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The crisis is a crisis, but in the Far East, it seems, they think about it in the last place - while there are federal funding projects grow one by one like mushrooms

At the same time, the "center" does not forget about the already existing ones - one of the largest construction sites of the Amur Region (in addition to the "Vostochny" space center) - the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP - is on the turn. In mid-March, there already flooded the foundation pit, in which the main structures of the station were built. Within a few days Bureia will be closed and the water of the river will flow through the spillways.

Talking about the Amur hydroelectric power station is a more than fascinating activity. Moreover, our interlocutor is one of the most charismatic and advanced specialists of RusHydro in terms of communication with the media (private opinions of employees of federal publications - author's note) - Deputy General Director of PJSC "RusHydro" - "Bureyskaya HPP" "Vladimir Gorshenin .

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- Vladimir Egorovich, what role does the Amur Region play in generating electricity in the Far East?

- In the Far East, all the generation works either on gas or on coal. As a rule, this raw material is imported, is quite expensive and harms the environment - greenhouse carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, other combustion products are thrown out. And the only powerful enough structure in the development of clean electricity is hydropower.

Two already operating Amur stations - Zeya and Bureiskaya - are in the Amur region, another one under construction - Nizhne-Bureiskaya too.

Hydropower is one of the most manoeuvrable types of electricity produced by man, absolutely clean from the ecological point of view, and at the same time one of the few renewable (besides the energy of the sun, wind and sea tides - author's comment). That cycle of water in nature that exists provides humanity with a guaranteed and almost eternal source of potential energy.

- How much does the Amur region supply annually with available stations?

- The installed capacity of the Zeiskaya HPP is 1,3 thousand MW, Bureyskaya - 2,1 thousand MW., Plus Nizhne-Bureyskaya - 320 MW. That is, after a total commissioning of the Nizhne-Bureiskaya station, we will reach 4 GW. on working out. It is approximately 20-25% From the Far East mine.

Other stations are still in Kolyma, in the west of Yakutia and on Taimyr. Some of them are private. But in the united energy system of the FEFD only Amur stations operate.

- What are the Amur station's annual transfers as taxes?

- С 2-x Already operating stations - more 3-x Billion rubles in budgets of all levels. Lower Bureiskaya will give more than a billion, of them order 700-t Million to the budget of the Amur region.

- How many people are involved in servicing Amur hydroelectric stations?

- At Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP, the operating personnel will be about By the age of 50 person. Another 150 people will be involved in maintaining the station infrastructure.

More 300-t People are busy at Bureiskaya and about 200-t - On the Zeya. And we still do not take into account people who are engaged in related services: transportation, cleaning and the like - I think this number can be safely, at least, doubled. All of them are qualified and highly paid specialists.

How much are the training programs for schoolchildren and students relevant to power engineers? (In Zeya in September of last year the first profile energy class for 9 graders, And in the Amur State University for several decades running the energy department - approx. Author)

- Very relevant. We are already ready to open an energy class in Novobureisky and as you rightly said, we maintain close relations with the AmU for a long time: the energy department there is the largest in the university. As for students, those who are currently studying will be guaranteed to be provided with work, because in 90-e there was a break in the age indicators for power engineers: we have either young people up to By the age of 35 Years, or people of pre-retirement age. And this gap is important to fill very smoothly - a young specialist who left the university, immediately find a job is extremely difficult, as well as an internship. For this reason, we apply a complex scheme of combining study and practice, starting with the school bench.

And we can already speak about guarantees for these students in terms of employment, if only because the region is now developing exponentially.

- But the limit on personnel, even when building new stations is still limited ...

- Think broadly. Energy is also involved not only in the hydropower plant. In addition to hydro and heat power engineering, in the Amur region, many raw materials processing enterprises are now appearing, where various energy resources are used - here, young people with "energy education" will be in demand more than ever: a gas processing plant, a gas chemical plant, the Siberia Power pipeline, an oil pipeline, an oil pumping station, the Transbaikalian the railway, BAM-2, which provides for electrification ... For the Far East, this is a very promising profession.

- And how many people do you need to cover the personnel and energy needs in these areas?

- About 100 people per year should smoothly replace those who retire. But this statistics is floating - many after all remain working after retirement.

- Is there any age when the energy specialist needs to be changed?

- It does not depend on the physiological state, but on a person's ability to learn - if the energy worker keeps up with the times and has time to learn all the modern technologies (management process, operational duty, generation) - he continues to work. In this case, these are people of very high qualification.

- Speaking about the Nizhne-Bureyskaya station - what are its characteristics of the station, when they will heat the bed and where will the energy go?

- Now we are approaching the final stage of construction of the station. Installation in progress 2-x aggregates.

At 85% concrete work was done - only a small amount of technological work remained. But that massive part, which must pass the water - is already ready. In mid-March we flooded the pit, everything went according to plan. This gave us the opportunity to outline the future prospects - in the coming days we will close the riverbed, after which the Bureya waters will be sent to a concrete structure and for many long years it will be their way: either through hydrounits or through spillways.

The first hydraulic unit is scheduled to start in the 4 quarter 2016 th, the reservoir will be filled in parallel, and in 2017-m year the station will reach full capacity - 320 MW.

Electricity from here will flow to oil and gas facilities, ESPO-2 facilities, the Vostochny cosmodrome, and possibly also to our neighbors in China.

