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They were the first to set foot on Yaya
Russian oceanographers have measured the Northern Sea Route and have mapped a new island
The main joy of hydrographers is that they got the honor of being the first to set foot on a new Russian land - an island in the Arctic Ocean called Yaya. Helicopter pilots were the first to discover the island last year. For our country, this is not only a piece of land a little less than a meter above sea level. According to international law, this is a significant expansion of the boundaries and economic zone in the Arctic.
“We were very lucky with the weather,” says Alexei Kornis, a member of the Admiral Vladimirsky expedition, head of the Hydrographic Service Department of the Northern Fleet. - After all, there are constant storms in those places in the fall. But, as ordered, on this day the sea gave us fabulous weather, it was absolutely calm. We got from the ship to a motor boat and went in search. The ship's radar found the island, but it was very difficult to see it. After all, the height of the island is only one meter above sea level. From the boat we went down into the sea and walked for a long time waist-deep in the water. When they saw Yaya, they experienced a feeling of opening, they shouted "Earth!"
- When the pilots saw this place for the first time, each of them shouted that he was the pioneer: “I!”, “I!” As a result, the island was called Yaya. There is such a legend among us, - Alexander Boldarev, the third assistant captain of the Admiral Vladimirsky OIS, smiles as he flips through the cards.
"Small is not small, but gave Russia another 450 square miles of territory," said Oleg Osipov, the head of the expedition, deputy head of navigation and oceanography department of the Russian Defense Ministry. - And what is this for Russia? This is the right to subsoil, natural resources, inland navigation, and other consequences. We were very pleased to have made such a gift to the country.
Indeed, the 12 nautical miles of inland territorial waters, outlined around Yaya, gave such a good increment to the territory of the country. On the map of the island is not yet, in the sea shipments, it will fall at best only next year. The shape of Yaya resembles an atoll. Inside it is a lagoon flooded with water, around two capes. There is no vegetation on the island, only sand.
"We conducted a topographic survey, shallow drilling to make sure that we really are an island, not the remnants of a glacier that may disappear." We looked, we became convinced that this is a long-term geographic object, - continues the story Alexei Kornis. "There is an animal on the island." These are crustaceans similar to cockroaches. We called them that. And then, with surprise at the Pevek Museum, they discovered that they really are called sea cockroaches. Belenky such ...
Found members of the expedition on the island and the bones. To whom they belong, so far it is difficult to say. Scientists are going to take them to the Museum of the World Ocean.
Paving the Northern Sea Route
The landing on the new island and its description became only a small episode of the expedition. In fact, its tasks are much broader. We can say that these are the pioneers of the Northern Sea Route, followed by the new development of the Russian North.
The expedition started 18 August from the middle harbor of Kronstadt. For the first time in the world, a scientific vessel has laid a route for round-the-world voyage across the Northern Sea Route. This, by the way, is the first Russian scientific round-the-world expedition for the past 30 years.
"In the East Siberian Sea and the Laptev Sea," white spots "were examined, the information of the submariners of the Northern Fleet was verified about the substantial divergence of the location of the isobaths shown on the map with the actual depths in the Chukchi Sea. In addition, the map of 200 isobaths and 2500 meters, which are of great importance in maritime international legal issues, has been clarified. During the survey of the bottom relief near the north-eastern coast of the Northern Earth Islands, no doubtful or distinctive depth was confirmed.
“For the first time, a route has been developed that pursues not only the goals of studying the World Ocean, but also large-scale exploration of the Northern Sea Route. After all, the study and development of our Arctic is now a priority, - said the captain of the oceanographic research vessel "Admiral Vladimirsky" Alexander Pyshkin. - Following us will be mastered the territory. We, in particular, are exploring the possibility of settling empty lands, studying where people can live, how to conduct electricity there, and build communications. All this will be reflected in our final report and in the Arctic coastal shipments. ”
And the first conclusion in this report is perhaps the most important: “The possibility of ice-free voyage along the Northern Sea Route of a non-ice-class vessel was confirmed. During the transition, the ice, somehow affecting the movement, "Admiral Vladimirsky" never met. "
During the voyage hydrographers revealed significant changes in the terrain associated with the destruction of the glaciers of the northern islands. In 2015, these discoveries are planned to "put on cards." To obtain this data, dozens of scientists worked in fourteen laboratories of the vessel, studies were carried out at 153 one-time drift oceanographic stations.
