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Permafrost gets status and budget
From the creation of the law "On the protection of permafrost" will win a large and visionary business
The development of such an unusual document as the federal law “On the protection and use of permafrost in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)” began in Yakutia. A working group to work with his project was created at the relevant working meeting, held in late October in the relevant committee of the State Assembly of Il Tumen on land relations, natural resources and ecology.
The working group includes representatives of science, the public, and government agencies. They will conduct a legal review of the draft law “On the Protection and Use of Permafrost in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)”, the first version of which has already been developed by a group of scientists. In addition, they will analyze the current legislation for possible amendment to it.
As for the draft law submitted for examination, it contains 10 chapters with 24 articles. It used the current normative acts on the protection of the atmosphere, the environment, soils, subsoil, etc. The main proposed novelties of the draft law concern state management in the field of permafrost protection, including the distribution of powers of federal, regional and municipal authorities in this area.
The bill proposes state registration of factors affecting the state of permafrost, and regular consideration of their level of impact. The procedure for monitoring has been defined, as well as a variety of oversight mechanisms, in particular, state and public. There is even a definition of international cooperation in the field of permafrost protection.
In addition, the bill proposes to standardize the state of permafrost, as well as to determine the requirements for economic and other activities that have an impact on the state of permafrost. Economic mechanisms are also reflected - for example, payments for impacts on the state of permafrost. Liability is introduced for violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of permafrost protection. And in the event of a change in the state of permafrost soils that threaten the life and health of people, measures to protect the population are reflected.
The appearance of such a bill has been discussed many times, however, no documentary and serious work of this kind has yet appeared. There are no regulations on the protection and use of permafrost in Russia today. There are only SNIPs, which, according to some experts, do not take into account the effects of global warming.
According to EastRussia, the main initiator of the bill is the general director of Sakha Wei LLC, Eduard Romanov, a builder by profession. Moreover, the fact that such an initiative, in principle, originated in Yakutia is quite natural. The Sakha Republic is the largest constituent entity of the Russian Federation, located almost entirely on permafrost soils. At the same time, if the permafrost is fairly uniform on the territory of other Far Eastern regions, then on the territory of Yakutia it is varied. And, moreover, due to different latitudes, it is subject to different climatic influences - it melts in different ways. That is, the consequences of the degradation of permafrost on the territory of Yakutia are not the same.
"It should be noted that the problem of the influence of permafrost degradation, which caused the development of this bill, really causes great concern in scientific circles - not only Yakutia, but also in Russia as a whole and abroad," Associate Professor of the Department of Cryolitology and Glacology of the Geographical Faculty told EastRussia Valery Grebenets Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov - Of course, we are not talking about the law that decides it to some extent, but the anxiety is strong. Of course, it is combined with the understanding that everyone Attracts the effects of permafrost, it is impossible to save from them, including through the law. "
Valery Grebenets explained that SNIPs, being sets of norms and rules developed for the safe and high-quality construction of various kinds of objects in various conditions, still do not take into account the regional peculiarities of the various processes present in the territories. In particular - and those that cause the degradation of permafrost. Since they rely on the average long-term value of one or another indicator (temperature, humidity, snow). At the same time, global warming in the regions of the Far East is expressed quite differently and is developing very dynamically. If, for example, there is practically no warming in Chukotka, then in Yakutia, especially in its southern part, warming has become very noticeable.
At the same time, according to Valery Grebents, the draft law on permafrost protection should provide an opportunity for scientists, designers, engineers and builders operating in the permafrost zone to use their own design models, operational designs and recommendations for working in its conditions. This, for example, about all sorts of correction factors and bans on the use of outdated data on the territory and its processes.
“With all this, it seems, however surprising it may sound, that a certain part of the business will benefit from the development of the bill. One that is focused on the implementation of large projects in the long term, of course. And not one whose benchmark is instant projects using natural resources of a small scale. The gain for a serious business will be to reduce its costs by reducing the risks of operating facilities. Like those that Gazprom is now experiencing, which is forced to simply cut off those supports of its gas pipelines that bulge, "Valery Grebenets assured EastRussia correspondent.
At the same time, the business community today is not so sure about the urgency of developing a law on the protection of permafrost. This conclusion was made by a correspondent of EastRussia, having talked with the President of the Union of Railway Builders Gennady Talashkin - a specialist in the field, most of all experiencing various phenomena associated with the degradation of permafrost.
“Those modern realities that are caused by climatic processes today - the effects of global warming will take place regardless of what bills to prevent them will be created. In other words, the issues that we have today in the ecology system, and, in particular, those parts of it that are associated with global warming, cannot be solved with the help of certain papers having the form of a law, ”Gennady said Talashkin.
According to the explanation, this EastRussia correspondent in the Ministry of Construction and Housing and Communal Services, after the law on permafrost protection was issued, builders will have an additional burden:
“The creation of the law on permafrost protection will be legal in nature. And, perhaps, to establish some critical (permissible) impact on the permafrost. Builders in their regulatory and technical documents will have to meet these requirements, "- said the department.
Apparently, in the process of development the draft law will face different reactions from state bodies and business. And the scientific community has yet to prove to those who doubt that the draft law on the protection of permafrost is indeed more than necessary. Thus, the process of drafting the bill promises to be hot and difficult.