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Well, hello, hectare
How Minskvokrazvitiya realized what many thought
So, it happened - 1-th of February, as it was established by law, the third stage of the "Far Eastern hectare" initiative began: it became possible not only for the Far East, but for every Russian as well. The idea, as was confirmed by EastRussia, is still a lot of both opponents and supporters, and the idea to distribute free land among Russians was visited by all the parliamentary parties of Russia. To bring the idea to the stage of the working mechanism, albeit not without resistance of the bureaucratic system, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Trutnev and Minvostokrazvitiya managed. Now it remains only to watch how concrete examples of the use of "hectares" appear - either successful or failing.
The citizens were certainly waiting for the date. On February 1, the extreme interest in land plots in the Far East could be judged by the site's performance Надальнийвосток.рф... The system stuck hard even on fast "optics" in the capital - probably, there was a significant influx of users. But even with a “braking” system, according to some sources, the number of applications on that day exceeded 2-3 thousand.
Statistics on inquiries - who are these people, where are they from, where they declared the land and for what purpose - we are sure that the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East will be published in portions in the coming days. Experts interviewed by EastRussia assume that the most significant will be two categories of users: these are the Far East who have received the opportunity to take a hectare in a “foreign” region (for example, residents of Yakutia and the Khabarovsk Territory - in the Primorsky Territory), as well as representatives of the most populated subjects of the Russian Federation ( Moscow and St. Petersburg). And if the activity of the former is generally explained by the awareness of the program (in the Far East, the topic has been actively discussed for six months already), then the share of the capital's residents will be significant, if only due to the huge population of the capital itself.
Some interesting things are already being heard. For example, according to the Deputy Head of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, Sergei Kachaev, “at the very start of the project it was great news for us that a lot of plots are being taken for beekeeping, especially in the Amur and Jewish Autonomous Regions. There were pilot municipalities in which more than 50% of the plots were taken specifically for beekeeping. " Sergey Kachaev explains the extreme interest in beekeeping among the Far East by the fact that the products are especially in demand in the PRC - and some beekeepers who received land plots in the summer have even managed to sell the products from their hectares to their neighbors.
EastRussia Help. To date, over 36 thousand applications have been submitted for the purchase of the Far Eastern hectare. Far Easterners received more than 4,8 thousand plots, almost the same number are at the stage of registration. The leaders in the receipt of applications for a "Far Eastern hectare" today are the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Primorsky Krai and Sakhalin Region. The picture of the future use of the distributed Far Eastern hectares cannot be understood today: when applying for a particular “Far Eastern hectare”, it is not necessary to enter information about its future use, the choice of the type of use is given one year after the registration of the “hectare” contract.
From Stolypin to LDPR
The pace of project implementation is unique for the Russian bureaucratic practice. The idea was first announced two years ago - at the beginning of 2015. A year was spent on the development and adoption of a law, six months - on commissioning: programming the information system and training regional officials. Last June, the system was launched in test mode. As a result, a unique state option available to every citizen of Russia. And also - a precedent, as in the field of regulation of the system of land relations, you can "break" everything and build in a new way.
Meanwhile, the idea itself is not something that is not new. And if the analogy of the “Far Eastern hectare” with the allocation of land by Stolypin at the beginning of the XNUMXth century is actively used, then the proposals for hectares that have been heard in recent years from the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and Fair Russia are not particularly remembered. And the initiatives were, and very amusing.
In December 2013, the party of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation announced the idea to give every adult Russian a land all over Russia from the stock of state and municipal land funds for lifelong use. The size of the allotment was supposed to be set from 1 to 1,5 ha, which the party justified as follows: "1 ha is the minimum size of a land plot on which it is possible to create a self-healing ecosystem". Directly under construction on each site it was suggested to take no more than 10% of the area. The earth could have been inherited, but it could not be sold - only, according to the idea of the Communist Party, to give back to the state. Get in the inheritance could not be more than one site. At the same time, you could choose the site for free receipt yourself. Directly by the allocation of sites, according to the idea of the Communist Party, regional and local authorities were to be engaged. The CPRF proposed not to impose any taxes on products grown or received on allocated hectares. What would correspond to the goal of allocating free land throughout Russia - not the development of entrepreneurship, but the provision of living conditions and human nutrition, the life of the family, children and grandchildren.
Somewhat earlier, also in 2013, the Liberal Democratic Party came forward with a similar initiative. The essence of the idea was about the same, but the goal was slightly different. According to the Liberal Democrats, the provision of land plots of 1-1,5 hectares per person would restore the fertility of agricultural land, revive the village, improve the provision of citizens with ecological clean food, populate deserted lands far from large shopping centers, get rid of poverty, as well as to strengthen the institution of the family. As you can see, the Liberal Democratic Party saw in the allocation of hectares not a separate, but a multiplier effect. As for the settlement of the "depopulated lands" - there is a direct analogy here with the initiative on the Far East.