The naval flag and the flag of the Russian Geographical Society were hoisted by expedition members on the island of Pankratiev, the capes of Zhelaniya and Chelyuskin, the islands of Andrey, Stolbova, Wrangel, and Cape Dezhnev. Memorial events were also held here, dedicated to the famous predecessors-researchers of the North, and on the island of Wrangel, in addition to the tradition of polar expeditions of the last century and in honor of the 90 anniversary of the establishment of state sovereignty, a food depot was laid.
From Kamchatka "Admiral Vladimirsky" went to Vladivostok, then his path lies in Nicaragua, through the Panama Canal the ship will fall into the Atlantic Ocean, stop in Havana, and by December it should reach the shores of Europe. Then through the Channel to the North Sea and end his journey where it began - in the Baltic Sea, in the harbor of Kronstadt. The whole world tour should take 125 days.
What was the reconnaissance
In recent years, each of the countries of the "Arctic Five" (Russia, USA, Norway, Canada and Denmark) has been trying to increase its presence in the northern latitudes. This is not surprising. The richest reserves of oil and gas are concentrated there, and the very location of the "ice cap of the earth" makes it possible to air communications between Eurasia and America, bypassing any countries. Which is undoubtedly important from a military point of view. Thus, against the background of increased military activity of the NATO bloc states, Russia is resuming polar airfields for the development of long-range aviation, building new border outposts, deploying air defense systems, radar stations for airspace control.
As for the resources, it is so tidbit that many countries in the world that are not part of the Arctic Five, are fighting for their possession. This fall, Russia turned to the UN with a request to acknowledge the fact that the Lomonosov Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise is a continuation of the Russian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. If this is confirmed, our country will have at its disposal even more than a million square kilometers of territory, on which, according to oil and gas exploration data, more than 5 billions of tons of hydrocarbons are concentrated, which is 25% of the global reserves.
Industrial production is already developing in the Arctic. At the Yuzhno-Tambeyskoye field in Yamal, a gas production plant is being completed. At full capacity, it will work in four years. Liquefied gas from the new port of Sabetta will also be supplied to the Asia-Pacific region. To go through the Suez and Panama canals is unprofitable: the path lengthens more than twice.
With such tasks, the issue of increasing cargo traffic and the reliability of the Northern Sea Route becomes urgent. A lot needs to be done to make it work. After all, this is not just the escort of caravans of cargo ships under the supervision of icebreakers. This is the creation of an extensive network of bases where it would be possible to bunker ships, replenish water supplies, and in the event of a breakdown, quickly and efficiently repair ... And the solution of issues with Russian legislation, which now believes that the path between ice along the coast of Russia is a chain of entrances and exits to / on Russian territory, for each of which you need to pay; and cleaning of territories contaminated in due time; and the restoration of those cities and towns, in which a lot of money was invested at one time and which were forgotten for decades.
This is a huge job. And at the same time - absolutely necessary for the development of the country. In addition, the potential North Sea Route should pay off and bring the country a great profit. Already, businessmen of Asian countries look at him with hope. They are attracted by a shorter route (you can save on fuel and freight), relative safety (no pirates), lack of large fees, levies and queues (as in the Suez and Panama canals).
The Northern Sea Route or the Northern Sea Corridor is the shortest sea route between the European part of Russia and the Far East; Russian legislation defines it as "the historically established national unified transport communications of Russia in the Arctic."
The Northern Sea Route passes through the seas of the Arctic Ocean (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi) and partly the Pacific (Beringovo). The length of the Northern Sea Route from the Kara Gates to the Bay of Providence is about 5600 km. Now it serves the ports of the Arctic and large rivers of Siberia (import of fuel, equipment, food, removal of timber, minerals).
The western sector of the Arctic - from Murmansk to Dudinka - is served by icebreakers of the Murmansk Shipping Company. The eastern sector of the Arctic - from Dudinka to Chukotka - is served by icebreakers of the Far Eastern Shipping Company.
Published in the "Fisherman of Kamchatka" newspaper. EastRussia.ru is an information partner of the "Rybak Kamchatka" newspaper.