- Not so long ago, employees of RusHydro said that the Nizhne-Bureyskaya station would not stop. Is it possible to sound the prospects of Amur hydropower and the place where new hydropower stations will appear?

- The GOELRO-2 plan (named so by analogy with the State Electrification Plan of Russia, developed as early as the beginning of the twentieth century - author’s note), which included the program for the development of the power industry in Russia, implied the construction of hydroelectric power plants on the r. Selemdzh, the counter-regulator of the Zeya hydroelectric station - the Lower-Zeya station, and 2-x stations on the rivers Gilyuy and Niemann. So now we can talk about 4-x Perspective stations for Priamurye.

- And they will all be built?

- RusHydro, on behalf of the president, is working on the prospects for the construction of these stations. Some decisions can be made after the completion of the feasibility study. It is very important to understand the economic efficiency of projects and the sources of their financing.

- And why does the Far East have such a large amount of electricity? Infrastructure and industry here at a very basic level. Where to put the surplus?

- First of all, these stations are considered as a means of combating floods. And the development of additional volumes of electricity will allow the development of both new enterprises and infrastructure. Recall that in Soviet times, large hydropower plants have always been drivers for the development of territories. In addition, the export of electricity is potentially possible.

- What will happen if the HPP is built, and there are no consumers for its product (energy)?

- Replacing the energy that is generated by thermal generation. With each hydropower plant built and dispatchers feel more confident - the system becomes more maneuverable. Start the heat station and stop it much longer, while running the units of any hydroelectric power station and starting to generate energy is a matter of a few minutes.

Therefore, the most rational in this case we see it is the construction of new hydroelectric stations. Another of the most important aspects in this matter is the anti-flood significance. After all, the Far East is the most vulnerable to flooding - remember 2013-th year.

"Then the hydroelectric station held back the pressure ... at least, as it was said ..."

- You see, all calculations and forecasts for floods, even the most daring, as shown 2013-th, Were only approximate. This flood was uncharacteristic of the Amur region, even though the region has already had 2 HPS for a long time and for decades they have smoothed flood peaks.

For example, no 2013-m In the Bureisky district was not affected, as we reacted very promptly to the ups and in advance the idling worked out the water through the spillways, thus minimizing the impact of the river on the villages downstream.

The construction of hydropower stations is also a matter of additional control over the run-off of rivers, and, accordingly, the improvement of the safety of the population.

- What if there were no Amur hydroelectric stations?

- AT 2013-m year, our stations reduced the destructive power of the flood on 34-35% - it is difficult to calculate more accurately, but I can say that the Jewish autonomy and the Khabarovsk Territory would have been worse than ever: the "accumulative flood" in the Amur region came to them - not only Zeya and Bureya, but also other large rivers flowed into it. Because Komsomolsk received its share in September, when the Amur region has almost returned to normal. And, imagine, there would not be our HPPs: Zeya + Bureya + other rivers fill the Amur at once with a length of more than 2-x thousands of kilometers, and all this rushes to the northeast ...

- What is the cost of building the station and the time of its payback?

- Presumably, the payback time is about By the age of 13 Years - a fairly long period for a commercial project. The cost is of the order 40 billion rubles. And this we are talking only about the Nizhne-Bureyskaya station, which is considered average. If you build a station at the Zeyskaya or Bureyskaya level, the amount will be under 200 billion - all of them were built in the Soviet period and today the structure of the price formation has changed dramatically. Today, the productivity of labor and equipment is increasing every year, but this is done at the expense of new technologies that are not cheap at all.

At the same time, on average, if we translate into global trends and into a dollar equivalent, the construction of a hydropower plant in Russia is very attractive.

- And what is the cost of one hydroelectric unit?

- We at the start of the project 4 hydroelectric unit cost more 3-x billion rubles. During the auction, we managed to significantly reduce this amount, because there was a lot of competition - 7 companies emerged: French, German, Chinese, which were ready to supply these units. But our Russian company Power Machines won, which supplies and installs equipment.

I would not call the exact cost of one product, but I would like to note once again that at our relatively cheap (according to world level) Chinese turbines, our domestic products look very attractive: both in terms of cost and reliability.

I believe that we did the right thing, that we were not led by the cheapness of foreign equipment and remained faithful to the long-term cooperation with this Russian manufacturer.

- Why at a cheap price of a kilowatt for China (about 2,70 ruble - author's comment), the inhabitants of Priamurye pay 3,37 rubles for it?

- After generation from the station, electricity is sold on the wholesale market and goes to China at a price 2 times higher than on the Russian market. I am talking about wholesale. Retail (consumers) energy comes through network companies, which bear their costs for the construction, maintenance and operation of their networks. So the final price is born.

- The pluses of HPP talked about, and as for harm? Do the hydropower stations change the climate?

- The reservoir may affect the territory maximum in 1,5-2 km. All the rest - the influence of the non-freezing spot of the river - if earlier Bureya was ice-bound from November to May, now it practically does not freeze. Increased humidity and temperature increase by 1-2 Degrees only positively influences plant quality - we even had species that did not exist here - for example, kishmish, which, among other things, began to bear fruit well.

If we talk about a more large-scale influence, we need the total area of ​​the Amur River and divide the total Amur reservoirs into a total area, it will be less than one percent. It's like taking a teaspoon with water, bringing it into the apartment and talking about the effect on humidity in the room.
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