After some time, in January of 2015, the third parliamentary party, Fair Russia, was engaged in the development of not just ideas, but the whole bill. The project bore a very “speaking” name - “On the Land”. The bill provided for the allocation of free land area of up to 100 acres, but not to all who wish, but to strictly certain categories of citizens. Namely - deserved or socially unprotected. At the same time, specific opportunities for using plots were prescribed in the law. They would be intended for individual housing construction, private farms, summer cottage construction and farming, agricultural production, farming, peasant farming and agriculture, agricultural use. For the first 5 years, according to the bill, the plots were provided for rent, then, subject to their intended use, they were registered as property. The purpose of the draft law was to settle remote areas of Russia, first of all - abandoned villages and villages.
Actually, it was at this time that the epic with the "Far Eastern hectare" started. Unlike the above projects, the idea of allocating a free plot of land in the Far East was almost immediately brought to the level of the President of Russia, which ensured its early implementation. Whether Deputy Prime Minister Yury Trutnev, who proposed to Vladimir Putin the "Far Eastern hectare", borrowed the developments of any Russian parties or reached them himself - will probably forever remain a mystery.
Optimists and skeptics
Be that as it may, there were and are much more skeptics about the “Far Eastern hectare” than optimists. Director of the regional program of the Independent Institute for Social Policy Natalya Zubarevich told EastRussia: “In the Far East, there is a steady trend towards a decrease in its population. you will not change it, including by land measures, including the “Far Eastern hectare.” The number of applications for it is already less than expected. Let's see what its results will be after the start of distribution to all Russians. But, one way or another, the only at least somewhat effective agricultural From the point of view of the population in the Far East, I see the provision of various benefits and privileges to those residents who live around its large cities and are already actively engaged in agriculture. Like soft loans for the purchase of the same agricultural equipment. "
The pessimists have a fairly serious set of arguments. Even if we do not take assessments of the prospects of the program itself (they will - they will not take or move), there are a number of completely predictable risks. The first among them is the risk of overlapping plots of new owners on someone's land, the rights to which were registered earlier, but not entered in the cadastre. In this case - the courts and unjustified hopes of the new owners. The second is the positioning accuracy in the electronic system. There are already known cases when a site “circled” by a user on the Internet actually ended up in a completely different place, instead of land - on the river surface. The third risk is the overlapping of the purposes of using the plots by the users who have issued the neighboring plots.
There is also argumentation in the optimist camp. The Minister of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East, Alexander Galushka, for example, operates with data from VTsIOM: a recent poll showed that 6,5% of Russians are determined to take part in the program. "Even 6,5% is more than 10 million people, which is obviously very, very large compared to 6,2 million people in the Far East. Just as it is obvious that this potential will gradually be realized, gradually this interest will be converted into direct receipt of the Far Eastern hectare, ”he says.
Alexei Timchenko, Chairman of the Primorsky regional branch of Business Russia, believes that "the implementation of the project is an effective mechanism for attracting labor resources and investment to the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District, which today has the lowest population density." According to him, “it is the practical implementation that is important - the speed of land registration, the availability of resources - electrical and heat networks, water sources, and so on, is of great importance”.
Interestingly - contrary to popular belief that hectares are issued exclusively in the open field, the system has many sites along the roads, within the boundaries of settlements that have a good infrastructure. According to the interlocutors of EastRussia, such sites can be difficult to find (all the same the territory of the region - over 600 million hectares, and how to find the "same one" among them is a very exciting question). But they are, and in the near future it is unlikely they will be disassembled.
“Like any phenomenon or project, the“ Far Eastern ”hectare has its downside. But if today there is a lot of talk about its reverse side, then for some reason, it is not so good about it, ”notes Evgeny Plisetskaya, Deputy Director of the Institute for Regional Studies and Urban Planning of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. - In the meantime, she is distinguished by a number of not unique, but good moments. For example, the spread to all Russians and the possibility of long-term use of a hectare. Yes, there are also unprecedented measures included in the project of the "Far Eastern" hectare - tax incentives for its development, broad organizational support from the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, ease of registration within the framework of obtaining a land plot. With all this, the fact that in just the first day of providing the opportunity to get a hectare to all Russians, 2500 applications were submitted from them, suggests that they associate great opportunities with the "Far Eastern" hectare. "
Thus, the picture of the "Far Eastern" hectare is still controversial. It remains to see the future specific successful or failed projects of using hectares in the Far East, so that it becomes complete.