrial partner. But in Vanino most of the residents are not yet active and investing in education is not yet ready, "he stressed.
But SuperJob CEO Alexei Zakharov believes that to increase the competitiveness of Russian education in general and the Far East in particular, much more radical measures are needed. "It seems to me that for all educational institutions, be they public or private, you need a complete exemption from taxes for the next 100 years. Minimum for 50 years is a complete exemption from all corporate taxes for those who work in the field of education - who produces educational games, equipment, educational software and so on. Those people who control the educational process now are, I'm sorry, 30-40-year-old elders, who do not understand anything in modern technologies. Technologies are developing so quickly that even people at the forefront of some educational technologies do not understand what people are doing at the forefront of other educational technologies. And while these and others are very effective, "- he said.
"Therefore, the whole process of monitoring and planning must be destroyed. The control procedure is obsolete by the time it is written, it is planned to plan until 2030 year - this is a complete nonsense, from which you need to get rid. Now it does not work like this. These concepts become obsolete. Control can only result, and security control must be tough. Preschool and junior school education should be an absolute priority. Why? What the teacher in the kindergarten has ruined, no one will ever correct in any university, "said Alexey Zakharov.