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To the Far East - for the land?
Residents of the Khabarovsk Territory can already apply free hectares
In the Khabarovsk Territory a new law has come into force that will allow the residents of the region to receive free of charge the Far Eastern Hectares promised recently by the Ministry of Regional Development, without waiting for the adoption of a federal law.
The Law of Khabarovsky Krai № 104 from 29.07.2015 "On the regulation of land relations in the Khabarovsk Territory" to some extent duplicates the document currently undergoing public discussion on the federal portal of draft normative and legal acts, "On the features of granting land plots in the Far Eastern Federal District."
According to the regional law, land plots will be provided to residents of the Khabarovsk Territory for free use for a period of 5 years. During this time the site should be used for personal subsidiary farming, individual housing construction, for horticulture or production of agricultural products. Five years later - provided that the land was used for its intended purpose - it can be (also free of charge) to get into the property and then dispose of it at its discretion, including selling.
As the head of the department for regulation of land relations of the Ministry of Investment and Land and Property Policy of the Khabarovsk Territory, Andrei Primak, told EastRussia, the law No.104 has, among other things, the goal of providing additional opportunities for large families in obtaining land plots. In addition, the draft federal law only extends the provision of land, in particular for individual housing construction, and facilitates the procedures for such provision.
- Without the adoption of the regional law that established the territory of the provision of sites, the new federal law will not work, - said Andrei Primak. - In addition, the obligation of the RF subject to adopt such a law is specified in the Land Code.
According to the head of the department for regulating land relations, regional law defined 17 municipal districts of the province, in which land is granted to citizens for free use for a period of not more than six years to maintain a personal subsidiary farm or to carry out a peasant (farming) economy.
However, according to Minvostokrazvitiya, the regional law is narrower than the draft law developed jointly with the Ministry of Economic Development. As Deputy Director of the Department of Territorial and Social and Economic Development of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East Alexander Krutikov told EastRussia, according to the regional law, it is possible to obtain land plots in four cases.
The first - for the conduct of the peasant farmer and personal subsidiary farming. In this case we are talking only about the local residents who have a permanent registration in the territory of this municipality.
The second case in which it is possible to obtain land - if it is planned for individual housing construction and maintenance of a personal subsidiary farm. For this it is necessary to live in a municipal formation and work on its territory in the specialty approved in the regional law. There are several such specialties: social work, agronomy, veterinary science, zootechny, as well as specialties in the areas of "health care" and "education and pedagogy".
In two of these cases, the land plot is provided for free use for up to 6 years and at the end of this period free of charge.
The third case concerns certain categories of citizens established by the regional law. These are socially important categories, for example, veterans of the Great Patriotic War, the disabled. They are given land immediately.
The fourth case is intended to stimulate business. A land plot can be granted to legal entities without holding a tender for a lease by decision of the highest regional official (governor) for the construction of social, cultural and domestic facilities.
In all these cases, the area of the land plot is also limited by the current town planning regulations of each municipality. For example, for personal purposes - a personal farm, individual construction - a citizen can obtain a land plot from 6 to 25 acres. As noted by Alexander Krutikov, the Ministry of Territorial Development of the Russian Federation, when developing the mechanism of the "Far Eastern hectare", considered these norms to be limited and unattractive for the mass development of land plots.
It is assumed that the new law is aimed at developing agriculture in the province and attracting the population to the countryside. However, additional measures to support farmers in the province are not yet provided:
"At the federal level, options are being developed, but there are no concrete measures yet," Roman Isayev, the referent of the department for control of delegated powers of the Department of Territorial and Social and Economic Development of Minskostokvitiya, said. - Currently, the general programs of the regional Ministry of Agriculture for the support of agricultural producers are working - preferential loans for the purchase of planting material, the opportunity to take equipment in leasing. When there is a federal law - you can talk about something.
The movement has begun!
According to the Ministry of the Russian Federation for the Development of the Far East, the program to provide "Far Eastern hectares" will help attract residents from other regions of Russia. So, recently the head of the ministry, Alexander Galushka, said that on condition of receiving land in the Far East, 30 million Russians are ready to move.
