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Million hectares of gray
How and why did the Kuriles fall into the "impossible" zone of the "Far Eastern Hectare" program
Since the end of February, the territory of the Kuril Islands unexpectedly turned out to be closed by the "gray zone" in the Federal Information System (FIS) for the issuance of a free "Far Eastern hectare" - it was impossible to apply for the use of a piece of land on a ridge. Why strategically important islands, for the development of which Russia finances a multibillion-dollar target program, were excluded from the operation of one of the mechanisms for the development of the Far East, EastRussia was considering.
22 February, as already Reported EastRussia, In FIS Надальнийвосток.рф The territory of the Kuril Islands, occupying about 10,5 thousand square meters. Km (or slightly more than 1 million hectares) unexpectedly found itself in the "gray zone" of providing a free "Far Eastern hectare". So on the cadastral map the zone "is impossible" is designated, it is impossible to issue an application for the issue of land in which it is prohibited. Grounds for closing the territories from registration of "hectares" on them are determined by the legislation. They are logical: citizens are not given out to use the land in specially protected natural areas, in protective forests, over subsoil plots containing minerals, at sites occupied by the Ministry of Defense objects.
But by the end of February, applications for the allocation of sites under the "Far Eastern hectare" program in the Kuril Islands were accepted by the system, and the Russians managed to submit a little more than 700 of such requests.
On the whole of the Sakhalin Oblast, this would seem to be little - according to the data of the Ministry of Regional Development, more than 8,6 thousand applications have been submitted across the region. In the department in response to the request of EastRussia about the closure of the issuance of "hectare" the Kuriles specified that only 8% of the total number of Sakhalin applications were submitted to the islands, and as many as 40 thousand sq. M still remain available for obtaining free land throughout Sakhalin. km of land.
Kuril Islands, we recall, is 10,5 thousand square meters. Km.
But the severity of the situation gives not only this, but also two more nuances.
Firstly, the population of the Kuril Islands, according to Rosstat, for 1 January 2016 year - this is only 19169 people. The population of the Kurile urban district (centered in the city of Kurilsk) was 5934 person, North Kuril - 2501 person, South Kurile - 10734 person. Let us remember these figures.
Secondly, according to the data at the beginning of March, the Kuril Islands enjoyed high popularity among applicants from other regions of the Russian Federation who wished to take plots on Sakhalin. Of the applications received at that time from other regions of 750 for Sakhalin "hectares," almost a third, 276 statements, fell on the land of the South Kurile urban district - the islands of Kunashir and Shikotan.
It turns out that almost three hundred residents of other subjects of the Russian Federation wanted to develop the Kuril land, and about 400 residents of Sakhalin wanted to take “hectares” in their homeland in order to develop, consolidate and stay. Applications for the “Far Eastern hectares” on the islands, as it is easy to count, were filed by people in an amount equivalent to 6,5% of the resident population of the South Kuril region and 3,5% of the population of all Kurils.
And how many of them there would be, no one will know yet.
At least until the moment that the Kuriles are opened for issuing a hectare again.
Billions for tens of thousands
It is noteworthy that Russia has been developing the infrastructure of the Kuril Islands for several decades through the corresponding federal target program. The current version of FTP is calculated up to 2025 year, the volume of investments on it - 69,6 billion rubles. The program provides funding for the construction of ships and helicopters to ensure communication with the Kuriles, social and energy infrastructure, communications, roads and modern housing. In fact, the FTP should double the local economy: it is assumed that the volume of tax collections of municipal budgets in the Kuril Islands will grow from 990 million rubles. In 2016 year to 1,8 billion rubles. in 2025.
But the main thing is that the authorities are planning, people should be drawn to the Kurils in the coming years. In 1989 year on the islands of the ridge lived the maximum for their history population - 29,5 thousand people. The implementation of the FTP of the development of the Kurils should increase the number of the permanent population by 2025 to 24390 - by 27% from the level of the previous year.
700 applicants for the Kuril "hectares" could fulfill part of this task and without state billions. But the fate of their applications is in question.
It should be noted that on the way to the development of the Kurils, there is only one big problem: Japan does not recognize the sovereignty of Russia over the four southern islands of the ridge - Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan and Habomai with a total area of 5,1 thousand square meters. Km. Diplomatic subtleties of the justifications of the rights of Russia and Japan to these lands go to the treatise 1855 years and subsequent wars. But it is because of the unsettled status of the islands that many of them are still - the border zone with increased control at the entrance and exit, and the Ministry of Defense only increases its presence in the Kuriles.
