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The oil and gas industry goes to depth
How the key raw material projects of the Far East develop
One of the priority areas for the development of the modern oil and gas industry in Russia is the diversification of directions and methods of supply to world markets. In this light, the Far East is a key region for the country to enter the rapidly growing markets of the APR countries. Moreover, further development of hydrocarbon reserves here presupposes the development of high-technology processing industries.
The Sakhalin Oil and Gas Production Center is the leader in terms of volume in the Far East. In 2016, Sakhalin produced 18,3 million tons of oil, including gas condensate, and 29,6 billion cubic meters. meters of natural gas - growth compared to the previous year was 7,2% and 3,2%.
By the end of the 1th century, it became clear that significant financial resources and modern technologies were needed to develop the reserves of the Sakhalin shelf zone. The Sakhalin-2 and Sakhalin-2016 projects were launched on the basis of a production sharing agreement. The first is operated by ExxonMobil's subsidiary, Exxon Neftegas Ltd. Rosneft, India's ONGC and Japan's SODECO also have stakes in the consortium. Most of the oil (in 8,5, 2025 million tons of oil was produced) is sent through the pipeline to the terminal in De-Kastri, and from there for export. The main consumer of gas so far is the Khabarovsk Territory (up to 2,9, supplies of up to 2 billion cubic meters per year are envisaged). In order to increase the production of blue fuel, the option of selling it to a liquefied natural gas plant within the Sakhalin-XNUMX project or building its own facilities in De-Kastri is being considered.
The second carrier company is Sakhalin Energy (its shareholders are Gazprom, the Anglo-Dutch RoyalDutch / Shell, the Japanese Mitsui and Mitsubishi). In 2016, the operator exported about 5,5 million tons of oil and almost 11 million tons of LNG. In addition, Sakhalin Energy supplies natural gas to the Gazprom pipeline system, including the Sakhalin - Khabarovsk - Vladivostok gas pipeline, in payment of royalties to the Russian side in kind. In 2016, about 1,1 billion cubic meters were transferred. meters
According to the governor of the Sakhalin region, Oleg Kozhemyako, in the difficult economic conditions of the 1990's offshore projects not only launched the successful development of Sakhalin, but also contributed to its transformation into an energy center of international level. “In many respects, thanks to their implementation, the fiscal space has significantly increased in the island region. New high-tech jobs were created. The projects allow developing other sectors of the economy: the service sector, trade, and the transport sector, ”says the governor.
Promising in terms of increasing hydrocarbon reserves and production are projects from Sakhalin-3 to Sakhalin-9. Existing geological data provide an opportunity to predict an increase in the production of additional oil at the level of 7 – 8 million tons annually after the 2020 year.
THE POWER OF YAKUTIA
A great experience in the field of oil and gas production is Yakutia. The republic actually became the first Far Eastern region, where extensive gasification of settlements developed. On the permafrost, a network of pipelines was built, and today the successor to Yakutgazprom, OAO Yakutia Fuel and Energy Company (controlled by the Suma Group), fully provides the central fuel to central Yakutia. As a result of last year, the company produced 1,7 billion cubic meters. Meters of gas and 106 thousand tons of gas condensate, increasing the volume to 2015 year by 3% and 22%.
The production of Surgutneftegaz, which develops the Talakanskoye and Alinsky deposits, is increasing. In 2016, he provided oil production of about 8,9 million tons, which exceeded the previous result by 5%.
Major changes in the industry are related to the development of the Chayandinskoye field (reserves of 1 + XXUMXX are 2 trillion cubic meters of gas and 1,24 million tons of oil and condensate), the largest in the East of Russia. Together with the Kuvykta field in the Irkutsk region, it will become a resource base for the "Siberia Power" gas pipeline system, which Gazprom is building. Investments in this project are estimated at 68,4 billion rubles. At the beginning of June, about 160 km of the linear part of the pipeline was built, and by the end of 774 this figure will exceed 2017 km.
