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Is "Innopolis" in the Far East?
Prospects for the creation of a scientific and technological cluster in Primorye studied EastRussia
The scientific and technological cluster, along with fish and shipbuilding, is considered to be relevant in Primorye. At first glance, he has all the prerequisites for successful development: the existence of a dozen academic institutions, several recognized scientific schools in the world, a federal university, a project of a science and technology center on. Russian, as well as the presence in the immediate vicinity of the potentially unlimited market of the ATR. But in order for everything to work out, the efforts of the three participants in the process should be combined: the administration of Primorye, federal authorities and the local scientific and educational community.
Lev Kolomitsindependent analyst
As noted in the Strategy for the Development of the Territory to 2030, Primorsky Krai takes a leading place in the structure of the scientific potential of the DFO: a quarter of research organizations and almost half (43%) of district scientists are concentrated here. At the same time, the share of organizations that implemented technological innovations in the total number of organizations in 2016 was less than 4%.
The reasons for this situation are shortage of personnel, low demand for scientific results, weak innovation activity of the industrial production sector. The lagging behind the innovation performance indicators is due to the "low intensity of costs for technological innovation" (0,4% in the total volume of shipped goods, works and services in Primorsky Krai in 2016 year at 2,5% on average in Russia), and a low share of innovative goods, works and services (0,5% in Primorye at 8,5% in Russia). This situation is associated with a decline in the economy of Primorsky Krai, the share of a number of high-tech industries, as well as a low demand for innovation from companies in the relevant sector.
In the Strategy, there is also a disproportion (as compared to all-Russian indicators) of the distribution of domestic expenditures on science: almost 80% of scientific expenditures in the region are directed to rational nature management and life sciences, whereas in Russia 60% of expenditures are transport, space, energy efficiency and ICT .
To change the situation, the Strategy suggests convergence of research and production activities of participants in the scientific and technical process, bringing the growth rates of research and development costs to the average Russian level, and systemic support for high-tech industries in Primorsky Krai.
In the course of achieving this goal, it is supposed to solve such tasks as "Development of technological entrepreneurship and innovation infrastructure", "Modernization and scaling of the activity of" anchor "enterprises, support for fast-growing high-tech small and medium-sized companies"; "Accelerated expansion of exports and development of international cooperation of innovation-active enterprises"; "Development of the system of training and advanced training of personnel", and "Formation and development of the cluster management system".
The core of the "compact and effective" scientific and technological complex should be "Innopolis" on the island of. Russian, created on the basis of the Far Eastern Federal University. The participants in the innovation cluster will include more than 40 manufacturing enterprises, scientific and educational organizations.
The strategy correctly defines the main reason for the weak development of the innovative segment in the province (which, however, is true for the whole of Russia): this is a low demand for high-tech development from domestic companies. In Primorye, it is explained by the fact that the large corporations present in the region (Gazprom, Rosneft, Rusagro and others), meet their innovation needs either at the expense of scientific units in the European part of the country, or through the import of ready-made technologies. A similar situation with manufacturing companies: for example, in the engineering industry, KnAAZ and Progress are integrated into vertical federal holdings, from where they receive everything they need.
It is also doubtful that local scientists will be ordered by some new technologies from the new Vostochny cosmodrome, where missiles are transported across the country via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Civil ship repair, potentially in demand of new developments, long ago (and, it seems, irretrievably) left the Far East for Korea and China. Local companies, by virtue of their specialization, do not demand innovation, because they do not need them: their business, built at the stage of extraction of raw materials under the scheme "caught (cut, dug up) - sold", leaves all processing and accompanying "high technology" foreign counterparties.
To get out of the vicious circle is supposed to be due to the innovation support for the development of "priority high and medium technological branches": the agro-industrial complex, the food industry, fishing, aquaculture, fish products, oil and gas chemistry, shipbuilding and water transport, which obviously should provide science with financing. The trajectories of the development of these industries with varying degrees of detail are described in the relevant sections of the Strategy, but their review is beyond the scope of this article.