In 2017, the military department promised to deploy a whole division on the islands in addition to the already existing units armed with coastal missile systems "Bastion" and "Ball" - they are capable of repelling an attack by ship and carrier-based strike groups. However, who and why attack the Kuriles, is not yet very clear. But the islands remain limitedly accessible to ordinary Russians - planes and maritime vessels fly there, but air transport routes have to be subsidized from the regional budget, and the steamships on the line are so outdated that the Sakhalin authorities decided to order new ones in the Khabarovsk Territory.
It is not yet clear how to explain what is happening to the "Far Eastern hectare" in the Kuriles. "As for the Kuril Islands, we will have to deal with the territories of the Ministry of Defense, they are forbidden territories, but otherwise we have no restrictions," Deputy Prime Minister Yury Trutnev said at the end of February during his visit to Sakhalin. And the Sakhalin governor Oleg Kozhemyako recognized: "people have a desire to be built" in the Kuriles. "We are now considering these applications with the Ministry of Defense so that the selected plots do not violate their borders, some of the selected sites will have to be corrected," said the head of the region.
Uncertainty leading to exclusivity
In East Indies explained EastRussia, that the zone of the Kuril Islands, in which the sites will not be provided, is still being specified. In particular, the issue of opening the territory of 13 settlements of the Kuriles for issuing "hectare" is being considered. Each application submitted to the Kuril Islands is under control, and after determining the exact zone of the ban will be considered separately, assure the ministry.
In the Department of Information Policy of the Governor's Office and the Government of the Sakhalin Oblast, EastRussia responded that "now it is not possible to provide comments of the regional authorities on the issues mentioned." And in the administration of the South Kurile district, EastRussia assured that "there is no threat to deterioration of activities on registered and registered hectares, as there is no reason for a drop in interest in these land plots."
At the Ministry of Defense, EastRussia received a request, but no comments on it yet.
Some experts interviewed by EastRussia rather justify the authorities that closed the Kuriles from issuing "Far Eastern Hectares". "Kuriles are a promising area for the development of tourism, but the provision of lands on the islands is complicated by geopolitical features and territorial disputes with Japan. Therefore, the issue of granting or not granting land to each particular region is a difficult decision. It should be taken by the organizers of the program taking into account all possible risks, "said Tatyana Cheremna, head of the Center for Effective Territorial Development.
"Whatever reason there is at the root of the fall of the Kurils from the project, I do not see any great cause for concern: there are very few options to lead a successful agricultural business. I will say even more, losing the opportunity to get a hectare on the Kuriles, people only benefit - thereby fully gaining the opportunity to get "hectare" in other places where it is much more profitable to deal with them, "said Vasily Koltashov, head of the Center for Economic Studies of the Institute of Globalization and Social Movements .
But Mikhail Krivopal, the head of the monitoring commission for the implementation of the Far East Hectar project of the public council for the Minsk region, stresses that it is necessary to inform the potential and current recipients of the hectare of possible and existing plans to change the status of the land that is allocated to a hectare, and even more so In the system - it is extremely important. "One should not allow speculation and the appearance of far-fetched and most often unreasonable reasons for refusing to provide land. Observance of the principles of openness and transparency in the course of the project implementation is very simple and, in my opinion, the most effective way to level and prevent possible discontent of the population, "he said.
And Vasily Koltashov adds: "Of course, there is no clear evidence of this, but in all this incident of the fall of the Kurile Islands from the implementation of the project" Far Eastern hectare "there is a sort of curtsey to Japan. By demonstrating that there is no development of the Kurils by Russia and only joint cooperation on their territory with Japan is being considered. Which, of course, is fundamentally wrong - Japan should, as expected, compete for conducting activities in the Kuril Islands. "
Be that as it may, against the backdrop of uncertainty, the applicants themselves cancel their requests for "Far Eastern hectares" in the Kuriles - on 10 March, the number of withdrawn applications for the South Kurilsk District was 103 from the incoming 601, the district administration reported. According to local authorities, people would like to engage in agriculture, housing, recreation and tourism in the Kuril Islands.
Will they get it, only time will show.