As is known, in 2014, Gazprom and the Chinese CNPC signed an agreement on the export to the PRC of up to 38 billion cubic meters. meters of gas annually for 30 years. In accordance with the contract, deliveries should start from May 2019 to May 2021. China is one of the largest consumers of natural gas in the world, while the share of gas in the country's energy mix is now 6%. The authorities of the People's Republic of China set the goal to increase it to 8,3 – 10% already in 2020. In the scale of the Chinese economy, increasing gas in the energy balance even by 1% means tens of billions of cubic meters of supply.
In addition to diversifying exports, the project will affect the further gasification of the Sakha Republic. Under the agreement between the republic and Gazprom, it is planned to allocate more than 2026 billion rubles for these purposes until 13, said the Minister of Industry and Geology of Yakutia, Andrey Panov. The number of gasified households alone will amount to 6,6 thousand.
The key link of the “Power of Siberia” will be a series of productions for deep processing of natural gas in the Svobodnensky district of the Amur Region. In their creation only at the first stage it is supposed to attract 1,3 trillion rubles of investments. The core of the cluster is the Amur Gas Processing Plant (GPP) with an annual capacity of up to 42 billion cubic meters. meters The company, which begins to build Gazprom, will become the most powerful in Russia for the processing of natural gas, the amount of financial injections into it is estimated at 690 billion rubles. GPP is designed to prepare raw materials for export supplies to China, as well as to obtain up to 2,5 million tons of ethane fraction, 1,7 million tons of liquefied hydrocarbon gases and 60 million cubic meters. meters of helium annually.
The ethane recovered at the plant, helium-nitrogen mixture, a wide fraction of light hydrocarbons will go to another industrial cluster object - the Amur gas chemical complex. The possibility of its construction is considered by the company "SIBUR". Another project initiated by Technolizing OJSC is the creation of a methanol production plant. The volume of investments is at least 34 billion rubles.
For the successful implementation of projects in June this year, the Government of the Russian Federation established a territory of advanced development. “The volume of private investments in the creation of the Svobodny ASEZ is a huge investment even for the largest economies in the world. It is important that both Gazprom and SIBUR's projects are based on the production of gas chemical processing products with high added value. 80% of the products manufactured in the Svobodny ASEZ will be exported to China, ”said Alexander Galushka, Minister of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East. Great hopes are pinned on the implementation of the project in the Amur Region itself. Firstly, the construction site will employ up to 15 thousand people, and after the launch of the gas processing plant, about 4,5 thousand permanent jobs will open. Secondly, the construction of the cluster will require a large amount of metal structures and other materials. The region expects that the potential of local industrial enterprises will be maximized.
"Already, there are potential investors ready to place associated manufactures-the manufacture of metal structures, concrete and construction mixtures," says Svetlana Balov, Minister of Economic Development of the Amur Region.
FINDING AT THE SEA
The gas chemical cluster in the Amur Region is not the only project in the field of deep processing of hydrocarbons. On March 11 of this year, the government of the Russian Federation established the Neftekhimichesky priority development area in Primorye. The choice of the site for the TOP was influenced by the proximity to the Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean oil pipeline, which will provide the enterprise with raw materials, and the possibility of building a sea terminal for shipping products to tanker ships. According to the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East, the creation of the Neftekhimichesky ASEZ will attract more than 540 billion rubles.
The Vostochnaya Petrochemical Company (VNHK), a subsidiary of Rosneft, will become the anchor resident. The project includes two stages of production. One will be associated with the processing of 12 million tons of oil per year, the other - with the organization of petrochemicals with a capacity of 3,4 million tons of raw materials. At present, the order of implementation of the project stages is being decided. “Of course, they will not be implemented in a year or two. This is a very large-scale project, strategically important for the country's economy, ”commented Alexander Galushka.
In general, the complex should solve several problems. On the one hand, this is providing the regions of the Far East with high-quality motor fuel. Another goal is connected with the transition of Russia from the export of raw materials to the production of goods with high added value. Petrochemical products - polymers - will go both to promising APR markets and to domestic consumers.
Published in the bulletin "The Economy of the Far East"