To build a cluster, it is planned to create a regional fund to subsidize the introduction of scientific developments, build on. Russian technoparks and R&D centers, include scientific and technological organizations ("living laboratories") in the process of forming the urban environment, create a children's educational center similar to the Sochi "Sirius", introduce regional scientific organizations into NTI centers, and so on. The above set of measures requires careful analysis. In addition, questions arise about the methods for implementing the indicated steps and the filling of the listed structural units.
FEDERAL AUTHORITIES AND CLUSTER
Meanwhile, the designated innovation cluster project should be implemented within the framework of the encompassing megaproject of the "scientific and technological breakthrough", designated in the presidential decree of 7 May 2018 No. 204 "On national goals and strategic tasks of the development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024".
According to the document, in 2024, Russia should enter the top 5 countries in the areas determined by the priorities of scientific and technological development. A minimum of 15 scientific and educational centers of the world level should be established in the country on the basis of integration of universities and scientific organizations. In addition, an advanced research and development infrastructure should be created, 50% of the instrument base of scientific organizations updated, a network of international mathematical centers and genomic research centers established. There is no detailed description of these plans, but it is obvious that the cluster in Russian should become one of such scientific and educational centers.
The list of significant factors affecting the process of the "scientific and technological breakthrough" will be incomplete without mentioning such subjects as the development of a new strategy for scientific and technological development of Russia, the expansion of the sphere of influence of the National Technological Initiative (NTI), the beginning of the division of the Ministry of Education and Science into the Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Education inherent in such processes of hardware games). According to experts, in the sphere of science and higher education, one should expect the RAS status to decline to a sort of "club of scientists", further strengthening the scientific significance of universities, especially the participants in the "5-100" program (including FEFU). University science is entrusted with the functions of an integrator of scientific and technological breakthrough in the regions - from universities they are waiting for activity in building interaction with local business and local authorities.
At the DFO level, the communication of power and universities is ensured by the chairmanship of Plenipotentiary Representative Yury Trutnev to the FEFU supervisory board. But with careful consideration of programs for the development of the Far East, it turns out that they simply do not have tasks for the university, which, in theory, can produce exactly two things: specialists and innovative developments.
Neither the first nor the second product in its current form in the process of the development of the region is built in: new and modernizing enterprises of the Far East demand the cadres of working professions, rather than bachelors of philology and design. If they need innovations, they are not laboratory samples, but ready-made technological lines "in iron", preferably already tested in other industries. To connect the university to the local economy, it will be necessary to build a number of outfitting sites, gateways and interfaces. In this not yet projected system, the "innopolis" declared on Russian will be only one of the elements.
SCIENCE AND EDUCATION AND CLUSTER
To what extent seaside scientific and educational institutions, so poorly evaluated in the Strategy, can meet expectations and form a science and innovation cluster? The main players in this glade - local institutes FEB RAS and FEFU - interact with each other fairly tightly: the time of the establishment of the university coincided with the course for strengthening the university science, so the project was not only an educational component, but also a significant research component. As a result, there was a partial migration of researchers, heads and heads of institutes to the university. Partial - because most of them have not left their institutions and combine scientific status with academic ones, which allows them to use university resources in their university projects (for example, expensive equipment and labor in the form of students). It is difficult to say how effective this model is in terms of research productivity.
The scientific priorities of the Academy, as was noted in the Strategy, are determined by the scientific profile of FEB RAS: 16 from 10 institutions of the Primorsky Scientific Center work in the fields of biology, chemistry, geography and geology. This disproportion is due to the historical focus of Far Eastern science on the exploration of the potential for the development of the region's natural resources (forests, hydrobionts, minerals), and in general reflects the current situation in the Far Eastern economy, where the leading sectors are not space or transport, but fishing, logging, coal mining and gas.
