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The crisis is a crisis, but in the Far East, it seems, they think about it in the last place - while there are federal funding projects grow one by one like mushrooms
At the same time, the "center" does not forget about the existing ones - the next step is the commissioning of one of the largest construction projects in the Amur region (in addition to the "Vostochny" cosmodrome) - the Nizhne-Bureyskaya hydroelectric power station. In mid-March, a pit was already flooded, in which the main structures of the station were being built. In a few days Bureya will be shut off and the river water will go through the spillways.
Talking about the Amur hydroelectric power plants is more than exciting. Moreover, our interlocutor is one of the most charismatic and advanced specialists of RusHydro in terms of communication with the media (private opinions of employees of federal publications - author's note) - Deputy General Director of PJSC RusHydro - Bureyskaya HPP "Vladimir Gorshenin ...
- In the Far East, all generation works either on gas or coal. As a rule, these raw materials are imported, they are quite expensive and are harmful to the environment - greenhouse carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and other combustion products are emitted. And the only sufficiently powerful structure in the generation of environmentally friendly electricity is hydropower.
Two already operating Amur stations - Zeyskaya and Bureyskaya - are located in the Amur Region, another one under construction - Nizhne-Bureyskaya too.
Hydropower is one of the most manoeuvrable types of electricity generated by humans, absolutely clean from the point of view of ecology and, moreover, one of the few renewable ones (besides the energy of the sun, wind and sea tides - author's note). The existing water cycle provides humanity with a guaranteed and almost eternal source of potential energy.
- How much does the Amur region supply annually with available stations?
- The installed capacity of the Zeyskaya HPP is 1,3 thousand MW, Bureyskaya - 2,1 thousand MW, plus Nizhne-Bureyskaya - 320 MW. That is, in total, after the commissioning of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya station, we will reach 4 GW. for development. It is approximately
There are other stations in Kolyma, in the west of Yakutia and in Taimyr. Some of them are private. But only the Amur stations operate in the unified energy system of the Far Eastern Federal District.
- What amounts do Amur stations transfer annually as taxes?
- How many people are employed in servicing the Amur hydroelectric power stations?
- At the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP, the operating personnel will be about
To what extent are educational programs for schoolchildren and students relevant for power engineers? (in Zeya in September last year, the first profile energy class was launched for
- Very relevant. We are already ready to open an energy class in Novobureisky, and as you rightly said, we have been maintaining close relations with the AmSU for a long time: the energy department there is the largest in the university. As for students, those who study today will be guaranteed to be provided with jobs, because in
And we can already talk about guarantees for these students in terms of employment, if only because the area is now developing exponentially.
- But the personnel limit is still limited even during the construction of new stations ...
- Think wider. Power engineers are involved not only at hydroelectric power plants. In addition to hydro and thermal power, many processing enterprises are now emerging in the Amur Region, where various energy resources are used - here young people with "energy education" will be in demand more than ever: this is a gas processing plant, a gas chemical plant, the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, an oil pipeline, an oil pumping station, Zabaikalskaya railway, BAM-2, where electrification is envisaged ... This is a very promising profession for the Far East.
- How many people do you need to cover the personnel and energy needs in these areas?
- About 100 people a year should smoothly replace those who retire. But this statistics is floating - many people remain to work even after retirement.
- Is there any age when an energy specialist needs to be changed?
- It depends not on the physiological state, but on the person's ability to learn - if the power engineer keeps pace with the times and manages to learn all modern technologies (the process of management, operational duty, generation), he continues to work. In this case, these are people of very high qualifications.
- Speaking about the Nizhne-Bureiskaya station - what are its characteristics of the station, when will the bed be flooded and where will the energy go?
- Now we are approaching the final stage of construction of the station. Installation in progress
Concrete work has been completed at 85% - only a small amount of technological work remains. But that massive part, which should allow water to pass through, is already ready. In mid-March, we flooded the foundation pit, everything went according to plan. This gave us the opportunity to outline future prospects - in the coming days we will block the river bed, after which the waters of the Bureya will be directed into the concrete structure and for many, many years this will be their way: either through hydraulic units or through spillways.
