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Horns put

The number of deer in the Kolyma is two times lower than officially declared

Horns put

In the Magadan region, the census of the reindeer population is being completed. It turned out that the herd is not only not growing, but also shrinking. Kolyma deer meat is not on the shelves even in the North-Evensk district.

Eight brigades graze reindeer in the North Even district of Kolyma. For a long time, the number of herds was approximate - because of the inaccessibility, it is rather difficult to verify the data of reindeer herders. This year, the authorities decided to put things in order in this matter, and it turned out that the real livestock is two times lower than the officially declared one - ten thousand instead of twenty-three. They plan to change the situation in the region in the near future, but for now they are understanding the problems of reindeer herders.

Reindeer husbandry is a traditional industry for the Magadan Region. During the Soviet period, the share of reindeer in the meat balance of the northern territories exceeded 30%, and the entire local population was employed. Reindeer herding gave fur raw materials, supplied antlers and horns for export. The deer use the forage resources of arctic and subarctic tundra, which are unsuitable for other types of domestic animals. In the Magadan region, there were 38 large reindeer herding enterprises with well-developed infrastructure and high profitability. Of these, in 5 state farms the number of livestock exceeded 30 thousand in each, in 7 there were 20 to 30 thousand, 15 farms grazed 10 - 20 thousand deer of the main herd. Reindeer breeders of Kolyma and Chukotka annually donated meat for 140 thousand deer, alive weight 10 - 12 thousand tons. In this case venison at cost was the cheapest. Due to reindeer breeding, other agrarian branches developed. Now in the Magadan Region, local venison is not sold at all.

The foreman of the third brigade of the Irbychan state farm, Mikhail Maktakov, is counting the herd. Deer, he says, often scatter in search of food. The shepherds sometimes look for the breakaway hundred or two for weeks. There are about a thousand deer in the third brigade. At the same time, the herd remains at approximately the same level. Reindeer breeders complain: wolves attack the deer. Wolves are the main problem of all reindeer herding brigades in Kolyma. According to official figures, they eat up to four thousand deer per year.

"We do not have weapons, it needs to be registered in the village, and before it hundreds of kilometers. I'm chasing wolves and that's all. They have been following us since spring, "says the foreman Mikhail Maktakov.

But the main reason for "shortage" is not wolves. According to Kolyma officials, reindeer herders themselves are not interested in effective management of the economy. To finance the reindeer brigades from the federal and regional budgets this year, more than 23 million rubles was allocated, this amount is calculated for the maintenance of 23 thousand deer. But when the herd was recounted for the first time, it turned out that the real population is about ten thousand. It turns out, the farm staff for several years engaged in postscript. Those do not agree, they say, it is impossible to calculate the number of livestock. Deer in search of food can fend off the herd in hundreds, and it takes months to find them. However, the authorities decided: despite the fact that it is not easy to organize a census, brigades work hundreds of kilometers from settlements and can be reached by helicopter only - it will be conducted annually.

"A program was adopted on the material support of the reindeer herders' interest in the results of their activities. The conversation is about transforming it from simply a branch of traditional living into a profitable one. So that not only children in the North Even district can eat meat in the kindergarten and school, but also that the venison finally appears on the shelves in the Kolyma and Magadan districts, "says Igor Dontsov, a deputy of the Magadan Oblast Duma.

In addition, the region intends to actively address the problems of reindeer herders. Until the end of the year they will shoot wolves. Brigades collect information on what shepherds specifically need. The reindeer herders complain about the lack of technical equipment: not even satellite phones, not enough snowmobiles, weapons. At the same time, several target programs are being implemented at once in Kolyma supporting the indigenous peoples of the North, and in particular the reindeer brigades. In this situation, it turns out that spending money does not go to those needs that shepherds talk about.

“In recent years, the herders raised wages, they were for a long time very beggarly. Food delivered to them. Of course, all this is not enough, but gradually we will understand all the problems and solve them, ”they say in the administration of the North-Even region.

Authorities in the Severo-Evenk region of the Kolyma state that they plan to make good money in breeding deer in the future. By paying only the antlers (reindeer horns) to pharmaceutical enterprises, you can replenish the budget of both the district and reindeer husbandry. But while local venison is not even on the shelves of the district center - Evensk. The last slaughter in the brigades was in March 2014 and that one was only for the boarding school of the district. Meanwhile, a few years ago, a hundred breeding deer from Yakutia were brought here, spending three and a half million rubles.

In the North-Evensk region there are good climatic conditions for the development of reindeer herding - boundless tundra with a huge amount of moss. The main task now is not only to save the herd, but also to increase it significantly. This is possible only with a serious economic approach. For several years in Kolyma they hope to ensure that the local venison still appears on the shelves of the region.


The Northern-Evensky municipal enterprise “Irbychan”, the tribal community “Mahayang”, the 2 peasant farms “Khanchalan”, “Darpis” ​​and 3, the tribal communities of the Srednekansky district, are engaged in reindeer farming in Kolyma The main deer population, about 90%, is located in the North-Even region. The share of indigenous peoples of the North in the total population of the region is 65%. Reindeer crowns the coat of arms of Magadan and symbolizes the importance of reindeer herding for the development and establishment of the territory. 

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