These priorities are also projected on FEFU: the largest here is the School of Natural Sciences. Such directions, as important for Primorye, as transport, logistics, ICT in the structure of the university are not enough or not available at all. Recently established, in line with current trends, the School of Digital Economics has a virtual character.
FEFU's scientific activities are also limited by the fact that the University's facilities have not yet been deployed to the design level: three large universities, which had dozens of buildings throughout Vladivostok, were temporarily packed first of all for the rapid introduction of the second campus. Places for accommodation are not enough, therefore some of the equipment of FENU and FENU in working or mothballed condition is still in university buildings in the center of Vladivostok.
Whether FEFU is able to become the leader of the announced scientific and technological breakthrough in the Russian Far East is a big question. The process of replacing the old team with a new one, going to the university since the appointment of the rector Nikita Anisimova, is accompanied by massive layoffs of the "old people" and naturally causes dissatisfaction among employees and teachers, for whom the university and its colleges for decades have been the place of work and the cause of all life. In addition, the qualification of the new team causes serious problems for dismissed workers. In place of the established approaches to education and science inherited from FENU and FEP, new managers and "designers of the educational process" offer a set of attributes of the "innovative university", understood as a start-up factory: a technology park, a business incubator, a technology transfer center and the like.
Innovative approach to education was to demonstrate a recent case: one of the graduates of his startup was issued as a result of final exams - which, in general, contradicts the existing norms of the Ministry of Education and Science. Thus, in FEFU, as it may seem from the outside, attempts are being made to move from the model of the conveyor for the production of people with diplomas towards the goal-setting of the university stated in the charter, where it is designated not only as an institution for the socialization of youth, but also as a driver of scientific and technological development The Far East. " However, there are noticeable signs that this process is not thought out substantively and organizationally, which calls into question its success.
As for the Academy of Sciences, this structure, which has been perceived by few people in recent years as a springboard for a scientific and technological breakthrough, has been in the state of reform for several years, a way out of which it is not yet clear. It is expected that the directors of the institutes in the short term will be preoccupied not with participation in the "breakthrough", but with building relations with the new leadership of the FAO and the Ministry of Science. It is not necessary to expect a new powerful outcome of research workers from institutes to the university due to the strengthening of "integration", since most scientists who intend to use the FEFU for their purposes have already found a place in its structure, and setting ambitious scientific tasks by the university (with the exception of , perhaps, the School of Biomedicine) has not yet been produced.
WHAT TO DO IF THE CLUSTER APPLIED?
In conclusion, there are several theses about what should be done without fail to form a science and innovation cluster in Primorye.
Prepare a valid and well-considered application for the creation of a Far Eastern scientific and educational center based on FEFU. In addition, the university should enter the process of designing an innovation and technology center in the Russian, which is now engaged in the Ministry of Color.
To build "interfaces" of communication with local business, in addition to the Skolkovo office. So far, communities of start-ups and business angels in the province and the university with its innovation process infrastructure exist in parallel realities. A zone of common interests could be the long-discussed, but still not created, Center for Collective Use of Scientific and Technological Equipment, the need for which innovators definitely have.
To develop a new program of integration with FEB RAS, which takes into account not only the interests of the Academy, but also the tasks of the university. Which, in turn, should go beyond servicing the "conveyor of diplomas", working on the instructions of the Ministry of Education and Science, and take into account the interests of other stakeholders - parents of entrants, employers, executive authorities of the region.
To build a dialogue between the FEFU and the authorities of the city, the region and the district. Today, FEFU is brought out of the city and geographically, and mentally - beyond the urban and regional discourse. It seems reasonable to involve the university in technological initiatives, which are currently being discussed in the province: the creation of GIS, "Smart Vladivostok", "Digital Primorye."
To correct the scientific bias in the scientific and educational sphere due to the priority development of such areas as the development of new materials, robotics, information and communication technologies, programming and oriental studies.