The launch of the first hydroelectric unit is scheduled for the 4th quarter
Electricity from here will go to oil and gas facilities, ESPO-2 facilities, Vostochny cosmodrome, and, possibly, will be sold to our neighbors, China.
- Not so long ago, the staff of RusHydro announced that business would not stop at the Nizhne-Bureyskaya station. Is it possible to voice the prospects of the Amur hydropower industry and the places where new hydroelectric power plants will appear?
- The GOELRO-2 plan (so named by analogy with the State Plan for the Electrification of Russia, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century - author's note), in the framework of which the program for the development of Russia's energy sector was written, meant the construction of a hydroelectric power station on the river. Selemdzha, counter-regulator of the Zeyskaya HPP - Nizhne-Zeya station, and also
- And all of them will be built?
- RusHydro, on behalf of the President, is studying the prospects for the construction of these stations. It will be possible to talk about some decisions after the completion of the feasibility study. It is very important to understand the economic efficiency of projects and the sources of their financing.
- Why does the Far East need such a large amount of electricity? The infrastructure and industry are very basic here. What to do with the excess?
- First of all, these stations are considered as a means of flood control. And the generation of additional volumes of electricity will enable the development of both new enterprises and infrastructure. Let's remember that in Soviet times, large hydroelectric power plants were always drivers for the development of territories. In addition, the export of electricity is potentially possible.
- What will happen if a hydroelectric power station is built, and there are no consumers for its product (energy)?
- Replacement of the energy that is generated by thermal generation. With each constructed hydroelectric power station, power engineers and dispatchers feel more confident - the system becomes more maneuverable. Launching a thermal power plant and shutting it down for much longer, while starting up the units of any hydroelectric power station and starting to generate energy is a matter of a few minutes.
Therefore, the most rational in this case is the construction of new hydroelectric power stations. Another of the most important aspects in this matter is the flood control value. After all, it is the Far East that is most susceptible to flooding - remember
"Then the hydroelectric station held back the pressure ... at least, as it was said ..."
- You see, all calculations and forecasts for floods, even the most daring, as shown
For example, no locality in
The construction of hydroelectric power plants is also a matter of additional control over river flow, and, accordingly, increasing the safety of the population.
- And if there were no Amur hydroelectric power plants?
- What is the cost of building the station and the time of its recoupment?
- Presumably, the payback time is about
At the same time, on average, if we translate into global trends and in dollar terms, the construction of hydroelectric power plants in Russia is very attractive.
- What is the cost of one hydraulic unit?
- At the start of the project, 4 hydraulic units cost more than
I would not name the exact cost of one product, but I will note once again that at the level of relatively cheap (by world measures) Chinese turbines, our domestic products look very attractive: both in terms of cost and reliability.
I believe that we did the right thing, that we did not fall for the cheapness of foreign technology and remained faithful to the long-term cooperation with this Russian manufacturer.
- Why, given the penny cost of a kilowatt for China (about 2,70 rubles - author's note), do residents of the Amur Region pay 3,37 rubles for it?
- After being generated from the station, electricity is sold on the wholesale market and goes to China at a price 2 times higher than on the Russian market. I'm talking about wholesale. At retail (to consumers), energy comes through network companies, which bear their costs for the construction, maintenance and operation of their networks. This is how the final price is born.
- We talked about the advantages of the hydroelectric power station, but what about the harm? Do hydroelectric power plants change the climate?
- The reservoir can affect the territory for a maximum of
If we talk about a larger-scale influence, it is necessary to divide the total area of the Amur region by the total area of all Amur reservoirs, it will turn out to be less than one percent. It's like taking a teaspoon of water, bringing it into an apartment and talking about the effect on indoor humidity.