"Providing land is only one of the tools," says Nina Polichka, an expert at the Competition Development Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development. - Earlier, in tsarist times, the Far East drove behind the earth, then - after the "long ruble", but with time the incentives change, and we need to look for other motives.
According to the expert, today people move to other regions not for the land, but for the quality of life.
- Hectares, which will provide in the Far East, do not work for those who live here, and I do not know how they will work for others. Even the suburban six hundred square meters on our 90% are now empty, - said Nina Policka. - We will not get the influx of population in the region until we stop the outflow from here.
By the way, according to the Federal Migration Service of Russia for the Khabarovsk Territory, statistics on migration in the region is as follows: in 2013, 12072 people arrived in the province, 16152 people left. In 2014 year arrived in the region there were already less - 11204 people, who left, on the contrary, more - 17918 people. In 2015 same year, only seven months in other regions of Russia moved 15419 people.
"The demographic situation, the consequences of which we observe today, has been forming for many decades," said Professor Leonid Blyakher, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies of the Pacific State University, EastRussia. - I think that the panacea, which can solve the problem at once, simply does not exist. But every successful project realized here will gradually change the situation, and it is quite possible that in a couple of decades the situation will change: people will go here, and not from here.
According to the professor, over the past decade and a half, a gigantic stratum of clerks of various levels has developed in Russian society, and in the near future they can "find themselves on the street."
- And here it is extremely important to have spaces where all of them could move. If these spaces do not exist, then a social explosion with unpredictable consequences will be almost inevitable, - Leonid Blyakher is convinced.
For some, the Far Eastern hectare can be such a survival space, and if several conditions are met, after a few years, the region can begin to feed itself:
- If it will be at least tens of thousands of people, if these people are allowed to work quietly, they will provide at least roads and preferential energy tariffs and fodder. Moreover, on the basis of these small productions, and a hectare is very little, with the help of cooperation there can be trade networks and processing industries with new jobs. It is clear that there is a lot of "if" here: if the repressive apparatus habitually does not eat new producers, if the allocation of land does not "swoon" at the municipal or regional levels. If the land will be allocated where there is a minimum infrastructure and access to markets, if people have not lost the passion to feed themselves and loved ones. But if the land is not allocated, then even "if" does not arise.
This opinion is agreed by the director of the Institute of the Far-Eastern Research Institute of the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, Doctor of Economics, Professor Vadim Zausaev
- There are no serious studies on this issue, but I believe that any movement in this direction is correct. The only way out is to find out, by trial and error, how much the provision of land will help attract residents of other regions of Russia to the Far East.
Of course, as the economist observes, it is not enough to assume that “everyone will rush” to take the land: it is not enough for gaining a profit per hectare, besides, “part of the population has forgotten how to work on the land.”
- In three or four years, it will be clear whether this program gives results. But in any case, the main thing is that the movement began.
As for the accessibility of lands mentioned by Leonid Blyakher, which is already possible to receive for gratuitous use, while there are certain difficulties with this. According to the information of the Head of the Department for Regulation of Land Relations of the Ministry of Investment and Land and Property Policy of the Khabarovsk Territory, Andrey Primak, at present in the territory of the region about 25 000 ha (land from 2 ha to 8000 ha) in 15 municipal areas of land Agricultural purpose and rural settlements:
"Basically, these are lands that belonged to collective and state farms before and were used to grow vegetables, livestock, and haymaking. They are located at a certain distance from the settlements and our Russian field roads lead them. Electricity and gas there, of course, are not summed up, since then they were not needed.
There is no free land around Khabarovsk, said Andrei Primak. In any case, the draft federal law on the provision of land is provided for a distance no closer than 20 km from the city. However, for example, in 3-4 km east of Elban village there is an array of agricultural land with an area of 8 thousand hectares: a family of 3-4 people (and one hectare is allocated for each family member who reached 18 years) can take 20 acres in the village , Put a house on it and conduct agricultural production on several hectares.
As the head of the department for regulating land relations notes, the regional authorities have only organized the process of identifying such lands and accumulating information on the edge, the municipal land units (settlements) of the region pick the free land plots themselves, as only they have the right to dispose of land on their territory.