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Will the TOR regime work for single-industry cities?

According to the legislation on territories of advanced development, for the first three years such economic zones can be created only in the Far East of our country. An exception was made only for single-industry towns - in them the TOP regimes can be introduced already now. True, under the condition of one managerial "squiggle": if the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East is responsible for the TORs in the Far East, then the Ministry of Economic Development is responsible for the TORs in single-industry towns (even if they are located in the Far East).

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Management features are superimposed on law enforcement. For example, if the “threshold” for residents to enter the TOP of the Ministry of the East is 500 thousand rubles, then to the TOP of the Ministry of Economy - 5 million rubles. 12 TORs have been created through the Ministry of the East, and 3 TORs through the Ministry of Economy: Gukovo (Rostov Region), Naberezhnye Chelny (Republic of Tatarstan), Usolye-Sibirskoye (Irkutsk Region). The Ministry of the Development of the Russian Far East reports about almost half a trillion rubles
investment applications to TOPs; In this regard, the Ministry of Economy is less hurried: the department is in no hurry with reports and has taken care of the almost individual training of management teams for TORs. Time will tell whether the saying “harness for a long time, but travel fast” works for this example. The story with the application of the Trans-Baikal Territory for the TOP in Krasnokamensk so far, unfortunately, demonstrates the lack of a clear understanding of what the TOPs will be able to give to Russian single-industry towns.

Today, the administration of Transbaikalia is reviewing more than 20 investment projects that can be implemented in Krasnokamensk in the context of the TOP: the production of sausages on the basis of the Daursky meat processing plant, the expansion of a local dairy plant, the creation of a timber processing plant, as well as the Krasnokamensk hydrometallurgical plant. At the same time, at a meeting of the working group of the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia on the creation and functioning of territories of advanced socio-economic development in single-industry Russian municipalities, held in March, the authorities of the Trans-Baikal Territory put forward the following condition for granting the status of the TOP of the city of Krasnokamensk - to prepare a management team of the city, which , in turn, based on the results
Training, should develop a project for its development.

Experts interviewed by EastRussia note that such a position of the department can mean a very long pause in relation to the TOP project in Krasnokamensk.

“The prospect of granting TOP status to the city of Krasnokamensk seems extremely dubious. Since, firstly, the federal center is now focused on supporting those regions whose authorities have already shown sufficient initiative - a number of investment projects have been successfully implemented. And the authorities of the Trans-Baikal Territory today are not showing any initiative. Secondly, support from the federal center is now being provided to those regions, on whose territory recently their authorities
certain investors were attracted. At the moment, the administrative apparatus of the Trans-Baikal Territory, as such, has no experience in attracting new investors, "said EastRussia a professor at the Department of Economic and Social Geography of Russia, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosova Olga Kuznetsova.

“It is completely unclear what the expediency of granting the TOP status to the city of Krasnokamensk is. Within this city is located the largest uranium production not only in Russia, but also in the world - the Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Association (PJSC PIMCU). This enterprise is strategically important for our country, and, at the same time, if it works properly, it can “feed” the entire Trans-Baikal Territory in addition to Krasnokamensk itself. The reason that the Priargunsky association is not doing this now is, on the one hand, in its minimal funding from the state, on the other hand, in its illegal withdrawal of funds from its own turnover. At the same time, some dissatisfaction on the part of the region with the work of this enterprise is caused by the fact that it causes great harm to its ecology. But it is highly likely that many of the region's claims to the environmental friendliness of this
businesses are unreasonable. In addition to the largest uranium producer, a branch of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is located in Krasnokamensk - unlike many other single-industry towns in the Baikal region and the Far East, it has a unique opportunity to raise personnel for its city-forming enterprise, and thus retain young people. " noted the director of the Institute of Demography, Migration and Regional Development Dmitry Panyukov.

According to the expert, trying to solve the problems of Krasnokamensk, it is necessary to continue to develop the main city-forming enterprise of Krasnokamensk - PIMCU, and not to introduce the TOP regime on its territory: with such a unique resource potential, there is no particular need for external investments.

In general, today experts agree that granting TOP status is not a solution for all Russian monocities, including those in Baikal and the Far East.

“Such a measure of state support as the provision of the TOP regime can be effective for a number of Russian single-industry towns. In the event that, as a result of the introduction of the TOP regime, investors will come to them. These are single-industry towns in Russian regions where local authorities have a clear vision of the circle of potential investors, and also where there are no factors that strongly restrain the construction of new enterprises. In particular, completely
an undeveloped road network or a deplorable state of the housing and social fund, ”says Olga Kuznetsova.

According to the expert, “for example, even if the TOP regime is introduced in the monotowns of Yamal, it is completely unrealistic for any production facilities with high added value to appear in them. But in this context, it should be noted that even after the construction of a road network in them, the introduction of the TOP regime will not help some single-industry towns - due to the high cost of transporting products produced in them to the consumer.

“The feasibility of granting the ASEZ status must be determined separately for each specific monotown. And in determining it, it is mainly to start from the city-forming enterprise of the monotown - its scale and prospects. Modern Russian realities are such that in some single-industry towns of the country, city-forming enterprises either completely died out for one reason or another, including the lack of demand for their products, or are in the process of doing so. At the same time, as in other Russian monotowns, in particular in the Baikal region and the Far East, city-forming enterprises operate in a completely normal mode and have development prospects, ”Dmitry Panyukov is sure.

The experts interviewed agree that the hopes of many regions of the Baikal region and the Far East for a bright future for their monocities as a result of the introduction of the TOP regime in them are, to put it mildly, illusory. To reduce illusions - you need clear criteria and a clear understanding of the prospects - maybe it will appear while management teams are being trained?
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